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ANT> ■ * 



Language, philosophically considered, is not only a safe guide in tracing 
the origin and affinity of nations, but an important" auxiliary in bearing 
its testimony to the truth of revelation. In the latter point of view, a 
clergyman cannot be out of his legitimate province, when investigating 
the origin and structure of languages. 

A constant anxiety to be as correct .as possible, has led npt only to the 
examination of some of the most eminent treatises upon the languages 
and literature of the Gothic nations, but to the submitting of each article 
to the careful revision of one or more of the most learned men in each 
country. The sketch of the Dutch language and literature has been 
revised by Professor Siegenbeek, the Danish by Professor Rafn, and the 
Friesic written by the Rev. J. H. Halbertsma. The other articles have 
been corrected by men equally eminent, whose names would reflect 
honour upon the author, and give additional credit to his work, if he were 
permitted to record them. After all his care, the author is too conscious 
of his liability to err, in a work requiring so much investigation and so 
extended a course of reading, not to fear lest he should have failed in that 
accuracy which he has so much desired : wherever this is the case, 
the blame must be attributed to him, and not to his friends. 

This work was originally written as an introduction to the author's 
Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, with a view of tracing the origin and progress 
of the Germanic languages, especially Old-Saxon and Anglo-Saxon, 
and of shewing their connexion with English ; but as he considered it 
too long and uninteresting to appear in the whole impression, it was only 
prefixed to a part of it : a few copies, however, were printed in a separate 
form, with the title, " The Origin of the Germanic Languages, &c." 
chiefly for private distribution. Copies of the Dictionary, with this long 
preface, were so much preferred, that it was twice found necessary to 
revise and reprint the preface. — The copies printed in a separate form, 
being exhausted, the author was induced to add a chapter, on the origin 
of alphabetic writing in the east, and its gradual diffusion to the west, 
as collateral evidence of the oriental source of European population ; 
and, after giving, in the conclusion, a brief summary of the whole work, 
to prepare it for publication with its present title. It was then partly 
reprinted, that it might be published at the time, and in illustration of 
his " Compendious Anglo-Saxon and English Dictionary," in which he 
was engaged. Protracted indisposition, and failing sight, delayed the 
progress of the Compendious Dictionary for some years ; and, of course, 
the appearance of this work. This delay renders it necessary to notice, 
in the following page, a few errors, and the chief works that have appeared 
in the interim. Though the book has again required much time and 
care, it is at last published, with a deep consciousness that it is still 
very imperfect. 

9, Southampton Street, 
Eloomsbury Square, 
London, 1848. 


P 10, / 14.— See Welsford's Origin, etc. of 
the English Language. 8 to. 1845. 

P 18, / 46.— Ancient Laws and Institutes 
of England. 2 vols. 8vo. 1840. SO*. A-S. aud 
English, commenced by Mr. Price, and finished 
by B. Thorpe, Esq. 

P 18, / 59.— The Anglo-Saxon Version of the 
Holy Gospels, by B. Thorpe, F.8.A. Post 8vo. 
1842. 12s., reduced to 8i. 

P 19, I 33.— Caedmon may now be bad by 
any F.S.A. of the Society for 6j. 

P 19, 1 64. — A new Ed. with some account 
of Mrs. Elstob. 8vo. 1839. 6i.— The A.-S. text 
is in, — Principia Saxonica, by L. Langley, 
12mo. 1838. 2i.6d. 

P 20, / 20.— 2nd Ed. of Kemble's Beowulf, 
with English and a valuable Glossary, 2 vols, 
small 8ro. 1835-1837. 30s, 

P 20, 1 23.— Conybeare's A-S. Poetry may be 
had by any F.S.A. of the 8ociety for 6s. 

P 20, I 23.— Registrant Wiltunense, Saxon- 
ieum et Latinum, ab anno regis Alfredi 892, ad 
annum 1045. Nunc demum notis illustraverunt 
J. Ingram, S. Turner, T. D. Fosbroke, T. 
Pbillipps, Bart, R. C. Hoare, Bart. Fol. pp. 
56, typis Nicholsianis, Londini, 1827. 

P20,/29.— Analecta. 2nd Ed. 1846. 12s. 
P 20, / 34. — Codex Diplomatics «vi Sax- 
onici, opera J. M. Kemble. 6 vols. 8vo. 1838- 
1848. — Ritual of the Church of Durham, 
with an Interlinear Northumbro- Saxon Trans- 
lation, circa a.d. 700. 8vo. Nichols and Son, 
London, 1840. 21s. — Popular Treatises on Sci- 
ence, in A-S., Anglo-Norman, and Engl, from 
MSS. by T. Wright, M.A., F.S.A. 8vo. 1841. 
— Codex Exoniensis : A collection of A-S. Poe- 
try, etc. with Eng. and notes by B. Thorpe, 
F.S.A. 8vo. 1842. 20s : supplied to any F.S.A. 
at 8s. — The Homilies of iElfric, with English 
by B. Thorpe, Esq. F.S.A. Parts I. to X. 
1843-1846.— The Poetry of the Codex Ver- 
cellensis, with English by J. M. Kemble, M.A. 
Part I. The Legend of St. Andrew. 1844.— 
Andreas und Elene von J. Grimm, Cassel, 
184i). — Anglo-Saxon Dialogues of Salomon and 
Saturn, by J. M. Kemble, M.A. Parts I. 
and II. 1845-1847.— The Departing Soul's 
Address to the Body : a Fragment of a Semi- 
Saxon Poem, discovered and privately printed 
by Sir Thomas Pbillipps, Bart., in 1838: Re- 
printed with an English translation by S. W. 
Singer. 8vo. 1845. 2s. 6d. — The Anglo-Saxon 
Version of the Life of St. Guthlac ; with a 
translation and notes by C. W. Goodwin, M.A. 
12mo. 1847, 5s.— The Anglo-Saxon Version 
of the Hexameron of St. Basil, and the Saxon 
Remains of St. Basil's Admonitio ad filium spi- 
ritualem ; with a translation and account of the 
author, by H. W. Norman, M.A. 8vo. 1848, 4s. 
P 20, / 46. — For books containing a more com- 
plete List of A-S. Works, See my Compendious 
A-S. and English Dictionary, p. v. 

P 20, / 55.— Grimm's Deut. Gram. 3rd Ed. 
vol. I. 1840. 

P 20. / 56, Grammars. Stsf-craeft : or 
Anglo-Saxon Gr. A-S. Extracts, and a Glos- 
sary for the use of the Academy at Ayr. 1823. 
pp. 16, by Mr. Ebenezer Thomson, for 26 years 
the highly esteemed Classical Master in Ayr 
Academy.— An Anglo-Saxon Gr. and Deriva- 
tives, &c by William Hunter. 8vo. pp. 80. 
London, Longman, 1832. 

P 20, / 60.— A Guide to the Anglo-Saxon 
Tongue; a Gr. after Rask, with extracts in 
Prose and Verse, Notes, &c. by E. J. Vernon, 
B.A. Oxon. 12mo. London, 1846. 5s. 6d. 

P 20, I 63. — Altsachsische und Angelsach- 
sische Sprachproben, von Heinricb Leo. 8 to. 
pp. 274. Halle, 1838. 

P 21, I 10.— A History of English Rhythms, 
by Edwin Guest, Esq. M.A. 2 vols. 8vo. 1838. 
This accurate work contains important remarks 
on A-S., and its Dialects, etc. 

P 21, J 56.— Lappenberg'e A-S. Kings, by 
B. Thorpe, Esq. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1845. 

P 21 , / 58.— Messrs. Longman and Co. 1 848, 
announce, The Saxons in England ; a history 
of the Eng. Commonwealth to the Norman 
Conquest, by J. M. Kemble, M.A. 2 vols.8vo. 

P 22, / 41.— Now the Rev. J. Stevenson, of 

P 24, 1 21.— Layamon's Brut, a Semi-Saxon 
paraphrase of Wace's Brut, with English Notes 
and Glossary, by Sir Frederic Madden. 3 vols, 
royal 8vo. 1847. 42s ; to a F.S.A, 21s 

P 24, / 32, 34.— Far I, read they shall. 

P25, / 9,10,11, 13.— For waff, read waff— 
/ 29,/or Cristeff, read Cristeff. 

P 27, / 55.— A Dictionary of Archaic and 
Provincial Words, obsolete phrases, proverbs, 
and ancient customs, from the 14th century, 
by J. O. Halliwell, Esq. F.R.S. &c. 2 vols. 
8vo. London, 1847. 42s. This important 
work contains more than 50,000 words, and 
embodies the substance of all preceding glos- 
saries with much original matter. 

P 27, I 58.— An historical sketch of the 
provincial Dialects of England, extracted from 
the preceding work, 8vo. 1847. 2s — Reliqui* 
Antique, 2 vols. 8vo. 1845. 24s.— A Glossary 
of Wiltshire Provincial Words, &c. by J. 
Yonge Akerman, Esq. F.S.A. l2mo. 1842. 3s. 
— Poems in the Dorset dialect, with a glossary, 
etc. by the Rev. W. Barnes, 2nd ed. 12mo. 
London, 1848. — A Glossary of word** and 
phrases used in Teesdale, Durham, by F. T. 
Dinsdale, LL.D. post 8vo. In the press. 

P 82, / 4, 5. — See my Compendious A-S. and 
English Dictionary, p. v. § 10, 11. Eald-Seaxe, 

P 119, 1 47.— The second part of vol. II, con- 
taining a Gothic Grammar, &c. written in Ger- 
man, and completing this excellent Ed. of 
Ulfilas, was published in 1846. 

P 127, 1 32.— For O, read Auch (Aber). 

P 127, / 37.— For O, read But. 

P 138, / 44.— For the Lord, read thou Lord. 

P 147, 1 40.— The Heimskringla, translated 
from the Icelandic of Snorro Sturleson, with 
Dissertation, by 8. Laing, Esq. 3 vols. 8vo. 
1844. 36s. 

P 158, I 15.— Frithiof, a Norwegian Story, 
from the Swedish of Bp. Tegner, by R. G. 
Latham, M.A. 12mo. 1838. 

P 167, 1 10.— One of the best English works 
on the German system is— The English Lan- 
guage by R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 2nd 
Ed. 8vo. 1848. 15s. 

P 175, / 4. v. p. 281—292. Mithridates 
Minor; or an Essay on Language, &c. by 
Henry Welsford, Esq. 8vo. London, 1848, 
P 205, / 25 — For Ineia read India. 




1 Words the instruments of thought ...... 1 

2 Reason aided, and knowledge communicated, by rational language • 1 
3 — I A close examination of languages corroborates Revelation . . . 2 
5—6 All languages proceeded from one parent ; The diversity of tongues . 2 
7—12 Resemblances in language proved by the ten numerals, and other examples 3—6 

13 Diversity of languages; The account of Moses more rational than the vague 

theories of some modern philosophers ..... 6 

14 — 17 Languages divided into classes; The Shemitic, and the languages spoken by 

the descendants of Ham ....... 6—7 

18—20 Japhetic languages -table of them— proof that they are all of cognate origin 

with Sanscrit ........ 7 — 9 

21 — 24 Europe peopled from the East ; The Celts arrived first, then the Teutoni or 

Germans, and subsequently the Sclavonians . . . .10 

25 The Scandinavian and Germanic languages . . . . .11 


1 The Germanic languages distinguished from the Scandinavian .11 

2 The etymology of German, Teutonic, Deutschen, Theotisc, &c. . . 12 
3 — 8 The Germans promoted liberty ; Their language divided into Low and High- 

German ........ 12 — 13 

9 Reason for placing the Anglo-Saxon first . .14 


1 Origin of the Anglo-Saxons ....... 14 

2—5 Their settlement in Britain ; The Jutes ; Saxons ; Angles . . 14 — 16 

6—7 Origin of the word England; Duration of the Anglo-Saxon dominion . 16 

8 The West-Saxons obtained supreme power, and fixed the standard of the 

language ......... 17 

9 Anglo-Saxon authors, and a specimen of pure Anglo-Saxon . 17 — 21 
10 — 18 Their Dialect*; specimen of the Northumbrian Gloss, a.d. 900; of the 

Rushworth Gloss; Chronicle, a.d. 1135; the Grave, a.d. 1150; Ormulum, 
a,d, 1180; Robert of Gloucester, a.d. 1280; Wiclif, a.d. 1380; Dialect of 
Kent, a.d. 1340 . . . 21—26 

19 Provincial Dialects, with a list of Glossaries .... 26 — 27 

20— 21 Importance of provincial Dialects; Orthography of . . . 27 — 28 

22 — 29 A Specimen of the Somersetshire Dialect; Exmoor; East- Anglian ; Derby- 
shire ; Cheshire ; Lancashire ; Craven, Yorkshire ; Glossary of . .28 
30 Compositive power of the Anglo-Saxon, and the extensive use of English ' 33 


Ancient and modern Friesic compared with A.-S. ; Friesic authors . . 35 

1 — 2 Anglo-Saxon a dead language; sound of Letters not easily known . . 35 

3 — 5 Diphthongal sounds in A.-S.; difficulty in expressing them; changeable . 63 

6—8 Dialectic varieties; hence variety in Spelling; vowels interchange , 36 — 37 



9—10 Lye commended forgiving the variety of Spelling . . . 37 — 38 

1 1 — 12 Speech fixed by the frame of the organs ; one sound chosen, the rest follow 38 
13—26 How to discover A.-S. pronunciation; names of numerals; formation of 

numerals; the use of Gothic ; Gothic the oldest German . . 39—43 

27 — 33 Arrangement of the Gothic tongues ; Friesic like A.-S. . . 44 — 46 

34 — 36 Position of the Goths; the Angles; the Friesians ... 47 

37 — 13 Friesian line broken ; position of the German tribes . . 48—49 

44 — 49 The Anglo-Saxons what implied in the name .... 49 — 51 

50 — 56 Friesians accompanied the A.-S. to Britain .... 52 — 55 

57 — 84 State of A.-S. Manuscripts; MSS. of Csedmon; comparison of, &c. . 55—60 
85—92 Books in Frieric ; Asega-bok; Littera Brocmannoram ; Amesga-riucht; 

Keran fon Hunesgena londe; Jeld and botha; Friesic- Laws ; Charters 61 

93 — 94 Friesic where spoken ....... 62 

95—99 Specimen of the Asega-bok ; Brockmen's Laws .... 62 — 65 

100—1 Hunsingo; Old Friesic of a.d. 1200 compared with Country Friesic . 65—68 

102— 9 North and South Holland; East-Friesia, &c .... 69—71 

1 10- 12 Country Friesic, stanzas by the Countess of Blessington ; Gysbert Japicx; 

Hindelopian dialect ....... 71 — 74 

113-19 Remaining dialects; Low-Saxon glossaries, and their use . . 75—76 

120-25 Corruption of English; Friesic allied to English . . 76—78 
126-27 Friesic useful and English necessary in determining the pronunciation of 

A.-S 78 

128-32 Use of accents; the A.-S. letters were Runic .... 78—80 


1 — 2 The Old-Saxons spoke Low- German; occupied the north of Germany 81 

3— 12 History of Old-Saxons; Properties of Low-German . . . 81—83 
13—31 Specimens of Heliand, a.d. 840; Tatian, a.d. 890; a Chronicle, a.d. 1216 ; 
a Poem, a.d. 1231; a Privilege, a.d. 1260; a Song, a.d. 1350; Spe- 
culum Salvationis; a journey, a.d. 1356; an Epitaph, a.d. 1459; Life 
of the Virgin Mary, a.d. 1474; Extracts from Scripture, &c. a.d. 1480- 

1496 ; Reineke Vos, a.d. 1498; from Scripture, a.d. 1506-1578 . 84—90 

32 — 38 Low-German dialects ....... 90—91 


1 — 3 The Origin of the Dutch ; Eminent Men ; Batavi a German race . 91—93 

4—9 History of the Dutch ; Character of the Language . . . 93—96 

10—35 Specimen of Psalms, a.d. 800; the Flemish, Charter of Brussels, a.d. 
1229; Reinaert de Vos, a.d. 1250; Jacob van Maerlant, a.d. 1260; 
Dutch, Melis Stoke, a.d. 1283 ; Charter of Leyden, a.d. 1294 ; Jan van 
Heelu, a.d. 1291 ; the Life of Jesus, a.d. 1290; Spiegel onser behou- 
denisse, a.d. 1424; Evangelium, a.d. 1477; Scripture, a.d. 1524-1581; 
Jacob Cats, a.d. 1600; Hooft and Huigo de Groot, a.d. 1618; Camp- 
huysen, about a.d. 1600 ; Vondel, about a.d. 1610 ; Dutch established 

version of the Scriptures, a.d. 1618-1619 .... 96—106 

36 Great Men in the 17th century ...... 107 

37—38 Specimens of Bellamy, a.d. 1780; Bilderdijk, a.d. 1830 . . 107—109 

39—42 Professor Siegenbeek's Orthography; Van der Palm's version of the 
Scriptures compared with the established version; other Dutch 
writers ........ 109—110 

43— 46 Dutch Dialbcts ; the Flemish, Gelderland, Overijssel . 110—112 





1__2 Goths of Asiatic origin; passed from Germany into Sweden and Norway 112 

3—8 History of West-Goths; of the Ostro or East-Goths . .114—116 

9— 10 Account of Ulphilas; of the Codex Argenteus . . . . 116 

11 — 18 Editions of the Codex with a specimen, a.d. 370; Title-deed at Naples 
a.d. 520 ; at Arezzo, a.d. 520 ; Knittel's St Paul's Epistle to the Ro- 
mans, a.d. 750 ; Angelo Mai's Fragments ; Count Castiglione's 2nd of 
Corinthians, part of 1st of Corinthians and Romans; Commentary 
on St John's Gospel by Professor Massmann . . . 116—119 

19 The Goths had a grammatical form for the passive voice . . 120 


1 The derivation of the name and the locality of the Alemannic . 120 

2—4 Peculiarities of the dialect — mode of speaking — where prevalent . 121 

5 The writers and compositions in Alemannic . . . 121 


1 — 3 Who they were ; How and when confederated ; Extent of territory . 122 

4 — 5 The Carlovingian dynasty ; Pepin and his successors . 122 

6 Francic writers and compositions . . . . . 123 


1 Four centuries between Ulphilas and the next German writer . 123 

2 — 8 An exhortation to Christians, with a specimen, a.d. 720 ; Hildibraht, 

a.d. 730; St Ambrose's Hymns, a.d. 750; A Hymn to St Peter, 

about a.o. 760; Wassobrunn Prayer, a.d. 770; Kero, a.d. 800; 

Isidore, a.d. 800. ....... 123—127 

9 Charlemagne promotes learning ...... 128 

10 — 14 His Successors; specimens of their oaths; Rhabanus Maurus; Otfrid, 

A.D. 850; Muspilli,855; Ludwigalied, 883. . . . .128—131 

15—16 The Saxon Emperors, from a.d. 919—1024 ; Notker, 1020. . . 132 

17—22 Salian Francs, from a.d. 1024—1125; Boethius, a.d. 1024; Parable of 

the Sower, about a.d. 1030; Willeram, a.d. 1089; St. Anno, a.d. 

1090 ; Te Deum, a.d. 1095 . .132—135 

23— 32 Minnesingers, from a.d. 1100 — 1300; Nibelungen Leid, a.d. 1150; 

Walter von der Vogelweide, a.d. 1200 ; Grave Chunrad von Kilchberg 

or Kirchberg, a.d. 1190 ; Henry Rispach, a.d. 1207 ; Wirnt von Gra- 

fenberg, a.d. 1212; Gotfrit von Nifen, a.d. 1235; Other Poems; 

Schwaben-Spiegel, a.d. 1250; The Edelstein .... 135—139 

33— 50 Extracts from Scripture, from a.d. 1400— 1530 . . . .139—141 

51 Formation of High- German by Luther . . . . . 141 

52—53 Extracts from Scripture, from a.d. 1545—1569 . . . . 141 

54—59 The Froschmauseler, a.d. 1595 ; the Scripture, a.d. 1752; Soltau'e 

Reineke de Vos, a.d. 1830; Goethe .... .142—143 

60—76 High-German Provincial dialects ..... 143—144 


1 Iceland discovered in a.d. 861 ...... 145 

2 Harald Harfager drove the Norwegian nobles to Iceland . . 145—146 
3—5 Iceland in its pagan state; the Skalds; Saga-men ... 146 
6—8 Samund's Edda; Outline of Edda; Song of Grimner ... 147 
9—10 Snorre's Sturleson's prose Edda; Njila ..... 147 


*»A*AGaA*»H* F&OCI 

11—12 Snorre' Heimskringla; K6nung*Bkaggsj& ..... 147—148 

13— 14 TheLandnimabok; the Sagas ...... 148 

15—16 The Royal Society of North. Antiq.; Sags*; Historical Sagas . 148 

17— 18 F&rcyinga Gagas; Mytho-historical Sagas .... 148 

19 — 20 An account of Lofebrokarkvifeu ; Danskatunga .... 149 

21—30 Specimen of Starkad the Old before a.d. 546; the Volu-sp&; Bodvar 
Bjarkc about a.d. 8 15 ; Bleking inscription, a.d. 770 ; specimen of 
LoSbrukarkviSu, a.d. 803; inscription at Jellinge, 900; ode to king 
Olaf; Icelandic of a.d. 1150; Snorre's £dda,*A.D. 1*200; Gragas, a.d. 

121)0 150—154 

31—42 Danish of a.d. 1397—1450; Scripture extracts, from 1518—18*27; Na- 
tional Song; Icelandic Scriptures, from 1539—1671 . .155—157 
43 — 49 Swedish, Old Swedish, what; King Sinek, a.d. 1354; Scripture ex- 
tracts, from 1541—1828; Tegners Exile; Reconciliation . . 157—158 
50 — 52 Dalecarlian dialect — where spoken— mixed; three branches; Lord's 

Prayer in Elfdalen, Mora, Orsa ..... 159—160 

57 Norwegian, what ....... 160 — 161 

58 Ferroe dialect ........ 161 


1 All the Germanic languages spring from one source 
2—4 Example of Fish ; Identity proved by the similarity of irregular verbs, 

and personal pronouns ..... 

Similarity of languages, long separated, proves an original alliance 







Words the creation of mind ; Nouns first formed, then verbs 

Verbs formed from nouns in Hebrew, Greek, Welsh, in the German 

languages ........ 165 — 166 





Formation of adjectives, and of adverbs .... 
Subsequently nouns derived from verbs; the rudiments of etymology 
German system of vowels ,* importance of; summary of vowels . 
System of connonanU ; double consonants 

Of finding the root; what it is ..... 
Formation of words by umlaut and guna ; roots first perceptions 
How names arise ; Etymology shows the radical meaning 
The German doctrine of consonants, and umlaut and guna, the soul of 
etymology ........ 




1 — 11 Origin of writing among the Phoenicians 
12 — 28 Earliest mode of writing from right to left 
29—40 Boustrophedon writing ..... 
41—69 Origin of European writing, and the classification of MSS. 


1—13 Use of Languages in historical investigation, &c. 

. 172—177 
. 177—184 
. 185—189 
. 189—200 

. 201—208 





1 . It is mind, understanding, or the power of reasoning, which is the 
distinguishing property of man. The mind is a man's self; by it we are 
allied to the highest intelligence. Can it then be unimportant for an 
intellectual being to examine the operations of the mind ? But its opera- 
tions or thoughts are so quick and fugitive, that no real apprehension of 
them can be obtained, except by their representatives, that is, by words. 
These, when spoken, quickly vanish from the mind. It is only when 
words are written, that they become tangible ; they are then the lasting 
representatives or signs of ideas. Those, therefore, who philosophically 
and effectually examine the structure and the right meaning of words, 
the instruments of thought, are most likely to have the clearest view 
of the mental powers and their operations. 

2. Words, as the instruments for expressing thoughts,* are the con- 
stituent parts of language. It is by language that the feelings, experience, 
and indeed the whole mind of individuals, can be communicated and made 
the property of our whole species. The most sublime thoughts and extensive 

* Whately's Element* qf Logic, Ch. ii. p. 55. 


knowledge of those who have been favoured with the highest order of 
intellect, are in their writings concentrated and perpetuated : thus the ex- 
alted endowment of reason is perfected by the gift of rational language. 

3. The minute investigation of language is not only important in 
examining the mental powers, but in bearing its testimony to the truth 
of Revelation, and in tracing the origin and affinity of nations. 

4. The physical history of man, the researches of the most eminent 
geologists, the investigations of the most able philosophers, and the close 
and patient examination of all the phenomena of nature, are so many dis- 
tinct confirmations of the Mosaic record. At present we need only refer 
to the physical or natural history of man.* Here every candid inquirer 
is led to the conclusion, that all the diversities of the human race 
originally sprang from one father and mother ; and hence we reasonably 
infer, that this primitive pair had one primitive language. We now find 
a great diversity of tongues. To account for this diversity, philosophers 
have started different theories :f but there is no theory which so satis- 
factorily accounts for the variety of languages, and yet the similarity 
observable in their fragments, as the plain statement of facts recorded by 

5. *' The whole earth was of one language and one speech," or of one 
lip,% and of like words.} u And it came to pass, as they (the families 
of the sons of Noah) journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in 
the land of Shinar ; and they dwelt there/' Because the people said, "Let 
us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven ; and 
let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the 
whole earth/ 3 when the Lord had determined that they should be dis- 
persed, and thus " replenish the earth," he " confounded their lip> lan- 
guage, or pronunciation, that they could not understand one another's 
speech." " Therefore is the name of it called Babel ; because the Lord 
did there confound the language of all the earth ; and from thence did 
the Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth." (Gen. xi. 

6. On a close examination and analysis of languages, even as we find 
them at the present day, nearly forty-two centuries after the confusion, 
there are, in almost every tongue, a few fragments and whole words so 

• Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, by C. J. Prichard, M.D., F.R.S., &c. 

t Some French naturalists and physiologists, with a few writers on history and antiqui- 
ties in. Germany, speak of the Adamic race as of one among many distinct creations. Von 
Humboldt mentions the Americans as a distinct stock. Malte Brun has taken it for granted 
that each part of the earth had its own race, of whose origin it was in vain to inquire. Niebuhr 
is of the same opinion as to the early inhabitants of Italy. — Dr. Prichard's Eastern Origin of 
the Celtic Nations, 8vo. Oxford, 1831. 

X Heb. nnH nDtt? ^"ItfrrbS WIS Septuagint Kat ijv wava >/ yrj x«Xoc « v: Vulgate 
Erat autem terra labii unius. — TIEtt? a lip, talk, margin; labium, sermo, ora. 

§ Heb. D > inH D^rni I Septuagint tat fuvn fxta iraoi : Vulgate et sermonum eorun- 
dem. — D > inM pL ones, alike, the same, from 1I1M one; Arab. .Jj^l P l ones, from Jt»»l 
one. — D>12T word*, speech, from H27 a word, matter, thing ; verbum, res, aliquid. 


similar, as to indicate an original connexion. The great diversity in their 
vocabularies and grammatical structure is still more apparent. The 
facts recorded by the Hebrew legislator of one original language, the 
subsequent confusion of lip or pronunciation, and the consequent dis- 
persion, alone account for this pervading identity or resemblance, and 
the striking diversity.* Both these claim a brief notice. 

7. First, there are resemblances or identities still observable in the 
severed fragments of an original language. These occur most frequently 
in words of the commonest use. Such words, if not composed exactly 
of the same letters, are from letters of the same organ, or from those 
which are interchangeable. 

8. A slight inspection of the ten numerals, even in a few languages, 
will prove that they had an original connexion. 

• Those who wish to see this subject fully and satisfactorily discussed, are referred to 
the admirable papers of Sharon Turner, Esq., F.S.A. On the Affinities and Diversities in the 
Languages of the fVorld, and on their Primeval Cause, in the Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Literature of the United Kingdom, Vol. I. Part I. 4to. 1827. p. 17—106, and Vol. 

II. Part II. 1834, p. 252—262. He has arranged the words used to denote Father in more 
than five hundred languages. He has also made a similar classification of the various 
terms to designate Mother, as well as the first two numerals. Mr. Turner observes : " In 
my letters on the first and second numerals, it was endeavoured to show, that the words 
which various nations have used to express them, were either simple sounds of one sylla- 
ble, or compound terms resolvable frequently into these simpler elements, and most pro- 
bably always made from them ; but a more important object was to evince, that both the 
elementary and the composite sounds have resemblances and connected analogies, which, 
although used by nations that were strangers to each other, were too numerous to have 
been accidental. 

I intimated that the languages or people, among whom such similarities prevailed, 
however disparted and divergent they had been, or now were, must have had some ancient 
and primeval consanguinity. — In meditating on this subject, it occurred to me, that if the 
mina were not pursuing an illusory idea, the same facts and the same intimation would 
appear as strikingly in some other words, as they were visible in the numerals. This 
impression, and the desire neither to mislead, nor to be misled, have induced me to ob- 
serve, whether the words that are used in the different languages of the world to express 
the first, the dearest, the most universal, and the most lasting relations of life, Father and 
Mather, would be found to confirm, or overthrow the principles suggested. The words 
were arranged into classes, according to their primitive or more simple elements. These 
classes demonstrate that the common use of sounds to express the same ideas, must have 
had some common origin, and are evidences of a common and early affinity. While each 
class proves a similarity or an identity, the numerous classes indicate great diversity. 
Identity without diversity would have proved only a common derivation, and diversity 
without identities would disprove community of origin. But so much paitial identity 
and resemblance remaining, at this advanced period of the world, visible amid so much 
striking and general disparity, exactly coincides with the Hebrew statement of an anterior 
unity, and of a subsequent confusion, abruption, and dispersion. 

Amongst his deductions Mr. Turner observes, that the " primeval language has not been 
anywhere preserved, but that fragments of it must, from the common origin of all, every- 
where exist ; that these fragments will indicate the original derivation and kindredship of 
all ; and that some direct causation of no common agency has operated to begin, and has 
so permanently affected mankind, as to produce a striking ana universally experienced 
diversity." A gentleman, whose erudition is universally acknowledged, and whose opinions, 
from his extensive lingual knowledge, and especially from his critical acquaintance with 
the oriental tongues, deserve the greatest attention, has come to this conclusion ; for he 
has stated : The original language, of which the oldest daughter is the Sanscrit, the 
fruitful mother of so many dialects, exists no longer. (" De oorspronkelijke taal, wier 
oudste dochter het Sanskrit is, de vruchtbare moeder van zoovele dialekten, bestaat niet 
meer.')— Professor Hamaker's Akademische voorlezingen, fyc. Leyden, 8vo. 1835, p. 7- 

ills I " * 










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■■ 1 

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3 I 

i 1} & £ Ji 



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8 ff 



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r r * 

1 Ji 
a *1 

a -3-3-3 



3 £ 

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33 < 

re* pi« 



5. 3 

3 "* 



2. S 







8 8 




£ B. 


1 * 






§ i § 





S B. 

B B 


i » i 





B 3. 


& o. 


I. 9 — 11. FURTHER PROOFS. 5 

9. By the common change of t into d, all the words in the different 
languages denoting two and three, are evidently cognate, or from one 
common source. The Sans, chatur; Erse keathair; Pers. chehaur; 
Rus. chetyre ; Grk. rerrapec, nicrvpec ; Wei. pedwar ; Lat. quatuor ; Oscan 
petor ; Moes. fid wor ; Old High Ger. fiuuar ; A.-S. feower ; Dut. vier ; 
Dan. fire ; Eng. four, by the change of ch, k, q, r, v, p, and f, have 
a distant connexion.* By a slight change of lip or pronunciation, the 
other numerals appear to be cognate. 

10. The Heb. WW sSs six, seems to be allied to the Sans, shash ; the 
Chaldee VwJl tliti third, to the Sans, tritaya. Other words have 
evidently a connexion : the Heb. JT2 bit a house, dwelling ; Chaldee 
JTQ but to tarry, dwell, often used in the Targum for ]y? lun ; in Arab. 
clj[> bat or uuoo beit to tarry, be situated; the Erse beith ; Wei. bydb, 
bod; Teutonic be, beon to be; and the Sans, verbal root i^ bhu, 
whence bhavami / am, are allied. — The Heb. t&* is ; Wei. oes he is ; 
Erse is, as is me lam, seems connected with the Sans, verbal root 3f ^[ 
as, whence we have Sans, asmi, asi, asti sum, es, est; Grk. Itfn [fopi] 
itrtri, tori.\ 

11. Some Coptic words are very similar to Hebrew. 

Coptic Hebrew. 

aAki alei to go up, TwV ole to go up. 

^Xot alou a boy, T\JJ oul an infant, 771J7 oull a boy. 

£jt an not, )^ ain not. 

*jtOK anok J, OJN anki I. 

£.ItOIt anon we, rUPUK anene,or pK anen, pfl enen Chi. we 

£.p€X areg terminus, 1HN arej terra, regio. 

£.pR& ar€b a pledge, HUTJ/ orbe a pledge. 

fi.eX bel to destroy, Tv)1 ble to wear, waste away. 

€p-&£pl to renew, ) 

eiorX eioul a stag, TN ail a stag. 

0A.X thai a hill, 7J1 tel a heap. 

eXtJOAJt tblom /iirrotr*, tDlT) telm furrows. 

\UpO iaro a river, 1^ lar a river. 

IOJUL iom the sea, Ql Im the sea. 

K£.cy kash a reed, Wp qes stubble, straw, %c. 

• See the change of letters admirably proved in the erudite and invaluable work of 
Dr. Prichard, On the Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations, $.27— 91, 8vo. Oxford, 1831, 
to whose work the preceding table is much indebted. The regular interchange of con- 
sonants, and the laws that influence the vowel system, are also fully and satisfactorily 
treated by Dr. James Grimm in his Deutsche Grammatik, Gottingen, 1822, 8vo. Vol. I. p. 
581, 584, 578; and in Professor Schmitthenner's valuable Introduction to his short German 
Dictionary. No one who has omitted to examine what these learned and laborious authors 
have written, ought to reject, and much less ridicule, the systematic and regular change of 
vowels and consonants. 

f See more examples in Dr. Pilchard's Celtic Nations, p. 192—194. 

&€pl beri new, f 

l fcTO bra to create. 


12. The table of numerals, with the preceding short collection of 
examples, may be sufficient to show that there are many words which are 
of cognate origin, even in languages often deemed the most dissimilar. 
It is not contended with the ancient fathers that the Hebrew is the 
primitive tongue, or with the modern philosophers that it is the Sanscrit ; 
for it appears, on the evidence of Moses,* and from the conclusion of 
eminent philologists, that the original language of our first parents no 
longer exists. The similarity of the words previously cited, proves that 
these languages originally proceeded from one common source, and they 
thus verify that part of the Mosaic history which declares, that tl the whole 
earth was of one language." 

13. It is now necessary to advert to the vast diversity of languages, 
which is satisfactorily accounted for by the confusion of lip or pro- 
nunciation. Those who pronounced their words in the same manner, 
separating from those they could not understand, would naturally unite 
together, and form distinct tribes. In addition to the passages previously 
cited relative to the dispersion, Moses adds : " By these (the sons of 
Japheth) were the isles of the Gentiles (Europe) divided in their lands, 
every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations. — These 
are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their 
countries, and in their nations. These are the sons of Shem, after their 
families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations." (Gen. x. 
5, 20, 31.) 

14. Do they, who reject these and the preceding passages of the Sacred 
History, on account of their reference to a supernatural agency, suggest 
that various languages existed from the beginning, and that the faculty of 
expressing ideas by a different language was given to distinct creations 
of men in each particular region of the earth ? This would imply, " that 
the world contained from the beginning, not three or four, as some writers 
are willing to believe, but some hundreds, and perhaps thousands of 
different human races."f These numerous creations must refer to 
a supernatural agency as many times more miraculous than the event 
recorded by Moses, as the miracle, according to their theory, was 
numerically repeated. 

15. Whatever diversity of opinion there may have been, as to the 
origin of the great variety of tongues, the most eminent philologists have 
generally divided languages into classes, distinguished by remarkable 
differences in their grammatical structure and vocabularies. 

16. One of these classes of languages is the Shemitic, or Semetic, so 
called from the supposition that the race of Shem alone spoke the 
language so denominated. Objections may be made to the term, as the 

• Gen. xi. 1, 6, 7, 9 : and Gen. x. 5, 20, 31 . See § 6, note ♦. 

t The languages of the African nations, according to Seetzen, who has made the most 
extensive and original researches into this subject, amount to 100 or 150. In America, 
there are said to be 1500 idioms, " notabilmente diversi." Such was the opinion of Lope/, 
a missionary of great knowledge in the languages both of South and North America. See 
Seetzen 's Letter* in Von Zach's Monathliche Correspondenz, 1810, p. 328; Hervas's Cataiogo 
delle Lingue, p. 1 1 ; and Dr. Prichard's Celtic Nation*, p. 11. 


Phoenicians or Canaanites, who took their origin from Ham, spoke 
a Shemitic dialect ; but as Shemitic is in general use and well under- 
stood, it is best to retain it. The race of Shein, who were much devoted 
to a pastoral life, spread over the finest part of Middle and Upper Asia, 
over Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria. The following languages, 
distinguished by being written from right to left, and forming their gram- 
matical connections by prefixes and postfixes, are of the Shemitic race : — 

Shemitic Languages. 

Hebrew f Chal dee, 
Hebrew, | Syriac> 

Aramaean, &c. 

17. The descendants of Ham were seafaring men, who founded the 
republics of Tyre, Sidon, Carthage, &c. Little appears to be known of 
the languages used by the race of Ham. Some name the following : — 

The Dialect of Ancient Egypt. 

r^ti* S Sahidic, 

C °P 11C ' iBashmuric, 
The numerous African dialects spoken by the Kabyles 
of Mauritania, the Tuarik of the Great Desert, the 
Fclatahs of Nigritia, the Foulahs of the Senegal, &c. 

18. Another class of idioms is the Japhetic, by some called Caucasian, 
from the supposition that the primitive seat of this race was near Mount 
Caucasus ; by others denominated Indo-Germanic, indicating that all the 
Germanic tongues had an Indian origin. The compound Indo-Germanic, 
by not including the Celtic or Welsh, an important branch of these 
idioms, has been considered defective. A word of more extended 
signification has been adopted, namely Indo-European,* to denote all 
those European languages which are clearly cognate with the Sanscrit, or 
ancient language of India. Other Etymologists have proposed Arian or 
Persian, as it designates their origin amongst the Arians, Irenians, or 
Persians.f As some Asiatic as well as European dialects ought to be 
included in the name, it may be better to retain the old term Japhetic, 
comprising all the supposed descendants of Japheth, who diverged from 
Shinar throughout Asia and Europe ; from the banks of the Ganges to 
the Atlantic ocean, and from the shores of Iceland to the Mediterranean 
Sea. They seem to have passed to the north of the great range of the 
Taurus, as far as the Eastern ocean, and probably went over Behring's 
straits from Eamschatka to America. J 

19. A tabular arrangement will best show the extent of the languages 
of the Japhetic race. 

• Dr. Prichard's Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations, p. 19. 

t Knrzes Deutsches W6rterbuch/«r Etymologic, Synonymik urui Orthographic von Fried- 
rich Schmitthenner, 8vo. Darmstadt, 1834, p. 24. 

X Dr. Hale's Analysis of Chronology, Vol. I. p. 352. 

A singular congraity is said to exist in all the American languages, from the north to 
the southern extremity of the continent. They may be reduced to a few great divisions, 
several of which extend as radii from a common centre in the north western part near 
Behring's straits.— Dr. Prichard's Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations, p. 6. 

4 1% 5. 





r <* 









8- ^ 







|2!s el 
















20. Little need be said here of the Asiatic nations proceeding from 
Japhet : a casual remark, however, may be admitted upon the language 
of the Hindoos. The Sanscrit* is that ancient tongue which once 
prevailed throughout all Hindoostan, from the Gulf of Bengal to the 
Arabian Sea, and from the southern extremity of the country to the 
Himalaya Mountains on the north. The Sanscrit is the most com- 
positive, flexible, and complete language yet known. It admits of being 
perfectly analysed, by merely reducing its compound words to simple 
elements which exist in the language itself. It contains the roots of the 
various European dialects, of the Latin, Greek, Celtic, German, and 
Sclavonic. All its words are composed of its own elements, and it contains 
no exotic terms, which proves it to be very near its primitive state.f 
The Sanscrit is, therefore, placed at the commencement of the languages 
here called Japhetic. That all these are closely connected with the 
Sanscrit, will clearly appear from a few examples. 











>5H\ upar 



<*xc aboor 









j\' zano 






*\*\ nawara 



J n£w 






«1H nama 



Jj nam 






ITT no 




dj nfih 














*T^ mush a 



lil^ moosh 






3pT yugam 



iy yogh 




yoke I 

Sans. ^InCi krimilam; Grk. ra/iwXoc; Lat. camelum; Heb. 70J 
gemel ; Ger. kamel ; Eng. camel. — Sans, ^j^^l y uwanab, young ; 
Lat. juvenis; Pers. ^\y>~ juwan; Ger. jung; Heb. pJT* junq a suck- 
ling, a twig, sucker ; A.-S. geong young ; Plat, junk ; Dut. jong ; 
Swed. Dan. ung ; Wei. jeuangc. — Sans. >S\ \ *1 jani a woman ; Celtic 

• Sanscrit, in derivation and sound, is very similar to arvyKpnos joined together, united. 
Hence it is used for a whole, so completely possessing all its parts, as in its union, parts, 
or decomposition, to be finished or perfect. — Professor Hamaker's f'oorlezingen, p. 6. 

t Lieut Col. Vans Kennedy's Researches, p. 196. 

t See many more examples in Lieut Col. Vans Kennedy's Researches, p. 378. 


gean ; Rus. jena ; Grk. y»vr\ ; Pers. J \ zunne. — Sans. H |rj matre ; 
Per*. % jU madr ; Run. mater ; Celtic, Erne mathair ; Grk. ^nrnp ; 
Lat. mater; Ger. mutter; But. moeder; A.-S. modor; Dan. Steed. 
moder. — Sans. ^J |rj bhratre ; Rus. bratr; Celtic^ We/, brawd ; Erse 
brathair; Irish brutha; Grk. fpaTnp; Lat. frater; Fr. fretre, frere ; 
Pers. j^\y bradr ; Tar. bruder; Ger. bruder; Moes. brotbar; A.-S. 
bro^or; Dut. broeder; Dan. Swed. broder ; Icel. brodur; Arm. breur ; 
Eng. brother.* 

21. The preceding remarks are by no means intended to serve as a 
complete classification of languages ; they only afford a very superficial 
view, for the monosyllabic, or the Chinese, Indo-Chinese, &c. are entirely 
omitted. What is advanced relative to the inhabitants and languages of 
Europe must be more precise. 

22. Europe appears to have been gradually occupied by successive 
streams of population from the east. Those now located most to the 
west, the Celts, were amongst the tribes who first left Asia, and were 
impelled westward by succeeding emigrations, and thus spread over 
a considerable part of Europe. The Celts, or Celtae, were a people of 
Gaul, who, at a very early period, crossed the straits of Dover, and 
entered the British isles. The ancient Britons were therefore Celts, 
who were subsequently conquered by the Romans, and then by the 
Saxons, and driven into Wales and Cornwall. Britain must have been 
inhabited even before the Trojan war, more than 1200 years before the 
Christian era, as tin was then brought from Britain by the Phcenicians.t 
It has been clearly proved that the Celtic dialects are of cognate origin 
with the Sanscrit, though differing so much in structure as to be distinct 
from the Teutonic or German. J 

23. The Teutonic, German, or Golhic tribes, were the second source of 
European population. The Scandinavians proceeded from these Ger- 
manic tribes. Like their predecessors, the Celts, these Teutonic tribes 
came out of Asia into Europe over the Kimmerian Bosphorus, between 
the Black sea and the sea of Azoph, but at a later period, perhaps 
about b. c. 680. In the time of Herodotus, about B. c. 450, the 
Teutonic tribes were on the Danube, and extended towards the south. 
Fifty years before the Christian era, in Caesar's time, they were called 
Teutoni or Germans, and had established themselves so far to the 
westward as to have obliged the Celts to withdraw from the eastern 
banks of the Rhine. In later ages they became known by the name of 

24. The third and most recent stream of population which flowed 
into Europe, conveyed thither the Sclavonian or Sarmatian nations: 

• See numerous instances in Dr. Prichard's Celtic Nation*., p. 66—69. 
f See the account of Herodotus on the Phoenician commerce. 
I Dr. Prichard's Eastern origin of the Celtic Nations. 


they are mentioned by Herodotus as being on the borders of Europe 
in his time; they therefore probably entered Europe soon after 450. 
These coming last, occupied the most eastern parts, as Russia, Poland, 
Eastern Prussia, Moravia, Bohemia, and their vicinity. From these 
Sclavonic tribes a third genus of European languages arose, as the 
Russian, Polish, Bohemian, Livonian, Lusatian, Moravian, Dalmatian, &c. 
25. As the tribes of Celtic origin, the first source of European 
population, are clearly distinguished from the Teutonic or German, 
and as the Sclavonic or Sarmatian tribes, the third wave of population, 
have never extended so far west as England, nor made any settlement 
among us, no further notice will be taken of them or of their languages. 
We are most concerned with the Teutonic, German, or Gothic, the 
second stream of European population, and the language spoken by 
these tribes. The language, brought into Europe by the great Gothic 
family, is chiefly known to us in its two important branches, the 
Germanic and Scandinavian. The Scandinavian branch includes the 
Icelandic, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, &c. The Teutonic or Ger- 
manic branch is subdivided into Low-German and High-German. The 
Low-German comprises not only the older languages, such as the Anglo- 
Saxon, Friesic, and the Old-Saxon, but their immediate descendants, the 
modern English, with all its provincial dialects, the Dutch or Nether- 
landish, Flemish, and the present Low or Piatt German dialects, spoken 
in the north or low and flat parts of Germany. The High-German 
includes an account of the Mceso-Gothic, Alemannic, and Francic, with 
the present High-German, and its modern dialects. 


1. The Germanic or Teutonic languages, the Anglo-Saxon, Friesic, 
Old-Saxon, Mceso-Gothic, Alemannic, and Francic, are easily distin- 
guished from the Scandinavian tongues, the Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian, 
and Swedish. The Germanic languages have no passive voice, and have 
only one definite article, which is always placed before the noun or 
adjective: but the Scandinavians have now, and have had from the 
earliest times, a passive form of the verb, and two definite articles — one 
placed before nouns, and the other affixed to them. 


Tlie Germans, Teuton*,* Teutsclien, Deutxchen, speaking the German^ 
Teutonic or Theotisc language. 

2. Each of the Teutonic tribes skirting the northern or north-eastern 
boundary of the Roman Empire, had its own distinctive denomination. 
Their peculiar names were unknown or disregarded by the Romans ; 
hence these hostile bands of the Teutoni, from their martial appearance, 
were classed together, and by the Gauls and Romans called Germani, or 
war-men.f We do not find in any remnant of their language, that the 
Germans ever applied this term to themselves. J When united as one 
people, under Charlemagne, the Germans styled themselves Teutschen or 
Deutschen, from the Teutoni § mentioned by Caesar and Livy.|| These 
Teutoni were so powerful and influential, that (b. c. 102) they, united with 
the Cimbri, entered Italy, which was only preserved by the bravery and 
talent of Marius. While at the present day the Germans most frequently 
apply to themselves the name of Deutschen, they are generally called 
Germans by Foreigners. 

3. Wherever the Germanic or Gothic tribes appeared, liberty pre- 
vailed : they thought, they acted for themselves. They would not blindly 
follow any leader or any system : they were free. Hence Theodoric 
encouraged Gothic literature, and induced Cassiodorus to write a history 
of the Goths from their only records, their ancient songs. Another 
Teutonic or Theotisc monarch, Charlemagne, gave encouragement to 
genius. He saw and felt, that the only effectual mode of giving a full 
establishment to his authority over those whom he had conquered, was 
by enlightening their understandings, and influencing them by the solemn 
sanctions of religion. These he wisely attempted to convey in the 
vernacular idiom, convinced that his subjects loved even the language of 

* See note (§) below. 

t German, »/. Germanen— an appellation used by the Gauls and Romans to designate the 
inhabitants or Germany. The word German is Gallic, for the Gauls called the soldiers who 
received a stipend, Gaisaten [Pint. Marius, 6, 7]> If the French gais be the Moes. gais, 
Franc, ger a spear \ then German would be a spear-man, a spear-bearer, — Schmitthenner's 
Deutsehes Worterbuch sub voce, p. 102. Others say that German is the same as Wer- 
umrin, from which the Romans derived their Germ anus, and the Gauls their Guerra. Warr, 
were, is derived from the Old Ger. uuer pi. uueros, wer, war, waer, bar, baro a man, brave 
man, loarrior ; vir bellator. — Radio/' s Die Sprachen der Germanen, p. 4, 28. 

I Celebrant carminibus antiqnis Tuistonem deum terra editum, et filium M annum, 
originem gentis conditoresque. Deo ortos, Marsos, Gambrivios, Suevos, Vandalios, affir- 
mant ; eaque vera et antiqua nomina. Ceterum Germanm voeabulum recent- et nuper addi- 
tion ; quoniam qui primi Rhenum transgress! G alios expulerint, ac nunc Tungri, nunc 
Germani vocati sunt — Tacit, de Alor. Ger. 2. — Caesar, after enumerating the names of 
several nations, adds, " qui uno nomine Germani appellantur. Ctesar. Bell. Gal. ii. 4. — 
ryrjvioi yap 6t Yepfxavoi Kara rm* Pwfuuar StoAcjtroir ; lor Gnesioi are the Germans in the 
Raman Language. — Strabo 7. 

§ The TeutSni of Caesar, Livy, and Virgil ; Tnisto of Tacitus, or Tuisco, which, as Sehmit- 
thenner and Mone observe, is a mutilation of Tiusco or Tiusto, signifying the greats the 
powerful. Deutsch, Old Ger. Diotisc, Diutisc, or Theotisc signify belonging to a people, from 
diot people. The national name Theodisci, Theotisci, or Theudisci, was not used till the 
time of the Carlovingian dynasty. Then aU the smaller nations were united into one great 
empire. This word, since that time, has assumed very different forms according to the 
provinces where it was used, as Dutsch, Dietsch, Teucsch, Deutsch. — Schmitthenner's kurzes 
Deutsehes Worterbuch, p. 301. Mone's geschichte des Heidenthumsa, vol. U. p 6 — 8. 

|| Caesar 1, 33, 40 : 7, 77.— Li?. Epit 68. 


freedom. He used his influence to preserve the songs of his native land, 
and to improve its language and fix its grammar. Thus stability was 
first given to the German tongue, from which period it has gradually 
advanced, till it has become one of the most cultivated and important 
languages in Europe. To trace its progress, it will be necessary to enter 
into detail, and to examine the German language in its two great divisions, 
the Low and High German. 

Divisions into Low and High German. 

4. The Germanic or Teutonic tribes may, according to the nature of 
their language, be separated into two divisions. The Low-German pre- 
vailed in the low or flat provinces of ancient Germany, lying to the north 
and west, and is used in modern Flanders, the Dutch provinces, West- 
phalia, Oldenburg, Hanover, Brunswick, Holstein, Sleswick, Mecklen- 
burg, Prussia, Courland, and part of Livonia, where the Low-German, or 
Nieder or Platt-Deutsch is spoken. This dialect is more soft and flowing 
than the High-German. It changes the High-German sch into s ; the 
harsh sz or z into t, and always delights in simple vowels. 

5. The second division comprised the Upper or High German, Alemannic 
or Suabian, which prevailed in the mountainous or southern parts of Ger- 
many, that is, in the north of Switzerland, in Alsace, Suabia, or Baden, 
Wurtemburg, Bavaria, the Austrian States, Silesia, Upper Saxony, and 
Hesse. The High-German dialect is distinguished by its predilection for 
long vowels and diphthongs and rough, hard, and aspirated consonants, 
especially by the harsh pronunciation of sch, st> sz, and z. 

6. The Francic seems to occupy an intermediate state between the 
High and Low German ; but as it appears most inclined to the High- 
German, it is placed in the second division. The earlier Francs inhabited 
the banks of the Rhine, from Mayence to Cleves, the present Rhine 
Provinces of Prussia, Wurzburg, Bamburg, and Franconia, now part of 
Bavaria, and they continually increased their territory till the immense 
empire of Charlemagne was founded. 


7. The Low-German comprises — 

1st Anglo-Saxon, written by king Alfred, iElfric, Caedmon, &c. sec. 
ill. 9, note. 

2nd. Friesic, the written remains of which are found in the Asega-bucb, 

3rd. The Old-Saxon or Platt-Deutsch, which has employed the pens of 
many authors. Tatian's Harmony of the Gospels is translated into a sort 
of Old-Saxon. — The Heliand is in Old-Saxon. — Reineke Vos, &c. 


8# To the High-German belong — 

1st The Moeso-Gothic, written by Ulphilas. 


2nd. The Alemannic or Suabian, written by Kero, Rhabanus Maurus, 
Otfrid, Notker, Chunrad von Kircbberg, Gotfrit von Nifen. 

3rd. The Francic, or transition between High and Low, but approach- 
ing more to the High-German, the chief writings in which are a transla- 
tion of Isidore, De nativitale Domini, and of Willeram's Canticum Can- 

9. The nature and peculiarity of these six dialects may be best shown 
by a short historical detail of each tribe, as an alteration in a language 
was generally produced by some influential political change. It seems 
impossible to say which of the Germanic tongues was first used in 
Europe, but probably that language which was spoken by the people 
located most to the west. If this be sufficient for priority, the Anglo- 
Saxon will claim the first notice. 


1. The Anglo-Saxons derived their being and name from the Angles, 
a tribe of the Saxon confederacy, occupying Anglen in the south-east part 
of the Duchy of Sleswick in the south of Denmark. These Saxons, like 
all the Teutoni or Germans, were of oriental origin. They were as far 
westward as the Elbe in the days of Ptolemy, a.d. 90; and therefore in 
all probability they were amongst the first Germanic or Teutonic tribes 
that visited Europe. Their situation, between the Elbe and the Eyder 
in the south of Denmark, seems to indicate that they moved among the 
foremost columns of the vast Teutonic emigration. The Saxons, when 
first settled on the Elbe, were an inconsiderable people, but in succeeding 
ages they increased in power and renown. About a.d. 240, the Saxons 
united with the Francs (the free people) to oppose the progress of the 
Romans towards the north. By this league and other means the Saxon 
influence was increased, till they possessed the vast extent of country 
embraced by the Elbe, the Sala, and the Rhine, in addition to their 
ancient territory from the Elbe to the Eyder. In this tract of country 
were several confederate nations, leagued together for mutual defence. 
Although the Saxon name became, on the continent, the appellation of 
this confederacy of nations, yet at first it only denoted a single state. 

2. It may be satisfactory to have a brief and clear account of the 
Germanic tribes, the Jutes, Saxons, and Angles, who successively obtained 
settlements in Britain. 


3. The Jutes gained the first possessions. Hengist and Horsa, two 
brothers from Jutland or the Cimbric Chersonesus in Denmark, arrived in 
three ceols or small ships at Ebbs-fleet on the Isle of Thanet in a.d. 449. 
These Jutes, for assisting the Britons against the Pictsand Scots, had the 
Isle of Thanet assigned to them. They subsequently obtained possession 
of Kent, the Isle of Wight, and part of Hampshire. 

4. The Saxons had a very extended territory. After many of them 
had migrated to Britain, the parent stock on the continent had the name 
of Old-Saxons* The first Saxon kingdomf was established by Ella 
in a.d. 491, under the name of South-Saxons, or South-Sax, now Sussex. 
In 494, another powerful colony arrived under Cerdic, and being placed 
west of the other kingdoms, they were, on their full establishment in 519, 
called West-Saxons [West-Seaxe], in its fullest extent embracing the 
north part of Hampshire, Berks, Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, and 
part of Cornwall. — A third Saxon kingdom, in a.d. 527, was planted in 
Essex, Middlesex, and the south part of Hertfordshire, under the name 
of East-Saxons, East-Sax, or Essex. 

• Hist, of Anglo-Saxons, by F. Palgrave, Esq. small 8?o. 1831, p. 33 ; The Rise and Pro- 
gress of the English Commonwealth, by the same, 4to. 1832, p. 40. 

t The Saxon Chronicle gives the following account ; M An. ccccxlix. Her Martianus and 
Valentinianus onfeugon rice, and ricsodon vir. winter. On heora dagum Hengest and 
Horsa, from Wyrtgeorne gelafcode Brytta cyninge to fultume. gesohton Brytene on }>am 
staefce, pe is genemned Ypwines-fleot, aerest Bryttum to fultume, ac hy eft on hy fuhton. 
Se cing het hi feohtan agien Pihtas, and hi swa dydan, and sige hsefdon swa hwar swa hi 
comon. Hi ps, sende to Angle, and heton heom sendan mare fultum, and heoin 6eggan 
Brytwalana nahtnesse, and pses landes cysta. Hi pa. sendon heom mare fultum, }>a comon 
\>& menn of £rim ma?g$um Germanie, of Eald Seaxum, of Anglum, of Iotum. 

"Of Iotum comon Cantware andWihtware [psst is seo maei$ pe nu eardafc on Wiht,] and 
}>aetcynn on West-Sex um, pe man nu gyt het lutna-cynn. Of Eald-Seaxum comon East* 
Seaxan, and Sufc -Seaxan, and West-Seaxan. Of Angle comon, se a si $5 an stod westig 
betwix Iutum and Seaxum, East- Angle, and Middel-Angle, and Mearce and ealie Norfcym- 
bra. Heora here-togan w apron twegen gebrofcra, Hengest and Horsa, £aet waron Wihtgilses 
sana, Wibtgils waes Witting, Witta Wecting, Wecta Wodning, fram pam Wodne awoc eall 
ure cyne-cynn and Sufean-hymbra eac." — Ingram's Chr. pp. 13—15. 

liede makes nearly the same statement, " Advenerant autem de tribus Ger mania? populis 
fortioribus, id est, Saxonibus, Anglis, Jutis. De Jutarum origine sunt Cantuarii et Victuarii, 
hoc est, ea gens qua Vectam tenet Insulam, et ea quae usque hodie in provincia Occidenta- 
lium Saxonum Jutarum natio nominatur, posita contra ipsam insulam Vectam. De Saxon- 
ibus, id est, ea regione qnse nunc antiquorum Saxonum cognominatur, venere Orientales 
Saxones, Meridiani Saxones, Occidui Saxones. Porro de Anglis, hoc est, de ilia p atria qua? 
Angulus dicitur et ab eo tempore usque hodie manere desertus inter provincial Jutarum et 
Saxonum perhibetur, Orientales Angli, M edit err anei Angli, Merci, tota Nordanhymbrorum 
progenies, id est, illarum gentium qua? ad Boream Humbri fluminis inhabitant caeterique 
Anglorum populi sunt orti. Duces fuisse perhibentur eorum primi duo fratres Hengist et 
Horsa ; e quibus Horsa postea occisus in bello a Brittonibus, h act en us in Orient alibu 8 
Cantiae partibus monumentum habet suo nomine insigne. Erant autem filii Victgilsi, cujus 
pater Vitta, cujus pater Vecta, cujus pater Voden, de cujus stirpe multarum provinciarum 
regium genus originem duxit." — Bede, lib. i. ch. 15, p. 52. Alfred's Saxon translation of which 
is : " Comon hi of f>rim folcum J»am strangestan Germanie, \>&t of Seaxum, and of Angle, 
and of Geatum. Of Geata fruman syndon Cantware, and Wihtssetan, \>&t is seo £eod pe 
Wiht J>aet Ealond oneardaS. Of Seaxum fwt is of )>am lande pe mon hateS Eald-Seaxan, 
coman East- Seaxan, and Sufc-Seaxan, and West-Seaxan. And of En gle com an East-Engle 
and Middel-Engle, and Myrce, and eall Norfchembra cynn, is \>xt land pe Angulus is 
nemned betwyh Geatum and Seaxum. Is sa?d of £aere tide pe hi }>anon gewiton ofc to da?ge 
J>aet hit weste wunige. Wa»ron p& aerest heora latteowas and heretogan twegen gebroftra, 
Hengest and Horsa. Hi waeron Wihtgylses suna, f>a?s Fseder wa?s [Witta ha ten, f>a?s feeder 
w»t Wihta haten, pa&] fseder waBs Woden nemned, of £aes strynde monigra ma?g$a cyning 
cynn fruman laedde."-— Smith's liede, fol. Cam. 1722, p. 483. 

16 ANGLO-SAXONS III. 5 — 7. 

5. The Angles (Engle), from Sleswick in the south of Denmark, about 
a.d. 527, settled themselves in East Anglia, containing Norfolk, Suffolk, 
Cambridge, and part of Bedfordshire. — Ida, in a.d. 547, began to establish 
himself in Bernicia, comprehending Northumberland, and the south of 
Scotland between the Tweed and the Firth of Forth.— About a.d. 559, 
Ella conquered Deira [DeoramaegS] lying between the Humber and the 
Tweed, including the present counties of York, Durham, Northumberland, 
Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Lancashire. — Mercia was formed into an 
independent state by Crida, about a.d. 586, and comprehended the counties 
of Chester, Derby, Nottingham, Lincoln, Leicester, Northampton, Rut- 
land, Huntingdon, the north of Beds, and Hertford, Warwick, Bucks, 
Oxon, Worcester, Hereford, Gloucester, Stafford, and Salop. Thus, one 
Jute, three Saxon, and four Angle, altogether eight kingdoms, were 
established in Britain, by the year 586.* 

6. The Angles emigrated so numerously as to leave Anglen, their 
original district, destitute of inhabitants. Though the Friesians are not 
named as uniting in the first conquest of Britain, it is clear, from their 
locality, that many of them accompanied the other Teutonic tribes.f 
Those now settled in Britain were denominated Anglo-Saxons to show 
their origin ; Anglo-Saxon denoting that the people so called were 
the Angles, a nation coming from the Saxon confederacy. In sub- 
sequent times, when the Angles had been alienated from the Saxon 
confederacy by settling in Britain, they denominated that part of this 
kingdom which they inhabited Engla-land, the land of the Angles, 
Angle's land, which was afterwards contracted into England. 

7. From the entrance of the Saxons into Britain in a.d. 449, they 
opposed the Britons, till, on the full establishment of the Saxon power in 
a.d. 586, the Britons were driven into Wales. As soon as the Britons 
ceased to oppose their invaders the Saxon kingdoms began to contend 
with each other. The West-Saxons, with varying success, gradually 
increased in influence and territory from Cerdic their first leader in 
a.d. 494, till 827, when Egbert, king of Wessex, defeated or made 
tributary all the other Saxon kingdoms. Egbert, his son Ethelwulph, 
and his grandsons Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred the Great, 
had to contend with new and fierce opponents in the Northmen or Danes. 
The most energetic and renowned of the West-Saxon kings was Alfred 
the Great. He drove the Northmen from his kingdom, and found leisure 

* Mr. Turner, in his Hist, of A.-S M b. iii. cb. 5, toI. 1 . p. 309, observes : " This state of Bri- 
tain has been improperly denominated the Suxon heptarchy. When all the kingdoms were 
settled, they formed an octarchy. Ella, supporting his invasion in Sussex, like Hengist in 
Kent, made a Saxon duarchy before the year 500. When Cerdic erected the Btate of Wessex 
in 519, a triarchy appeared ; East Anglia made it a tetrarchy ; Essex apentarchy. The suc- 
cess of Ida, after 547, having established a sovereignty of Angles in Bernicia, the island 
beheld an hexarchy. When the northern Ella penetrated, in 560, southward of the Tees,his 
kingdom of Deira produced an heptarchy. In 586, the Angles branching from Deira into the 
regions south of the Humber, the state of Mercia completed an Anglo-Saxon octarchy.' 1 

f See Friesians, if. § 50—56. 


not only to encourage literature in others, but, with great success, to 
devote himself to literary pursuits, as much as the proper discharge of the 
public affairs of his kingdom would allow. He translated into Anglo- 
Saxon, Boethius, Orosius, and Bede, and thus gave a pre-eminence to the 
West-Saxon language, as well as to the West-Saxon kingdom. The 
West-Saxons retained the government of this island till 1016, when 
Canute, a Dane, became king of England. Canute and his two sons, 
Harold and Hardicanute, reigned twenty-six years. The Saxon line 
was restored in 1042, and continued till 1066, when Harold the Second 
was slain by William duke of Normandy, commonly called William the 
Conqueror. Thus the Anglo-Saxon dynasty terminated, after it bad 
existed in England about six hundred years. The Saxon power ceased 
when William the Conqueror ascended the throne, but not the language ; 
for Anglo-Saxon, after rejecting or changing many of its inflections, 
continued to be spoken by the old inhabitants till the time of Henry the 
Third, a.d. 1258. What was written after this period has generally so 
great a resemblance to our present language, that it may evidently be 
called English. 

8. From the preceding short detail, it appears that the Jutes had small 
possessions in Kent and the Isle of Wight: the Angles occupied the east 
and north of England, with the south of Scotland : and the Saxons had 
extensive possessions in the western and southern parts. The descendants 
of these Saxons were very numerous : their power and influence became 
most extensive under the dominion of West-Saxon kings, especially under 
Egbert and Alfred. It was the powerful mind of Alfred that drew into 
England the talent and literature of Europe, and induced him to benefit 
his country by writing so much in his native tongue, the Anglo-Saxon ; 
thus giving the West-Saxon dialect so great a predominance as to con- 
stitute it the cultivated language of the Anglo-Saxons. This pure Anglo- 
Saxon may be found in the works of Alfred, iElfric, the Anglo-Saxon 
Laws, Caedmon, &c. 

9. Ethelbert, king of Kent, being converted to the Christian faith by 
the preaching of Augustin, in a.d. 597, was distinguished as the author of 
the first written Saxon laws which have descended to us, or are known to 
have been established. Some think that the laws of Ethelbert are the 
first Anglo-Saxon composition:* others give priority to Beowulf, the 
Traveller's Song, &c. Beowulf is said to have been nearly contemporary 
with Hengist ;f but the poem contained in the Cotton MS., British Museum, 
Vitellius, A. xv. is not so old. There occur in it Christian allusions 
which fix this text at least at a period subsequent to a.d. 597. Some 
eminent scholars attribute this MS. to the early part of the 10th century. J 
From thisfine poem may be selected some early specimens of pure Anglo- 

• Turner's Hist, of Anglo-Saxons, b. iii. c. 6, vol. i. p. .332. 

f See the very neat edition of Beowulf, by Mr. Kemble, Pref. p. xx. London, 1833. 

1 Conybeare's Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon Poetry, p. 32 ; Turner's Hist, of Anglo-Saxons, 
b. lx. c. 2, vol. iii. p. 281. 

* D 


Saxon. The Traveller's Song, in its original composition, is referred by 
Mr. Conybeare* to about a.d. 450. It was first printed by bim with 
a literal Latin version, and a free poetical translation in English. An 
improved Saxon text is given in Mr. Kemble's Beowulf, p. 223 — 233. 
For an example of an early specimen of Anglo-Saxon poetry, compared 
with one of a subsequent date, see Frfesic, § 58. As the works of 
Alfred, .Elfric, Caedmon, the poems of Beowulf, and many of the 
books specified in the note below,t afford ample specimens of pure 

• Illustrations of A.-8. Poetry, p. 9—29; Exeter MS. p. 84. 

f A chronological list of the chief works printed in Anglo- Saxon, with a notice of Grammar $ and 
Dictionaries intended for junior students. — [1567.] jElfkic. 1. A Testimonie of antioritie 
showing the anncient fayth in the Church of England touching the Sacrament of the Body 
and Blonde of the Lord here publickely preached, and also receiued in the Saxon's tyme, 
above 600 yeares agoe, 1 6mo. Imprinted at London by John Daye, dwelling over Aldersgate 
beneath S. Martyns, 1567. This little book contains " A Sermon of the Paschall Lambe to be 
spoken unto the people at Easter." Anglo-Saxon on the left -hand page, and an English trans- 
lotion on the right. It is paged only on the right to 75. Then follow 13 leaves , without being 
paged, containing the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and the X Commandments in Saxon, with an 
interlinear English translation. The whole book, therefore, consists of 88 leaves, or 176 pages. 
It was pultlished again in small 4to. with L Isle's u Treatise concerning the Old ana New 
Testament,'' in 1623 : the Easter Homily was printed again in the 2nd vol. of Fox's " Acts and 
Monuments," and in the notes to Whelock's " Bede," b. v. c. 22. In the year of L' Isles death, 
it appeared again with this title, " Divers ancient Monuments in the Saxon Tongue," &c. 4to. 
1638.— [1568.] Laws. 2. Apxatorofua, sive de priscis Anglorum Legibus libri, Sermone 
Anglico, vetustate antiqnissimo aliquot abhinc seculis conscripti, atque nunc demum magno 
Jurisperitorum et amantium antiquitatis omnium commodo, e tenebris in lucem vocati, 
Gulielmo Lambardo, 4to. ex officina Johan. Daye, Land. 1568. A greatly improved edition 
was published by Whelock, in folio, Cambridge, 1644, pp. 226, \l. A still better edition, so 
much enlarged and improved as to be considered almost a new work, was published with the fol- 
lowing title: "Leges Anglo- Sax oni cjp Ecclesiastics et Civiles, accedunt Leges Edvardi 
Latinap, Gulielmi Conquestoris Gailo-Normannicje, et Henrici I. Latins?, subjungitur Domini 
Henr. Spelmanni Codex Legum Veterum Statutorum Regni Angliae, quae ab ingressu 
Gulielmi I. usque ad annum nonum Henr. III. editasunt; toti OperiprspmittiturDissertatio 
Epistolaris admodum Reverendi Domini Gulielmi Nicolsoni Episcopi, Derrensis De Jure 
Feudali Veterum Saxonum,cum Codd. MSS. contulit, notas, versionem, etglossarium adjecit 
David Wilkins, S.T.P. foL Lond. 1721, pp. 434, 21. 12*. 6d. These are in Anglo-Saxon, with 
Latin translation and notes.— Vie Gesetze der Angelsachsen. In der Ursprache mit Ueber- 
setzung und Erlauterungen herausgegeben von Dr. Reinhold Schmid, Professor der Rechte 
zu Jena, 8vo. Leipzig, 1832, pp. 304, about 8s. There are two columns in a page ; on the left 
is the Anglo-Saxon text, in Roman type except the \>, $, and on the right a German translation. 
The second volume has long been expected. The Record Commission have undertaken an edition 
with an improved Anglo-Saxon text* carefully accented, and accompanied with an English trans- 
lation and notes. It was prepared, and a considerable part printed, under the superintendence 
of the late Richard Price, Esq. whose critical acquaintance with the Anglo-Saxon has been mani- 
fested by his excellent edition of Warton's " History of English Poetry." This edition of the 
A.-S. Laws by Mr. Price, is not yet published.— [1571.] Gospels. 3. The Gospels of the 
fower Euangelistes, translated in theolde Saxon tyme out of Latin into the vulgaretoung of 
the Saxons, newly collected out of auncient monumentes of the sayd Saxons, and now pub- 
lished for testimonie of the same, 4to. London, printed by John Daye, 157 1. It is accompanied 
with an English version out of the Bishop's Bible, so altered as to agree with the Saxon, and pub- 
lished by Fox, the Martyrologist, at the Expense of Archbishop Parker. Price 3/. 3».— Quatuor 
D.N. Jesu Christi Evangeliorum Versiones per antiquae duse, Gothica scil. et Anglo-Saxonica : 
quarum illam ex celeberrimo Codice Argenteo nunc primum depromsit Franciscus Junius, 
hanc autem ex Codd. MSS. collatisemendatiusrecudi curavit Thomas MareschallusAnglus; 
cujus etiam observations in utramque versionem subnectuntur. Accessit et Glossarium 
Goth i cum : cui premittitur Alphabetum Gothicum, Runicum, &c. opera ejusdem Francisci 
Junii, 4to. Dordrechti, 1665, et Amsterdam, 1684, pp. 383—431, 21. 8s. The Amsterdam 
edition appears, on collation, to be made up from the old copies with new title-pages, and a reprint 
of the first sheet in vol. ii. Moes. Glos. The Anglo-Saxon Gospels from the text of Marshall, 
the Rush worth Gloss, MS. Bodl. together with all the A.-S. translations of the Gospels, are 
about to appear in a quarto volume from the Pitt Press, Cambridge. — [1623.] jElfric. 4. 
A Saxon Treatise concerning the Old and New Testament Written abort the time of King 
Edgar (700 yeares agoe) by jElfrievs Abbas, thought to be the same that was afterward 
Archbishop of Canterbvrie. Whereby appeares what was the Canon of holy Scripture here 
then receiued, and that the Church of England had it so long agoe in her mother-tongue. 


Anglo-Saxon, it will not be necessary to occupy much space with quo- 
tations. One extract will be sufficient, and, for facility of comparison, 

Now first pvblished in print with English of our times by William L'Isle of Wilbvrgham, 
Esquier for the King's bodie : the original! remaining still to be seene in S r Robert Cotton's 
Librarie, at the end of his lesser Copie of the Saxon Pentatevch. And herevnto is added 
ovt of the Homilies and Epistles of the fore-said iElfricvs, a second edition of A Testimonie 
of Antiquitie, tyc. touching the Sacrament of the Body and Blond of the Lord, here publikely 
preached and receiued in the Saxons' time, &c. London, printed by John Haviland for Henrie 
Seile, dwelling in Paul's Church-yard, at the signe of the Tyger's head, 1623, small 4to. 
The Dedication, Preface, <5fc. contain 30 leaves, the paragraphs numbered, but not the pages; 
then follow 43 leaves of the Treatise of the Old and New Testament, Saxon on the left, and 
English on the right-hand page. The first 12 leaves are without numbers, 13 is placed at the 
head of the Saxon on the left, and also at the head of the English on the right page, the same 
numeral serving for two pages. The Testimony of Antiquity, &c. has 9 leaves of Preface, 8fc. 
14 leaves, with double numerals, of " A Sermon of the Paschall Lambe, &c. ;" then follow 1 1 
leaves unpaged, containing the words of Elfrike Abbot, and the Lord's Prayer, Creed, and X 
Commandments, in Saxon, with an interlinear English wrwoii, 30+43+9+14+11== 107 
leaves, or 214 pages.— (1640.] Psalms. 5. Psalterium Davidis Latino-Saxonicum Vetus, a 
Johanne Spelmanno, D. Hen. fiL editum, 4to. Londini, 1640, 1/. Is.- Libri Psalmorum ver- 
sio antiqua Latina ; cum paraphrasi Anglo-Saxonica, partim soluta oratione, partim metrice 
composita, nunc primum e cod. MS. in BibL Regia Parisiensi adservato, descripsit et edidit 
Benjamin Thorpe, F.A.S. Soc. Lit IsL Ham. Soc. Hon. 8vo. Oxonii, 1835.— [1644.] Bede. 
6. Bedae Venerabilis Historia Ecclesiastica Anglorum, Anglo-Saxonice ex versione jElfredi 
Magni Gentis et Latine, accessere Chronologia Saxonica (The Saxon Chronicle, see 9.) et 
Leges Anglo-Saxonice cum interpretatione Latina, cura Abranami Wheloci,foL Cantabrigia?, 
1644. A much improved and splendid edition was published with the followinp title : " Bed* 
Historia Ecclesiastica, Latine et Saxonice; una cum reliquisejusoperibus Historicis Latine, 
cura et studio Johannis Smith, S.T.P. foL CantabrigiaB, 1722, pp. 823, 21. 16*.— [1655.] 
CiEDMON. 7. Caedmonis Monachi Paraphrasis Poetica Genesios ac praecipuarum sacra* 
paginse historiarum, abhinc annos m.lxx. Anglo-Saxonice conscripta, et nunc primum edita 
a Francisco Junio, Amst 1655, pp. 116. II. — Caedmon's Metrical Paraphrase of Parts of the 
Holy Scriptures, in Anglo-Saxon, with an English translation, notes, and a verbal index, 
by Benjamin Thorpe, F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1832, pp. 341, R Is.— [1659.] jElfric. 8. 
iElfrici abbatis Grammatici vulgo dicti Grammatica Latino-Saxonica, &c. Guliel. Somne- 
rus, foL Oxon. 1659, pp. 52. This is a Latin Grammar written in Anglo-Saxon for the use of 
those Saxon youths who were studying Latin. It is appended to Somner's A.-S. Dictionary, see 
22. — [1692. ] Chronicle. 9. Chrnnologica Anglo-Saxonica, cura Abrahami Wheloci, fol. 
Cantabrigias, 1644. Appended to WhelocVs edition of Bede, see Bede, 6. — Chronicon Saxoni- 
cum; seu Annates Berum in Anglia praecipue gestarum ad annum mcliv.; cum indice 
rerum chronologico. Accedunt regulae ad investigandas nominum locorum origines; et 
nominum locorum et virorum in Chronico memoratorum explicatio; Latine et Anglo-Sax- 
onice cum notis Edmundi Gibson, 4to. Oxon. 1692, 21. Ss. — The Saxon Chronicle, with an 
English translation, and notes, critical and explanatory, and chronological, topographical, 
and glossarial indexes ; a short Grammar of the Anglo-Saxon Language, by the Rev. James 
Ingrain, B.D.; a new map of England during the Heptarchy, plates of Coins, 4to. 1823, pp. 
463, 32. 13*. 6d. The Saxon Chronicle has been translated into English, and printed with an 
improved A.-S. text, carefully accented from MSS. by the late Richard Price, Esq. for the 
Record Commission. It is not yet published. Miss Gurney printed and circulated privately 
among her friends a very useful work entitled u A literal Translation of the Saxon Chronicle, 
12mo. Norwich, 1819, pp. 324, with 48 pages of Index.— T1698.] jElfrjc's Bible. 10. Hep 
tateuchus, Liber Job, et Evangelium Nicodemi, Anglo-Saxonice. Historiae Judith Frag- 
mentum ; Dano-Saxonice, edidit nunc primum ex MSS. Codicibus Edvardus Thwaites, 8vo. 
Oxon. 1698, pp. 168 + 30= 198, 1/. 4s. The first seven books of the Bible in Anglo-Saxon.— 
[1698.] Alfred's Boethius. 11. Boethii (An. Maul. Sever.) Consolationis Philosophia? libri 
V. Anglo-Saxonice redditi ab iElfredo ; ad Apographum Junianum expressos edidit Chris- 
tophorus Rawlinson, 8vo. Oxon. 1698, 1/. 8#.— King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of Boe- 
thius, de Consolatione Philosophise ; with an English translation and notes, by J. S. Car- 
dale, 8vo. London, 1829, pp. 425, 1/. 5s. — King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of the Metres 
of Boethius, with an English translation and notes, by the Rev. Samuel Fox, M.A. 8vo. 
London, 1835, pp. 144, 12#.— [1709.] Elstob's Horn. 12. An English-Saxon Homily on 
the Birth-day of St Gregory, anciently used in the English-Saxon Church, giving an ac- 
count of the Conversion of the English from Paganism to Christianity; translated into 
modern English, with Notes, &c by Elizabeth Elstob, 8vo. London, 1709, pp. Preface, lx. 
44+10 + 49= 103, 1/. 4t. This work is in Anglo-Saxon and English. This author also 
printed some sheets in folio of Anglo-Saxon Homilies, with an English translation. For reasons 
now unknown the press was stopped. A copy of the portion printed is in the British Museum. — 
[1773.] Alfred's Oros. 13. The Anglo-Saxon version from the historian Orosius, by Alfred 
the Great, together with an English translation from the Anglo-Saxon, (byDaines Barring- 


the parable of the Sower is selected from Marshall's Gospels, Dordrecht, 

ton), 8vo. London, 1773; Anglo-Saxon, pp. 242, English translation and notes, pp. 259, 
about W. 5*. — Alfred's Will. 14. iElfred's Will, in Anglo-Saxon, with a literal and also a 
free English translation, a Latin version, and notes, by the Rev. Owen Manning,) royal 4to. 
Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1788, pp. 51, about 7*. The same, reprinted from the Ox- 
ford edition of 1788, with a preface ana additional notes, (by Mr. Cardale), London, Picker- 
ing, Combe, Leicester, 8vo. 1828, pp. 32, price 5#. — [1815.] Beowulf. 15. De Danorum 
Rebus Gestis SecuL III. et IV. Poema Danicum, Dialecto Anglo-Saxonica, ex Bibliotheca 
Cottoniana Musaei Britannici edidit versione Latina et indicibus, auxit, Grim Johnson 
Thorkelin, Dr. J. V. &c. 4to. Havniae, 1815, pp. 299, Ui.—An analysis of this fine poem, and 
an English translation of a considerable part of it, has been given by Mr. Turner in his History 
of the Anglo Saxons, b. ix. c. 2, vol. iii. p. 280-301. — A still more complete analysis is given, 
with free translations in English verse, and a literal Latin version of the text formed from a 
careful collation with tlie MS. in Conybeare's Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon Poetry, p. 30-167. 
— A very neat edition of the Anglo-Saxon text has appeared, entitled " The Anglo-Saxon Poems 
of Beowulf; the Traveller's Song, and the Battle of Finnes-burh, edited, together with a 
Glossary of the more difficult words, and an historical Preface, by John M. Keinble, Esq. 
M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge," small 8vo. London, 1833, pp.259, 13s. A second edi- 
tion, with an English translation and a complete Glossary, is on the eve of publication. — [1826.] 
Conybeare's Poetry. 16. Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon Poetry, by the Rev. John Josias 
Convbeare, M.A. late Anglo-Saxon Professor, &c. at Oxford, edited by his brother the Rev. 
W. \). Conybeare, M.A. &c. 8vo. London, 1826, pp. 286, 18*.— [1830.] Fox's Menol. 17. 
Menologium, seu Calendarium Poeticum, ex Hickesiano Thesauro : or, The Poetical Calen- 
dar of the Anglo-Saxons, with an English translation and notes, by the Rev. Samuel Fox, 
M.A. 8vo. London, 1830, pp. 64, 6*.— [1834.] Thorpe's Anafett. 18. Analecta Anglo-Sax- 
onica. A selection, in prose and verse, from Anglo-Saxon authors of various ages, with a 
Glossary ; designed chiefly as a first book for students, by Benjamin Thorpe, F.S.A. 8vo. 
Ixmdon, 1834, pp. 266, 20s. This work gives specimens of Anglo-Saxon from its purest to its 
most corrupt state. As some of the specimens have been taken from MSS. and are printed for 
the first time, this useful book has properly a place here. — [1834.] Thorpe's AnolL 19. The 
Anglo-Saxon version of the story of Apollonius of Tyre, upon which is founded the play of 
Pericles, attributed to Shakspeare; from a MS. in the Library of C.C.C. Cambridge, with 
a literal translation, &c. by Benjamin Thorpe, F.S.A. 12mo. London, 1834, pp. 92, 6*. — 20. 
A more minute account of works printed in Anglo-Saxon, especially of smaller detached pieces, 
may be found in p. 134 of Hickes's Institutions Grammatical Anglo Saxonicae, 4to. Oxonise, 
1680; and in Wanley's Catalogue of Anglo-Sa.von MSS. forming the 3rd. vol of Hickes's The- 
saurus, p. 325. A short notice of the principal A.-S. MSS. may be found in Hickes's Institu- 
tions, from p. 135 to 176, but a minule at count of all the A.-S. MSS. with many very interest- 
ing and valuable extrarts, will be found in Wanley's Catalogue* which, as the 3rd. vol. of Hickes's 
Thesaurus, has the following title : " Antiquse Literatures Septentrionalis Liber alter, seu 
Humphredi Wanleii Librorum Yeterum Septentrionalium qui in Angliae Bibliothecis extant, 
nee non multorum Veterum Codicum Septentrionalium alibi extantium Catalogue Historico- 
Criticus, cum totius Thesauri Linguarum Septentrionalium sex Indicibus, foL Oxonise, 1705. 
— An arranged Catalogue of all the extant relics of A.-S. poetry is given in Conybeare's Illus- 
trations of A.-S. Poetry, p. lxxvi — lxxxvi. 

21. Grammars. 1. Hickes's Institutiones Gram. A.-S. 4to. Oxon. 1689, 21. — 2. Hickes's 
Thesaurus, 3 vols. fol. Oxon. 1705, 12/.— 3. (Thwaites's) Gram. A.-S. ex Hickesiano, 8vo. 
pp. 48, 2/.— 4. Elstob's (Eliz.) Gram, of English-Saxon tongue, 4to. Lond. 1715, 1/.— 5. 
Henley's Gram, of Anglo-Saxon, Lond. 1726, pp. 61, 4*. — 6. Lye's Gram. Anglo-Saxon, 
prefixed to Junius's Etymologicum, fol. Oxon. 1743. — 7. Manning's Gram. Anglo-Saxon et 
Mo?so-Goth. prefixed to his edition of Lye's A.-S. Diet 2 vols. fol. Lond. 1772.— 8. Rask's 
Angelsaksish Sproglaere, 8vo. Stockholm, 1817, pp. 168; Mr. Thorpe's Translation of ditto, 
Hvo. Copenhagen, 1830, 15*. 6V.— 9. Sisson's Elements of A.-S. Gram. 12mo. Leeds, 1819, 
pp. 84, 5*. — 10. Dr. Jacob Grimm's Deutsche Grammatik, 3 vols. 8vo. Gottingen, 1822, 
1826, 1831. This is a Grammar of all the Germanic languages ; it is the 2nd edit. — 11. Bos- 
worth's Elements of A.-S. Gram. 8vo. 1823, pp. 330, 16*. — Bosworth's Compendious Gram, 
of Primitive Eng. or A.-S. r 8vo. 1826, pp. 84. 5*.— 12. Ingram's Short Gram, of A.-S. prefixed 
to his edition of the Saxon Chronicle, 4to. 1823, pp. 8. — 13. Gwilfs Rudiments of A.-S.8vo. 
Lond. 1829, pp. 56, 6*. 

22. Dictionaries. Somner's Diet. Saxonico- Latino- Anglicum, folio, Oxon. 1659, 8/. — 2. 
Benson's Vocabularium A.-S. 8vo. Oxon. 1701, 1/. 4*. — 3. Lye's Dictionarium Saxonico et 
Gothico-Latinum, published by Manning, in 2 vols. fol. Lond. 1772, 11. 17*. 6Vf. 

Works relating to Anglo-Saxon.— [1650] 23. Casauboni (Merici) de Lingua Saxonica etde 
Lingua Hebraica Commentarius ; accesserunt Gulielmi Somneri ad verba Vetera Germanica 
Lipsiana note, small 8vo. Londini, 1650, 8*. 6d.— [1678.] Alfred's Life. 24. jElfredi Magni 
Vita, a Joanne Spelman, plates, folio, Oxon. 1678, about 16*. — [1709.] JElfred'a Life, by Sir 
John Spelman, Knt from the original manuscript in the Bodleian Library, with considerable 


Me. iv. 3—8. 
3. GehyraS, Ute eode se saedere hys seed to sawenne. 4. And J?a he sew, sum 
feoll wi$ fone weg, and fugelas comon and hyt fraeton. 5. Sum feoll ofer stans- 
cyligean, }?ar hyt naefde mycel eoiftan, and sona up-eode, forjmm \e hyt naefde 
eortfon J^iccnesse. 6. pa hyt up-eode, seo sunne hyt forswaelde, and hyt forscranc, 
forj?am hyt wirtruman nsefde. 7. And sum feoll on fornas, J?a stigon J?a J^ornas 
and for&rysmodon }?8et, and hyt waestm ne baer. 8. And sum feoll on god land, 
and hyt sealde, upstigende and wexende, waestm, and an brohte }>rittig-fealdiie, sum 
syxtigfealdne, sum hundfealdne. 

The Anglo-Saxon Dialects. 

10. The Jutes, Angles, and Saxons, had probably some little differ- 
ence of dialect when they arrived in Britain. Distant tribes, from the 
disturbed state of the country, and the difficulties of travelling, could 
have very limited intercourse. The Jutes were few in number, and could 
not have much influence, especially as it regards the language. The 
descendants of the Angles were very numerous, and occupied the country 
north of the Thames : they settled in East- Anglia, Northumbria, south of 
Scotland, &c. Their language was more broad and harsh than the 
West-Saxon, and was formerly called the Dano-Saxon dialect. It may, 

additions, and several historical remarks, by the publisher Thomas Hearne, M. A. small 8to. 
Oxford, 1709, about 9*.— Life of Alfred or Alured, by Robert Powell, 18mo. 1634, about 6s.— 
jElfredi Regis praefatio ad Pastorale Sancti Gregorii, e Codd. MS. Jun. LIU. Saxon and Latin. 
See Asserii Meneven. Vita Mlfredi, p. 81. — [1722.] Asserii Menevensis Annates Rerum Gesta- 
rum JElfredi Magni, recensuit Franciscus Wise, M.A. small 8vo. Oxon. 1722, about 9f. — Mr. 
Turner's Hist of Anglo-Saxons, b. iv. c. 6—1 1, and b. v. c. 1—6.— [1708.] Wotton's View. 
25. Linguarum veterum Septentrionalium Thesauri Grammatico-CriticietArchaeologiei auc- 
tore Georgio Hickesio, Conspectus brevis, cum notis, Gulielmo Wotton, 12mo. 12*. — [1708.] 
Wotton's Short View of George Hickes's Grammatico- Critical and Archeological Treasury 
of the Ancient Northern Languages, translated, with notes, by Maurice Shelton, 4to. London, 
1737.— [1715.] Elstob's Saxon Devotion. 26. Publick Office of daily and nightly devotion for 
the seven canonical hours of prayer, used in the Anglo-Saxon Church, with a translation and 
notes, together with the Rev. Dr. George Hickes's Controversial Discourses, by W. Elstob, 
1 voL 8vo. 1705, London, 5#.; the same, 2 vols. 8vo. 16#. 1715-27.— [1726.] Gavelkind. 27, 
Somner's (William) Treatise of Gavelkind, both name and thing, showing the True Etymo- 
logic and Derivation of the One, the Nature, Antiquity, and Original of the Other. To 
which is added the Life of the Author, by Bishop White Kennett, 4to. London, 1726. 17*. — 
[1798.] Henshall. 28. The Saxon and English Languages reciprocally illustrative of each 
other ; the impracticability of acquiring an accurate knowledge of Saxon Literature through 
the medium of Latin Phraseology, exemplified in the errors of Hickes, Wilkins, Gibson, and 
other scholars; and a new mode suggested of radically studying the Saxon and English 
Languages, by Samuel Henshall, M.A. 4to. London, 1798, pp. 60. 5*.— [1807.] Ingram. 29. 
An Inaugural Lecture on the utility of Anglo-Saxon Literature ; to which is added the 
Geography of Europe, by King Alfred, including his account of the Discovery of the North 
Cape in the 9th century, by the Rev. James Ingram, M.A. 4to. Oxford, 1807, pp. 112. 10*. 
6rf.— [1807.] Henshall. 30. The Etymological Organic Reasoner; with part or the Gothic 
Gospel of St Matthew, from the Codex Argenteus (Cent IV.), and from the Saxon Durham 
Book (Cent VHL), with an English Version, 8vo. 1807. 5».— [1822.] Silver. 31. A Lecture 
on the Study of the Anglo-Saxon, (by the Rev. Thomas Silver, D.D.), 8vo. Oxford, 1822. 3*. 
— [1830.] 32. Mone's (Franz Joseph) Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte der Teut- 
schen Lit und Sprache, 8vo. Leipzig, 1830, 10*.— [1833.] 33. Collen's (George William) 
Britannia Saxomca, a Map of Britain during the Octarchy, 4to. London, 1833, 12».— [1799- 
1834.] 34. Turner's (Sharon) History of the Anglo-Saxons; comprising the History of 
England from the earliest period to the Norman Conquest, 3 vols. 8vo. 5th edit London, 
1834, 21. 5f.— Palorave's (Sir Francis) Hist, of A.-S. 16mo. Lond. 1831, pp. 391, 5s.— Pal- 
grave's Rise and Progress of the English Commonwealth, 4 to. London, 1834, 32. 3*. Afr, 
Turner and Sir F. Paigrave's important works must be carefully read by every A.-S. student. 
These for History, and Rash and Grimm for Philology, are rich sources of information for 
those who are interested in the Anglo-Saxon language and literature. 


however, probably be rather denominated, from its locality,* the Nor- 
thumbrian or East-Anglian dialect As thfe is not the place to enter 
minutely into the subject of dialects, a few extracts are only given, that 
they may be compared with the specimen of pure Anglo-Saxon. 

11. The parable of the Sower, from the Northumbrian Gloss or 
Durham Book, written about a.d, 900,t and now preserved in the British 
Museum, London, Cotton MSS. Nero, D. IV. fol. 100. 

Me. iv. 3—8. 
3. heono eode fce sawende i sedere to sawenne 4. and mifcfca gesenw, 
3. Ecce exiit seminans ad seminandum. 4. et dum seminat, 

ofcer i 8Q feoll ymb fca stret, and cwomon flegendo and fretton i eton fcsBt 
aliud cecidit circa via, et venerunt volucres et comederunt illud. 

5 mm ec feoll of stener, fcer ne hcfde eorita michel i menig ; and hneSe 
5. aliud vero cecidit super petrosa, ubi non habuit terrain multam ; et statim 

npp iornende waes t arisen waes f Son niefde heanisse eorfces : 6. and fca 

exortum est, quoniam non habebat altitudinem terra : 6. et quando 

arisen t fca npp eode waes sunna, gedrogade i f bernde ; f Son niefde 

exortus est sol, exaestuavit ; eo quod non haberet 

wyrtmma, gedrugade. 7. and sum feoll in feornum, and astigon i npp eodun fcornas, 
radicem, exaruit. 7. et aliud cecidit in spinis, et ascenderunt spins, 

• Mr. Cardale has well remarked :— " Pure Anglo-Saxon and Dano-Saxon were the two 
great dialects of the language. The pure A.-S. was used, as Hickes observes, in the southern 
and western parts of England; and the Dano-Saxon, in the north of England and south of 
Scotland. It is entirely a gratuitous supposition, to imagine that either of these dialects 
commenced at a much later period than the other. Each was probably as old as the time of 
Egbert. . . . The Saxons were predominant in the southern and western parts, and the Angles 
in the northern. As these nations were distinct in their original seats on the continent, so 
they arrived at different times, and brought with them different dialects. This variety of 
speech continued till the Norman conquest, and even afterwards .... These two great dialects 
of the A.-S. continued substantially distinct, as long as the language itself was in use. . . . 
that the Dano-Saxon, in short, never superseded the A.-S.... They were not consecutive, 
but contemporary."— Note* prefixed to Mr. Cardale'* elegant edition of Boethiut. 

Another gentleman, to whom A.-S. literature is also much indebted, thus states his 
opinion : " Saxon MSS. ought to be locally classed, before any attempt be made at chrono- 
logical arrangement ; nor will this appear strange when we consider, that in early times the 
several divisions of the kingdom were, comparatively speaking, almost like foreign countries 
to each other: that in some parts the Saxon must have continued uninfluenced by foreign 
idioms much longer than in others ; that the various provincial dialects must have been much 
more strongly marked than they are at present, and that they were all equally employed in 
literary composition." — Mr. Thorpe's Preface to Cadmon, pp. xii. xiii. 

Mr. Thorpe mentions Mr. Joseph Stephenson, of the British Museum, as the gentleman 
from whom we may hope for a local classification of our Saxon MSS. Perhaps it would be 
difficult to find one more competent for so arduous a work, if we form a judgment of Mr. 
Stephenson's qualifications only from the valuable matter collected from old MSS. and 
judiciously inserted by him in the first two parts of Boucher's English Glossary of Archaic 
and Provincial Words, 4to. 1832-1833. 

f This is one of the finest specimens of Saxon writing. The Vulgate Latin text of the 
Four Gospels was written by Eadfrid Bishop of Lindisfarne, about a.d. 680 ; die interlinear 
Anglo-Saxon gloss was added by Aldred, probably about 900. For a full account of this 
MS. see Mareschalli Observationes in Versionem Anglo-Saxonicam, Dordrechti, 4to. 1665, 

{i. 492 : Wanley's Catalogue, p. 252: HenshalTs Etymological Organic Reasoner, p. 54 : 
ngram's Inaugural Lecture on Saxon Literature, p. 43 : and Baber's Historical account of 
the Saxon and English Versions of the Scriptures, before the opening of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, prefixed to his edition of Wiclifs Gospels, 4to. 1810, p. lix. For facsimiles of the 
beautiful writing in this splendid Durham Book, see Astle's Origin and Progress of Writing, 
4to. 1803, p. 96; and my Elements of Anglo-Saxon Grammar, 8vo. 1823, p. 18. 

III. 12, 13. ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, 1135. 23 

and under dulfon f»t and waestm ne salde. 8. and ofcer feoll on eorfcu 
et suffocarerunt illud, et fructum non dedit. 8. et aliud cecidit in terrain 

godfl, and salde waestm stigende, and waxende, and tobrohte ennelan 
bonam, et dabat fructum ascendentem, et crescentem, et adferebat unum 

ftrittig and nn sexdig and an hundraft. 
triginta et unum sexagenta, et unum centum.* 

12. The parable of the Sower, from the Rushworth Gloss, which is 
an Anglo-Saxon gloss or version of the 10th century, written at Hare- 
wood or Harwood [set Harawuda], over St. Jerome's Latin of the Four 
Gospels. The Latin text is about the same age as the Latin of the 
Durham Book, being written towards the close of the 7th century. MS. 
Bibl. Bodl. D. 24. No. 3946, now (1835) D. 2. 19. Auctt 

Mx. iv. 3—8. 

3. Geherfce; beonu eode fce sedere i sawend to sawend. 4. and mifcfcy giseow 

3. Audite ; ecce exiit seminans ad seminandu. 4. et dum seminat, 
ofcer i som gifeol ymb $a strete, and comun flegende, and fretan i etan fc»k 

aliud decidit circa viam, et venerunt volucres, et comederunt illud. 
5. ofcer 1 sum so* lice gifeol ofer stsenere, fcer ne haefde eor&o, and hrsefce 
5. aliud vero cecidit super petrosa, ubi non habuit terrain, et statim 
np iornende w®s, forSon ne hsefde heonisse eorfco. 6. and fca 

exortum est, quoniam non babebat altitudine terra. 6. et quando 

aras i nparnende waes sunne, and diygde f bernde ; and for f on ne haefde 
exortus est sol, exaestuavit ; et ex eo quod non baberet 

wyrtroma, adragade. 7. and ofcer gifeol in J>ornas, and astigun 1 npeadnn Somas 
radicem, exaruit. 7. Et aliud cecidit in spinas, et ascenderunt spins 

and under dolfun tot, and waestem ne salde. 8. and ofcro gifeol on eorfco 
et suffocaverunt illud, et fructum non dedit. 8. et aliud cecidit in terrain 

gode ; and salde waestem stigende, and wexende and tobrohte an 1 enne 

bona ; et dabat fructum ascendentem, et crescentem, et adferebat unum 

Sri tig, and an sextig and an hundred. 

xxx., et unum lx. et unum c.J 

13. An extract from the Saxon Chronicle of the year 1135, will show 
how much the language was then corrupted in its idiom, inflections, and 

An. mcxxxv. On f is gere for se king Henri ofer sse set te Lammasse. and feet 
o¥er dei. fa be lai an slep in scip. fa f estrede f e daei ouer all landes. and uuard f e 
tonne swile als it uuare fre-niht-ald mone. an sterres abuten him at middaei. 
Wurften men swifte ofwundred and ofdred. and saeden fact micel f ing sculde cumme 

* For the accurate collation of this extract with the MS. we are indebted to the polite 
attention of Sir Henry Ellis, of the British Museum. 

f For a farther account of this MS. see Mareschalli Obserr. in Versionem A.-S. p. 492 : 
Wanley's Catalogue, p. 81, 82 : Henshall's Etym. Organic Reasoner, p. 63, 64 : Astle's 
Origin and Progress of Writing, p. 99 : Baber's Pref. to Wiclif s Test p. DL 

% The transcript of this extract was obligingly compared with the MS. by a well-known 
Saxon scholar, Dr. Ingram, President of Trinity College, Oxford, and editor of the Saxon 
Chronicle, with an English translation, notes, &c. see note to § 9, No. 9. 

24 ANGLO-SAXON — ORMULUM, 1180. III. 14, 15. 

her efter. swa dide. for J?aet ilc gaer warS J?e king ded. J?aet ofter daei efter s. 
Andreas massedsei. on Normandi. pa wes tre sona J?as landes. for aeuric man 
gone raeuede ofter J?e mihte. pa namen his sune and his Trend and brohten his lie 
to Engle-land. and bebiriend in Reding. God man he wes. and micel aeie wes of 
him. Durste nan man misdon wift ofter on his time. Pais he makede men 
and daer. Wua sua bare his byrften gold and silure. durste nan man sei to him 
naht bute god. — Ingram s Saxon Chronicle, p. 364. 


An. 1 135. In this year went the king Henry over sea at the Lammas ; and the 
next day, as he lay asleep on ship, darkened the day over all lands, and was the 
sun so as it were a three-night-old-moon, and the stars about him at mid-day. 
Men were very much astonished and terrified, and said that a great event should 
come hereafter. So it did ; for that same year was the king dead, the next day after 
St. Andrew's mass-day, in Normandy. Then was tribulation soon in the land ; 
for every man that might, soon robbed another. Then his sons and his friends 
took his body, and brought it to England, and buried it at Reading. A good 
man he was ; and there was great dread of him. No man durst do wrong with 
another in his time. Peace he made for man and beast. Whoso bare his burthen 
of gold and silver, durst no man say ought to him but good. 

14. The Grave, a fragment. It is found in the margin of Semi-Saxon 
Homilies in the Bodleian Library,* and is supposed by Wanley to be 
written about the year 1150. 


De wes bold gebyld For thee was a house built 

er J?u iboren were ; Ere thou wert born ; 

fte wes molde imynt For thee was a mould appointed 

er ftu of moder come ; Ere thou of mother earnest; 

ac hit nes no idiht, But it is not prepared, 

ne ]?eo deopnes imeten; Nor the deepness meted ; 

nes gyt iloced, Nor is yet seen, 

hu long hit J?e were : How long for thee it were : 

Nu me J?e bringaeft Now 1 bring thee 

\>er ftu beon scealt, Where thou shalt be, 

nu me sceal J?e meten, Now I shall thee measure, 

and $a mold seo&fa, &c. And then earth afterwards. 

15. The Ormulum is a metrical paraphrase of the Gospels and Acts, in 
lines of fifteen syllables, written in Semi-Saxon by an ecclesiastic named 
Orm, probably in the north of England, about the year 1180.f The 
author gives the following reason for the name of the work: 

This book is named Ormulum, for that Orm made it. 

piffboc iffnemmnedd Orrmulum, forr]?i J?aet Orrm itt wrohhte. — Preface, 

Mr. Thorpe observes, that the author seems to have been a critic in his 
mother-tongue ; and from his idea of doubling the consonant after a short 

* Bibl. BodL Codex NE. F. 4. 12, Wanley, p. 15.— Mr. Conybeares Illustration of A.-S. 
Poetry, p. 270, for the first printed text with a verbal Latin and English translation. Mr. 
Thorpe's Analecta, p. 142, for an improved text 

f Wanley's Catalogue, p. 59—63 : Conybeare's Illustrations of A.-S. Poetry, Introd. p. lxvii : 
Turaei's Hist, of Eng. Middle Ages, b. ix. 1, vol. v. p. 435, 436 : Mr. Thorpes Analecta, Pref. 
p. ix : Baber's Wiclify Pref. p. lxiv. 

III. 16, 17. ANGLO-SAXON — WICLIF, A.D. 1380. 25 

vowel, as iu German, we are enabled to form some tolerably accurate 
notions as to the pronunciation of our forefathers. Thus he writes min and 
win with a single n only, and /{/with a single/, because the t is long, as 
in mine, wine, and life. On the other hand, wherever the consonant is 
doubled, the vowel preceding is short and sharp, as winn, pronounced win, 
not wine. Orm's dialect merits, if any, to be called Dano-Saxon : his 
name also betrays a Scandinavian descent* 

Uppo J?e J?ridde dagg bilammp, swa sumtn )?e Goddspell ki]?e]?J?, 

Jmtt i ^e land off Galile waff an bridale garrkedd ; 

And itt waff garrkedd inn an tun J?att waffCaua gehatenn, 

and Crisieff moderr Marge waff alt tatt bridaless seeie. 

And Crisl wass clepedd till )?att hus wi)?)? hise lerninng enibhtess. 

And teggre win waff drunnkeiin swa faetl taer uass j?a na mare. 

Hanky, p. 62. f 


Upon ihe third day fit) happened, as some of the Gospels say, 

that in the laud of Galilee was a bridal prepared; 

And it was prepared in a town that was Cana called, 

and Christ's mother, Mary, was at that bridal's seat. 

Aud Christ was invited to that house with his disciples. 

And their wine was drunk, so that there was not theu any more. 

16. Robert of Gloucester^ was a monk belonging to the abbey at 
Gloucester, who wrote a history of England in rhyming verse about 
A.D. 1280. He declares that he saw the eclipse which happened in 1*264, 
ou the day of the battle at Evesham, and thus describes it : 

As in ]?e Nor)? West a derk weder J?er aros, 

Sodeinliche suart inoii, J?at mani man agros, 

And ouer caste it ]?o3te al J?ut lond, ]?at me mijte vnnefte ise, 

Grisloker weder j?an it was ne mi^te an erj?e be. 

An vewe dropes of reine j?er velle grete inou. 

pis tokninge vel in Jns lond, )?o me }>is men slou 

Wor J?retti mile J?anne. J?is isei Roberd, 

}>at verst J?is boc made, and was wel sore aferd. 

17. John de Wiclif was born about 1324, at Wiclif, a village on the 
banks of the river Tees, near Richmond, Yorkshire. He translated the 
Bible and Testament, and even the Apocryphal books, from Latiu into 
English, iu the year 1380. Though Wiclifs writings may be called Old 
English, yet a specimen from the parable of the Sower is given, that it 
may be compared with the preceding translations. 

• Analecta, Pref. p. ix. 

f Bodleian Library, Cod. Junii, i. p. 330. 

I Turner's Hi$t of E*q Middle Ag>* % b. viii. 1, vol. V. p. 217: uL 2, vol. v. p. 442.— 
Warton'i Hut. of Eng. Put try, 8vo. 1824, voL i. p. 52. 


26 ANGLO-SAXON — SEMI-SAXON OF KENT, 1840. III. 18, 10. 

Me. iv. 3— 8. 
Here ye, lo a man sowinge goith out to sowe, and the while he sowith sum seed 
Fel aboute the weye, and briddis of hevene camen and eeten it. other felde doun on 
fetony places where it hadde not myche erthe, and anoon it sprong up ; for it hadde 
not depnesse of erthe, and whanne the sunne roos up it welewide for hete, and it 
driede up, for it hadde no xoote. And other fel doun into thornes : and thornes 
sprungen up and strangliden it, and it gaf not fruyt : And othere felde doun into 
good lond : and it gaf fruyt spryngyng up and wexinge, and oon broughte thritty 
fold, and oon sixty fold, and oon an hundrid fold. 

18. Semi-Saxon, in the dialect of Kent, written a.d. 1340. 
Nou ich wille J?et ye y wyte hou hit if ywent 
pet J?if boc if y write mid engluTof Kent, 
pif boc if ymad uor lewede men | 
Vor uader | and uor moder | and uor oJ?er ken | 
Ham uor to berje uram alle manyere zen | 
pet ine hare inwytte ne bleue no uoul wen. 
Huo afe god if hif name yzed | 
pet J?if boc made God him yeue J?et bread | 
Of anglefof heuene and ]?erto his red | 
And onderuonge hif zaule huanne J?et he if dyad. Amen. 

Ymende. pet J?if boc if uolueld ine J?e eue of J?e holy apofilef Symon an Judaf 
| of ane broJ?er of J?e choyftre of faynt Austin of Canterberi | Ine J?e yeare of oure 
1 hordes beringe. 1340. — Arundel MSS. No. 57, British Museum.* 

19. It is evident from the preceding extracts, that the pure West- 
Saxon did not ever prevail over the whole of Eugland, and that in 
process of time the language approached more or less to the present 
English, according to its relative position to the West-Saxons. In early 
times there was, clearly, considerable dialectic variety in the writings of 
men residing in different provinces. This will be evident by comparing 
the short specimens from the Northumbrian and Rushworth glosses,t and 
the extract from the Saxon Chronicle, J with the quotation from Marshall's 
Anglo-Saxon Gospels,|| and other works in pure Anglo-Saxon. The 
difference observable in the language of the most cultivated classes would 
be still more marked and apparent in the mass of population, or the less 
educated community. These, from their agricultural pursuits, had little 
communication with the inhabitants of other provinces ; and having few 
opportunities and little inducement to leave their own neighbourhood, 
they intermarried among each other, and, from their limited acquaintance 
and circumscribed views, they would naturally be much attached to their 
old manners, customs, and language- The same cause operating from 
age to age would keep united the greater part of the population, or the 
families of the middle stations of life, it may, therefore, be well expected that 
much of the peculiarity of dialect prevalent in Anglo-Saxon times, is pre- 
served even to the present day in the provincial dialects of the same districts. 

* Mr. Thorpe's Pre/, to Cadmon, p. xii. 

f § 11 and 12. J § 13. || §9. 


In these local dialects, then, remnants of the Anglo-Saxon tongue may be 
found in its least altered, most uncorrupt, and therefore its purest state. 
Having a strong and expressive language of their own, they had little 
desire and few opportunities to adopt foreign idioms or pronunciation, 
and thus to corrupt the purity of their ancient language. Our present 
polished phrase and fashionable pronunciation are often new, and, as 
deviating from primitive usage, faulty and corrupt. We are, therefore, 
much indebted to those zealous and patriotic individuals who have referred 
us to the archaisms of our nervous language, by publishing provincial 
glossaries, and giving specimens of their dialects.* 

The present English provincial Dialects are most nearly allied to 

20. So much has been advanced with the view of showing, that what is 
generally termed " vulgar language," deserves some notice, and claims 
our respect from its direct descent from our high-spirited Anglo-Saxon 
ancestors, and from its power of expression. It is not asserted that any 
provincial dialect has issued in a full and uncontaminated stream from the 
pure Anglo-Saxon fountain; but in every province some streamlets flow 
down from the fountain-head, retaining their original purity and flavour, 
though not now relished perhaps by fastidious palates. None can boast 
that they retain the language of their early forefathers unimpaired, but all 
may prove that they possess strong traces of it.f 

* The following is a list of the principal provincial Glossaries: — 1. A Collection of Eng- 
lish Words not generally used, &c. by John Ray, F.R.S. 3rd edit. 8vo. London, 1737, pp. 150, 
price about 4*. — 2. An Exmoor Scolding, and also an Exmoor Courtship, with a Glossary,. 
7th edit. 8vo. Exon. 1771, pp. 60, price 9rf. — 3. The Lancashire Dialect, with a Glossary, 
Poems, &c. by Tim Bobbin, Esq. (Mr. John Collier, Schoolmaster at Milnrow, near Roch- 
dale,) 12mo. Manchester, 1775; London, 1818, pp. 212, price 3*. — 4. A Provincial Glossary, 
with a Collection of Local Proverbs, &c. by Francis Grose, Esq. F.A.S. 2nd edit 12mo. Lon- 
don, 1790, price 5#. — 5. Anecdotes of the English Language, chiefly regarding the Local 
Dialect of London and its environs, which have not corrupted the language of their ances- 
tors, London, 1803, 8vo. 2nd edit 1814. — 6. An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish 
Language, &c. by John Jamieson, D.D. F.R.S.E. &c. 2 vols. 4 to. 1808, Edinburgh ; 2 vols. 
4to. Supplement, 1825. — 7. A list of ancient Words at present used in the mountainous 
Districts of the West Riding of Yorkshire, by Robert WiUan, M.D. F.R.S. and S. A. 1811 ; 
Archeologia, vol. xvii. 1814, pp. 29. — 8. An Attempt at a Glossary of some Words used in 
Cheshire, by Roger Wilbraham, Esq. F.R.S. and 8.A. 1817 ; Archeologia, vol. xix. 2nd 
edit Rodd y London, 12mo. 1826, price 6s. pp. 117 ; The Hallamshire Glossary, 8vo. pp. 192, 
by the Rev. Joseph Hunter.— 9. Suffolk words and Phrases, by Edward Moor, F.R.S. F.A.S. 
&c. 12mo. Woodbridge, 1823. — 10. Hone Momenta Cra venae, or, the Craven Dialect: to 
which is annexed a copious Glossary by a native of Craven, (the Rev. W. Carr.) 12mo. Lon- 
don, 1824, pp. 125, price 4*. This is a very valuable little book, the work of a scholar : 2nd edit 
much enlarged, 2 vols, post 8vo. London, 1828. — 11. A Glossary of North Country Words in 
use, by John Trotter Brockett, F.S.A. London and Newcastle, 8vo. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
1825, pp. 243, price 10«. 6d. — 12. Observations on some of the Dialects in the West of Eng- 
land, particularly Somersetshire, with a Glossary of Words now in use there, and poems and 
other pieces exemplifying the Dialect, by James Jennings, Honorary Secretary of the Metro- 
politan Literary Institution, London, 12mo. London, 1825, pp. 191, price 7s. — 13. The 
Vocabulary of East-Anglia; an attempt to record the vulgar tongue of the twin-sister coun- 
ties, Norfolk and Suffolk, as it existed in the last twenty years of the 18th century, and still 
exists; with proofs of its antiquity from etymology and authority, by the late FLev. Robert 
Forby, Rector of Fincham, Norfolk, 2 vols. 12mo. London, 1830, pnce 11. Is. — 14. A Glossary 
of Archaic and Provincial Words, by the late Rev. Jonathan Boucher, F.S.A. Vicar of Ep- 
som, edited jointly by the Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A. and Joseph Stevenson, Esa. part I. 
1832, part II. 1833, 4to. A far more complete list of Provincial Glossaries will be found in 
the following very carefully compiled and valuable little work. — A Bibliographical list of the 
works that have been published, towards illustrating the Provincial Dialects of England, by 
John Russell Smith, 12mo. London, 1839, pp. 24. 

f Forb/s East-Anglia, vol. i. p. 18. 


21. A few specimens of provincial dialects are given, beginning with 
extracts from Mr. Jennings's neat and valuable little work, being the 
present dialect of that part where the West-Saxon or pure Anglo-Saxon 
was once spoken, and then proceeding to East-Anglia, and terminating 
with the broad dialect of Craven in Yorkshire. In attempting to give the 
exact pronunciation of each district, some words are so disguised as, at 
the first view, to be scarcely recognised, and occasionally two or more 
words are pronounced, and therefore written, as one word. This is an 
ambiguity which could not be entirely avoided; but an ample com- 
pensation is made for it by giving the words, as far as possible, in the 
pronunciation of the several provincial districts. 

Dialect ft of the West of England, particularly Somersetshire. 

22. The following are some of the peculiarities observable in the West 
of England. 

The people of Somersetshire, east of the river Parret, make the third person sin- 
gular o( the indicative mood, present tense, to end in tk or eth ; thus for he loves, 
he reads, they uniformly say, he lovth, he read'th. They use Its for I, er for he, 
and her for she. — They sound & as a in father ; and e as the French e, or as the 
English a in cane, fane, &c. — Th is sounded as d : for thread they say dread or 
dird ; for through dro, thrash drash : $ asz, Zummerzet for Somerset, &c. — They 
invert the order of some consonants : for thrush, hmsh, rush, they say dirsh, birsh, 
hirsh ; for clasp, hasp, asp, they use claps, haps, up.— They annex y to the in- 
finitive mood, and some other parts of many of the common verbs, leant sewy, 
he cant reapy, to sewy, to nursy : they also prefix letters : for lost, gone, bought, 
they say alo$t, agone, abought. — They often make dissyllables of monosyllables : 
for air, both, fair, fire, sure, &c. they say ayer, booath, fayer, shower, ifc. — / be, 
thou beest or bist, thee beest, we be, they or thd be, are commonly heard ; but 
rarely or never he be, but he is. — War is always used for was and were ; as / war, 
thee or thou wart, he war, we war, they or thd war. — We often hear wem, youm, 
theym, for we are, you are, they are. — They use thic for that ; as thic house, thic 
man, for that house, that man. — The diphthong oi is often pronounced wi : for spoil, 
boil, point, soil, we have spwile, bwile, pwint, swile, ifc. — In and, d is often 
omitted, as you an I. — In the present participle and other words in ing, g is omitted ; 
for loving, hearing, singing, lightning, they say lovin, hearin or hirin, zingin, 

As specimens of the Somerset dialect, a dedication in varse, and a short 
dialogue in prose, will be sufficient. 


Tha fruit o' longvtil labour, years, 

In theaze veo leaves at last appears. 

Ta you, tha Dwellers o* tha West, 

1 m pleas 'd that tha. shood be addrrsst : 

Vor thaw I now in Lunnun dwell, 

1 mine ye still — I love ye well ; 

An niver, niver sholl vorget 

I vust driw'd breath in Zummerzet ; 

Amangst ye liv'd, an left ye zorry, 

As you'll knaw when you hire my stony. 

Theaze little book then take o* me ; 

Tis 411 I hi jist now ta gee. 



A Dialogue. 

Farmer Bennet. Jan ! why dwon't ye right my shoes ? 

Jan hide. Bin, maester 'tis zaw cawld, I can't work \*i* tha tackerat all ; I've 
a brawk it ten times I'm shower, ta da — da vreaze za hord. Whv, Hester hanged 
out a kittle-smock ta r'rowy, an in dree minits a war a vratir as stiff as a packer ; 
an I can't avoord ta keep a good vier — I wish 1 cood — I'd zoon right your shoes 
an withers too — I'd zoon yarn zum money, I warnt ye. Can't ye vine znm work 
vor me, maester, theaze hord times — I'll do any theng ta sar a penny. I can drash 
— I can cleave brans — I can make spars — I can thatchy — I can shear ditch, an I 
can pripy too, bit da vreaze za hord. I can wiinmy — I can messy or milky nif 
ther be need o't. I ood'n mine dreavin plough or any theng. 

Farmer Bennet. I've a got nothin vor ye ta do, Jan ; bit Mister Boord banehond 
ta 1 jist now that tha wargwain ta wimmy, an that tha wanted zumboriy ta help em. 

Jan Lide. Aw, I'm glad o't. Ill hirn anver an zee where I can't help 'em ; 
bit I han't a bin athin tha drash el o' Maester Boord'sdoor vor a longfnl time, bin I 
thawt that missis did n use Hester well ; but 1 dwon't bear malice, an zaw I'll goo. 

Farmer Bennet. What did Missis Boord za or do ta Hester, than ? 

Jan Lide. Why, Hester, a-ma-be, war znmmet ta blame too ; vor she war one 
o'm, d'ye zee, that rawd Skimmerton — thic ma-game that frtinted zum o' tha gen- 
nelvawk. Th& zed 'twar time to a done wi' jitc-h lifer, or jitch stuff, or I dwon 
knaw what thd call'd it ; bit tha war a frunted wi* Hester about it ; ait I zed nil' tha 
war a frunted wi* Hester, tha mid be a frunted wi' L This zet missis's back up, an 
Hester han't a bin a choorin there zunz. Bit 'tis niver-the-near ta bear malice ; 
and z;iw 111 goo auver an zee which wi tha wine da blaw. 

The Exmoor Dialect. 
23. Exmoor is in the north of Somersetshire and Devonshire; it h so 
called, being the forest or moor in which the river Exe rises. 


Andrew. Well, cozen Magery, cham glad you're come agen. 

Margery. Wull \e eat a croust o* brid and chezee, cozen Andra ? 

Andrew. No, es thankee, cozen Magery ; vor es eat a crub as es come alon*: ; 
bezides es went to dinner jest avore. — Well, bet, cozen Magery, whot onser debt 
gi* ma to tha quesson es put vore now-reert. 

Margery. What quesson was et ? 

Andrew. Why, zure, ya bant zo vorgetvul. Why, tha quesson es put a little 

Margery. Es dont know what quesson ye meean ; es begit what quesson twos. 

Andrew. Why, to tell tha vlat and plane ajren, twos thes : Witt ha' ma, ay or no ? 

Margery. Whot ! marry to Earteen ? — Es gee tha zame onser es geed avore, 
es wudent marry the best man in oil Ingland. Es cud amorst zwear chud ne'er 
marry at oil. And morn and zo, cozen Andra, cham a told ya keep company wey 
Tamzen Hosegood. And nif ya keep hare company, esll ha no more to zey to tha. 

Andrew. Ay, theses Jo Hosegood s flim-flam. — Oh ! tha very vengance out o'en. 

Margery. No, no; tes none of Jo Hosegood s flim-flam. 

Andrew. Well, well, cozen Magery, be't how twull, whot caree I ? — And zo, 
good-buy, good-buy t' e, cozen Magery. — Nif voaken be jealous avore they be 
married, zo they mey arter. Zo good-buy, cozen Magery. Chell net trouble ye 
agen vor woue while, chell warndy. 


Margery. [ Calling after him,'] Bet hearky, hearky a bit, cozen Andra ! Es 
wudent ha ye go away angry nether; zure and zure you wont deny to see me drenk ? 
Why ya hant a tasted oar cyder yet. [Andrew returns.'] Come, cozen Andra, 
here's t'ye. 

Andrew. Na, vor that matter, es owe no ill-will to enny kesson, net I. — Bet es 
wont drenk, nether, except ya vurst kiss and vriends. 

The Dialect ofEast-Anglia, or Norfolk and Suffolk. 

24. " The most general and pervading characteristic of East-Anglian 
pronunciation,'* says Mr. Forby, " is a narrowness and tenuity, precisely 
the reverse of the round, sonorous, * mouth-filling* tones of the north of 
England. The broad and open sounds of vowels, the rich and full tones 
of diphthongs, are generally thus reduced. Generally — not universally. 
Some few words become broader, but they become also harsher and 
coarser. This narrowness of utterance is, in some parts, rendered still 
more offensive by being delivered in a sort of shrill whining recitative. 
This prevails chiefly in Suffolk, so as to be called in Norfolk the ' Suffolk 
whine.' The voice of the speaker (or singer) is perpetually running up 
and down through half or a whole octave of sharp notes, with now and 
then a most querulous cadence.* 

The following are a few of the common contractions and changes : Duffus for 
dove or pigeon-house ; wuddus wood-house ; shant shall not ; cant cannot ; ant, 
wont will not ; dtnt did not ; shunt should not ; wunt would not ; mant may not ; 
warnt were not ; eent is not ; aint is not; heent has not ; hant had not. — Tut is 
used for to it ; dut do it ; wut with it ; het have it ; lebbin it has been. — We hear 
cup for come up ; gup go up ; gout go out ; gin go in ; giz give us. — The follow- 
ing are very peculiar : k f ye here, or Kere : k'ye there ; k'ye hinder, or kinder ; 
k'ye thinder, for look ye here, there, and yonder. — Words are often jumbled 
together, as in this sentence : AT aunt bod me ginto lhar chard, and call m uncle 
into house. 

Derbyshire Dialect. 

25. This dialect is remarkable for its broad pronunciation. In me the 
e is pronounced long and broad, as mee. The I is often omitted after a or o % 
as aw for all, caw call, bowd bold, coud cold. — Words in ing generally 
omit the g, but sometimes it is changed into k; as think for thing, 
lomn for loving. They use con for can ; cornier for cannot ; shanner for 
shall not; wool, wooner for will, and will not; yo for you, &c. 

A Dialogue between Farmer Bennet and Tummus Lide. 

Farmer Bennet. Tummus, whoi dunner yo mend meh shoon ? 

Tummus Lide. Becoz, mester 'tis zo cood, oi Conner work wee the tachin at 
aw ; oiv' brockn it ten toimes oim shur to de — it freezes zo hard. Whoi, Hester 
hung out a smock-frock to droi, an in three minits it wor frozzen as stiff as a proker, 
an oi conner afford to keep a good fire — Oi wish oi cud — Oid soon mend yore 
shoon, an uthers tow. — Oid soon yarn sum munney, oi warrant ye. Conner yo 
find sum work for m\ mester, these hard toimes ? — Oil doo onny think to addle a 

• Vocabulary of East-Anglia, Introduction, p. 82. 


penny. Oi con thresh — Oi con split wood — Oi con mak spars — Oi con thack. Oi 
con skower a dike, an oi con trench tow, bur it freezes zo hard. Oi con winner — 
Oi con father, or milk, if there he need on't. Oi woodner moind drivin plow, or 
onny think. 

Farmer B. Oi banner got nothin for ye to doo, Tummus ; bur Mester Boord 
towd mee jist now that they wor gooin to winner, an that they shud want sumbody 
to help 'em, 

Tummus L. 0, oim glad on't. Oil run oor an zee whether oi con help 'em ; 
bur oi hanner bin weein the threshold ov Mester Boord s doer for a nation toime, 
becoz oi thoot misses didner use Hester well, bur oi dunner bear malice, an zooil goo. 

Farmer B, What did Misses Boord za or doo to Hester then ? 

Tummus L. Woi, Hester may -be wor summet to bleme too ; for her wor won on 
em, de ye zee, that jawd Skimmerton, — the mak-gam that frunted zum o* the gente- 
fook. They said 'twor toime to dun wee sich litter, or sich stuff, or oi dunner know 
what they cawd it ; bur they wor frunted wee Hester bout it ; an oi said, if they wor 
frunted wee Hester, they mid bee frunted wee mee. This set missis's back up, an 
Hester hanner bin a charrin there sin. But 'tis no use to bear malice ; an zo oil 
goo oor, and zee which we the winde blows. 

Cheshire Dialect. 

26. One peculiarity in the province is to change, or soften, the pro- 
nunciation of many words in the middle of which the letter I is preceded 
by a or o. 

Thus in common discourse we pronounce hawk for balk, cauf for calf, Ad it/ for 
half, wawk for walk, foke for folk, and St, Awbuns for St Albans ; but in the 
Cheshire dialect, as in all the north, the custom of substituting the o for the a, and 
the double ee for the igh, prevails in a still greater degree : thus we call all aw ; 
always awways ; bold bowd ; calf cauf; call caw ; can con ; cold cowd ; colt 
cowt; fold fowd; gold gowd; false fause; foul fow; fooiybo; full /bo; fine Join; 
hold howd ; holt Acne/; hslfhauf; halfpenny hawpenny ; hallAaw; \oug lung; 
man mon; many mony ; manner monner ; might meet; mold mowd; pull poo ; 
soft saft; bright breet ; scald scawd; stool stoo; right reet; twine twoin; flight 
fleet; lane loan or lone; mol mal ; sight see ; sit seet; such sich. 

Tlie Lancashire Dialect. 

27. Observations on the Lancashire dialect. All and al are generally 
sounded broad, as aw or o : thus, awl haw or ho, awlus for all, hall, always. 
— In words ending in ing, k is used for g, as think, wooink, for thing, 
wooing, &c. — At the end of words d and ed are often changed into / ; thus 
behint, wynt, awtert, for behind, wind, awkward. — The d is sometimes 
omitted in and, for which they say an. — It is common, in some places, 
to sound ou and ow as a ; thus, tha, ka or ca, for thou, cow. In other 
places, ou and ow have the sound eaw ; thus, for thou, cow, house, mouse, 
they say theaw, keaw, heawse, meawse. — In some parts o is used for a, 
and a for o ; thus, for part, hand, they say port, hont; and instead of for, 
short, they say far, shart. — The syllable en or 'n is generally used in the 
plural of verbs, &c. as haVn, lov'n, thinVn. — In Lancashire they generally 
speak quick and short, and omit many letters, and often pronounce two or 
three words together ; as, Vll goV or Vll gut for I'll go to ; runV for run 


to ; hoost for she shall ; intle or inCll for if thou will ; / wou'ditkTn for 
1 wish you would. 

Tummus and Meary. 

Turn was. Odds me ! Meary, wliooa the dickons wou'd o thowt o' leeting o thee 
here so soyne this morning ? Where bus to bin P Theaw'rt aw on a swat, I think; 
for theaw looks primely. 

Meary. Beleeuiy, Tummus. I welly lost my wynt ; for I've had sitch o' trail nee 
this morning as eh ueer hud e' nieh live : for I went to Jones o'Harry's o'lung 
Jones, ior't borrow their (bible, to slur ih' furmetrv weh, an his wife had lent it to 
Bet o' mv gronny's; so I skeawrt eend-wey, an* when eh coom there, hoo'd lent it 
Kesler o* Dick's, an the dule steawud 'im for a brindl't cur, he'd mede it int' sboon 
pegs ! Neaw wou'd naw sitch o uioon -shine trannce potter any body's plucks ? 

Tummus. Mark whot e tell the, Meary; for 1 think lunger ot fok liv'n an' th' 
moor mischoauces they ban. 

Meary. Not awl us. — But whot meys o't* sowgh, on seem so dane-kest ? For 
I con tell o' I'd fene see o' whick an hearty. 

Tummus. Whick an hearty too ! oddzo, but I con tell thee whot, its moor in 
burghi ot I'm oat ber whick or hearty, for 'twur seigu peawud t'a tuppunny jannock, 
I'd bin os deeod os o dur nele be this awer; lor th' last oandurth boh one me 
nirtister had lik't o kilk meh: on just neaw, os sbure os thee aud me ar stunning 
here, I'm uctilly running meh couutry. 

The Dialect of Craven. 

28. The Deanery of Craven is in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 
A short specimen will be sufficient. 

Dialogue between Farmer Giles and his neighbour Bridget. 

Giles. Good mornin to thee, Bridget, how isto ? 

Bridget. Deftly as out, and as cobby as a lop, thanksto. 

Giles. Whu, marry, thou looks i guy good fettle. 

Bridget. What thiukslo oV weather? Awr house is vaia unrid and grimy, 
t 'chim la smudges an reeks seea, an inackst' reckon, at used to shimmer and glissen, 
nowght bud soote an muck. 

Giles. It's now a vara lithe day, bud there war a girt roak, an a rag o't' fells at 
dell eel, an it looked feu r ful heavisome. 

Bridget. I oft tbink a donky, mislin, deggv mornin is a sign o't' pride o't' 
weather, for it oft worsols up, an is inaar to be liked ner t' eleuieul full o' thuuner 
packs er a breet, scaumy sky. 

Giles. Whu, when't bent's snod, hask, cranchin an slaap, it's a Strang sign of a 

Bridget. I've oft obsarved there hes been a downfaw soon efter ; bud for sure, 
I cannot gaum mich be ouer chirala at prisent, it's seea smoored up wi mull an 
brash. Yusterday about noon, t' summer-goose flackered at nay a lile rale, an t' 
element, at edge o' dark, wor feaful full of filly tails an hen scrattins. — Thou knaws 
that's a sartain sign ov a change, sometimes I've knaan it sile and teem efier. 

An Alphabetical Glossary of the peculiar Words used in the preceding 
specimens of Provincial Dialects* 

29. A-ma-be as may be, perhaps : s. Arter after: e. Auver over: s. 
Aw all: d. Awlus always: L — Baiiehoud to intimate: s. Becoz 


because: d. Begit to forget : e. Brans brands, fire-wood : s. Brasb 
rash, impetuous : c. Bur but : d. — Cawd called : d. Cham J am : e. 
Charrin jobbing : d. Chel / shall : e. Chorrin jobbing : s. Cobby 
lively : c. Conner can not : d. Cood cold : d. Cranchin scranching, 
grinding, crackling : c. Crub a crumb : e. — Deggy foggy : c. De 
day: d. Deftly decently, well: c. Dickons, Deuce the devil: d. 
Donky wet, dark, gloomy : c. Drash to thrash : s. Dunner do not : d. 
Dwon't dorCt, do not : *.- — Es> ise /, is : e. — Fettle condition : c. Fok 
folk: I. Fother to fodder: d. — Gaum to know, distinguish: c. Gee 
to give : e. Girt great, friendly : c. Gripy to cut in gripes, to cut 
a trench : s. — Ha have : s. Han have : I. . Hanner has or have not : d. 
Hask dry, parched : c. Him to run : s. Hoo'd her had, she had : I. — 
Jannock oat cake, bread made of oatmeal : I. Jawd scolded : d. Jitch 
such : s. — Kesson Christian : e. Kittle-smock a smock-frock : s. — Lile 
little: c. Lithe blithe, mild: c. Lop a flea: c. — Marry truly: c. 
Mess, messy to serve cattle : s. Mine to mind, regard: s. Mislin misty, 
small rain : c. Mul dust or refuse of turf or peat : c. — Nation great, 
very : d. Never-the-near useless : s. Now-reert now right, just now : e. 
— o* of: s. Oandurth afternoon : I. Odds me bless me: I. Ood'n would 
not : s. — Pash a fall of rain : c. PriAefineness : c. Proker a poker : d. 
— Rag mist : c. Rather soon, early : e. Reckon, reek on what is smoked 
on, an iron bar over the fire to support a boiling pot : c. Reek to 
smoke : c. Roak a reek, smoke : c. — Sar to earn : s. Seign seven : I. 
Shimmer to shine : c. Shoon shoes: d. Sile to pour with rain : c. Sin 
since : d. Skeawr to make haste : I. Slaap slippery : c. Smoored 
smothered : c. Snod smooth : c. Sowgh to sigh : I. Spars pointed 
sticks, doubted and twisted in the middle to fasten thatch upon a roof: s. 
Summet somewhat : d. — Tacker : s. tachin : d. a waxed thread. Teem 
to pour out : c. Tha they : s. Thack to thatch : d. Thaw though : s. 
Theaw thou : I. Theaze these, this : s. Thibble a thin piece of wood 
to stir meat in a pot : I. Think thing : d. Towd told : d. Traunce 
a troublesome journey: I. Tvr&titwas: s. Twull as it will : e.— Vine 
to find : s. — Warnt to warrant, assure : s. Whick quick, alive : L 
Wimmy to winnow : s. Wine wind : s. Withers others : s. Wood- 
ner would not : d. Worsel to wrestle : c. Wynt wind : I. — Ya you : e. 
Yarn to earn : s. Yo you : d. Yore your : d. — Zaw so : s. Zo so : d. 
Zunz since : s. 

Contractions, c. Craven, d. Derbyshire, e. Exmoor. I. Lancashire, 
s. Somerset. 

30. Many expressive Anglo-Saxon words, which are no longer in use 
among the refined, have been retained in the provincial dialects. These 
then ought not to be neglected. The facility and simplicity of combining 
several short indigenous words to express any complex idea, practised by 
the Anglo-Saxons and other Gothic nations, is now too seldom used. 
Instead of adopting technical terms from other languages, or forming 
them from the Greek or Latin, as is the present English custom, our 

* F 


Anglo-Saxon forefathers formed words equally expressive by composing 
them from their own radical terms. For our literature they used boc- 
craeft book-craft, from boc a book, craeft art, science ; for arithmetic 
rim craft, from rim a number, craeft art ; for astronomy tungelcraeft, from 
tungel a star, &c. If, however, we have lost in simplicity, we have gained 
in copiousnes and euphony. In collecting from other languages, the 
English have appropriated what was best adapted to their purpose, and 
thus greatly enriched their language. Like bees they have diligently 
gathered honey from every flower.* They have now a language which, 
for copiousness, power, and extensive use, can scarcely be surpassed. It 
is not only used in England, Scotland, and Ireland, but in the whole 
of North America and Australia : it prevails in the West Indies, and is 
more or less spoken in our vast possessions in the east. Indeed, wherever 
civilization, science, and literature prevail, there the English language is 
understood and spoken. 

• Camden observes : " Whereas oar tongue is mixed, it is no disgrace. The Italian is 
pleasant, but without sinewes, as a still fleeting water. The French delicate, but even nice 
as a woman, scarce daring to open her lippes, for fear of marring her countenance. The 
Spanish majesticall, but fulsome, running too much on the o, and terrible like the Divell in 
a play. The Dutch manlike, but withall very harsh, as one ready at every word to picke 
a quarrell. Now we, in borrowing from them, give the strength of consonants to the Italian; 
the full sound of words to the French ; the variety of terminations to the Spanish ; and the 
mollifying of more vowels to the Dutch ; and so, luce bees, we gather the honey of their good 
properties, and leave the dregs to themselves. And thus, when substantialnesse combineth 
with dclightfulnesse, fuUnesse with finesse, seemlinesse with portlinesse, and currentnesse 
with staydnesse, how can the language which consisteth of all these, sound other than full 
of all sweetnesse ?" — Camden 1 $ Remain*, p. 38, edit, of 1623. 

In the following comparison of the Anglo-Saxon with the ancient and 
modern Friesic, though there may be, in some minor points, a little 
diversity of opinion between the author and his friend the Rev. J. H. 
Halbertsma, yet it would be unjust to make alterations. Mr. Halbertsma 
has, therefore, been always permitted to speak for himself, and to give his 
reasons in his own way. Where opinions vary, the author has generally 
referred to both statements, leaving it to the reader to form his own 
conclusions from the evidence adduced. Considering this the most 
equitable mode of treatment, he has adopted it, not only in regard to the 
valuable Essay of Mr. Halbertsma, but in reference to the works of those 
from whom he may differ far more widely. He is too conscious of his own 
liability to err, to be over confident in his own views. He has given his 
reasons or authorities, and all that he can confidently assert is, that it has 
been his constant and earnest wish and endeavour to avoid the natural 
bias towards the idol self, or that of any party, and to discover and follow 
truth, whether it favour his own previous opinions, or those of others. 
Perhaps he may have failed even here. If he have, he will, as soon as 
it is pointed out, gladly make every acknowledgement and reparation in 
his power. 


Ancient and Modern Frtericf compared with Anglo-Saxon. 

1. Anglo-Saxon being one of those languages called dead, a knowledge 
of its pronunciation cannot be obtained from the people themselves. Of 
course, all information in these matters depends upon the written letters, 
and upon determining the sound of those letters. 

2. This, however, is a very difficult task. There is no connexion at 
all between visible marks and audible sounds : the letters serve more to 
indicate the genus, than the species of the sounds, and use alone can 
teach us the shades f nuances J of pronunciation. 

* u In comparing kindred languages with each other, the scholar will generally start from 
the point where he was born. Rask usually refers the A.-S. to the Scandinavian tongues, 
especially to the Icelandic Germans have chiefly recourse to the Theotisc, and what is 
called by them Saxon. Others will bring it back to the dialects of their country ; all with the 
same aim of elucidating the grammar, or discovering the sounds in A.-S. The reason of this 
is evidently the intimate acquaintance each of them has with the old and modern dialects of 
his own country, and most likely the scholar would compare the A.-S. with another class of 
dialects, if all the tongues of the Germanic branch were as thoroughly known to him as those 
of his native country. Being a native Friesian, and comparing the A.-S. chiefly with the 
Friesic, I could scarcely escape the suspicion of having yielded to the same influence as 
others, if I did not explain my reasons. This, I hope, will be a sufficient excuse for my 
entering into some details about the primitive relationship between the Anglo-Saxons and the 

" As every scholar has his own point de vue in matters of language, I beg leave to have mine. 
If my principles were unknown to my readers, my rules depending on these principles, would, 
as void of foundation, be unintelligible. It is for this reason that I have here inserted some 
of my opinions about the pedigree and comparison of languages, appearing properly to 
belong more to general grammar than to my present subject 

" As history often fails in showing the full truth of my opinion about the relationship between 
the Angles and the Friesians, I had recourse to the languages. Hence a view of the 
remnants of the Friesic both dead and still flourishing is here presented, and compared with 
the English and A.-S. It pleases not the muse of history to speak but late, and then in 
a very confused manner. Yes, she often deceives, and before she is come to maturity, she 
seldom distinctly tells the truth. Language never deceives, but speaks more distinctly,, 
though removed to a far higher antiquity. 

" It is at the request of my dear friend Bosworth that I write in English, a language in 
which I have not been favoured with any instruction. I possess only some dim feeling of 
analogy between its manner of speaking and my native tongue. I, therefore, grant to my 
English readers the fiill freedom of smiling at my thousand and one Friesianisms, while 
I shall have reached my aim if I am only understood. 

"J. H. Halbertsma." 
De venter, August lOf/t, 1834. 

f Mr. Halbertsma, to promote Friesian literature, amongst other works, has published 
Hulde aan Gysbert Japiks,2 vols. 8vo. Bolsward, 1824 1827. — De Lapekoer fen Gabe Scroar, 
12mo. Dimter, 1834.— Friesche Spelling, 18mo. 1835. — The following are by other hands : 
Dr. Epkema published Gysbert Japicx Friesche Rijinlerye, 4to. Ljeauwert, 1821.— Woor- 
denboek op de gedichten van Japicx, 4to. id. 1824. — Mr. Postumus translated into Friesic 
two of Shakespeare's plays, entitled, De Keapman fen Venetien in Julius Cesar, 8vo. Grintz, 
1829. — Jonkh. Mr. Montanus Hcttema has shown his patriotism by giving to the public the 
following valuable works:— Emsiger Landrecht Beknopte handleiding om de oude Friesche 
taal, 8vo. Leeuwarden, 1829.— Proeve van een Friesch en Nederlandsch Woordenboek, 8vo. 
Leeuwarden, 1832. — Friesche Spraakleer van R. Rask, 8vo. id. 1832.— Jurisprudentia Frisica, 
of Friesche Regtkennis, een handschrift uit de vijftiende eeuw, 8vo. id. 1834-35, 2 parts, 
&c. &c. Many more Friesians ought to be named as great promoters of their literature. — 
Professors Wassenburg, Hoekstra, Mr. Hoeufft, Wielinga Hnber, Scheltema, Beuker 
Andreae, van Halmael, and others. See paragraphs 86—102, for an account of ancient 
Friesic works. 


3. The simple sounds we assign to letters, bears no proportion to the 
diphthongal nature of almost every sound in A.-S. 

The inhabitants of Hindelopen still retain some A.-S. sounds undefiled. When 
I first heard some old people speak in this little town, I was quite astonished how 
sounds so compounded and diphthongal as those could be pronounced with so much 
ease and fluency. What is more simple in writing than the words l£od, A.-S. leod 
people ; neugen, A.-S. nigen nine? When you hear these words at Hindelopen, 
you will find that the pronunciation baffles every effort of the grammarian to invent 
signs giving an adequate idea of its nature. In the eu you hear first the y, then the 
eu blended with the French ou, ending in ou Such words as l&od people, and 
neugenend-neugentig nine-and-ninety, are, for this reason, Hindelopean shibbo- 
leths above all imitation of their own countrymen, the other Friesians. 

4. Besides this, the sounds of letters are in restless fluctuation. If wc 
could trace the changes in the sound of letters, our success would exceed 
our hopes ; but even this discovery could not give an adequate idea of the 
sound of letters in use at any period, for sounds are altered when the 
letters remain still unchanged. The English and French languages give 
full proof of this truth. 

When they enter into the class of dead languages, there will still be greater 
difficulties in ascertaining the pronunciation of chateau, and eschew. When, after 
long investigation, you discover that chateau ought to be pronounced ka-te-au, as 
the Picardians pronounce it at this very day, you find that by the tyranny of cus- 
tom it is enervated to sya-to ; when also you discover that the English first pro* 
nounced eschew, and afterwards i*-tshow (ou French), how few readers will be- 
lieve your assertions, seeing that these words remain expressed by the same letters. 

5. The sounds of a language, like other things, are, by time, subject 
to mutations, and these changes are homogeneous or heterogeneous, 
according as the cause of change is internal or external. In this way, 
diphthongs become vowels, and vowels again diphthongs. An elaborate 
treatise would point out the changes in a language, if an uninterrupted 
succession of MSS. of different ages could be procured. 

6. Independently of these succeeding general changes of the whole 
language, there are diversities existing at the same time, called dialects. 
The A.-S. is subject to these diversities in the highest degree, and with 
a free people it could not be otherwise. When a nation easily submits to 
an absolute sway, individuals have little attachment to what is their own 
in character and opinions, and easily suffer themselves to be modelled in 
one general mould of the court or priesthood. On the other hand, when 
a nation, as the Angles and Friesians, is jealous of its liberty, and will 
only submit to the law enacted for the public good, while every individual 
regulates his private affairs for himself, the slightest peculiarity of cha- 
racter, unrestrained by the assumed power of any mortal, developes itself 
freely in the proper expressions, and every individuality is preserved. 
This I believe is the reason why in the province of Friesia are more 
peculiarities than in the other six provinces of the present kingdom of the 
Netherlands, and more in England alone than in the whole of Europe. 


Applying this principle in language, the very mirror of the soul, we find 
the same variety ; so that among a people so fond of liberty as the Angles 
and Friesians, not only every district, but every village, nay, every hamlet, 
must have a dialect of its own. The diversity of dialects since the French 
Revolution of 1795, is much decreasing by the centralisation of power 
taking daily more effect in the Netherlands: the former republic, by 
leaving to every village the management of its domestic affairs, preserved 
every dialect unimpaired. Nevertheless, at this very time, those living on 
the coast of Eastmahorn, in Friesia, do not understand the people of 
Schiermonikoog, a little island with one village of the same name, almost 
in sight of the coast. The Hindelapians speak a dialect unintelligible to 
those living at the distance of four miles from them. Nay, the Friesians 
have still dialects within a dialect. 

In the village where I was born, we said indiscriminately, after, efter, and aefter, 
A.-S. after ; tar, and taer, A.-S. tare ; par, and paer, A.-S. pera ; tarre, and taere 
consumer e, A.-S. teran ; kar, and kaer, A.-S. eyre ; hi lei, and hi lai, A.-S. laeg ; 
perfect tense of ik lizz', hi leit, A.-S. liege, lift; smarre, and sraaere, A.-S. smerian ; 
warre and waere, warge and waerge, A.-S. weran, werian tueri, resislere. On this 
matter I can produce a very striking example in the centre of Friesian nationality. 
It is now, I believe, sixteen years since I spoke to an old woman at Molquerum, 
a village now almost lying in ruins, but still divided into seven little islands, called 
Pollen, joined to each other by (breggen A.-S. bricgas) little bridges. Now the 
good woman told me in her homely style, that when she was a child, every island 
had its peculiar way of pronouncing, and that when an inhabitant of any of the 
villages eutered her mother's house, she could easily ascertain to which Pol the 
person belonged, merely by some peculiarity of speech. Dependence may be 
placed on this fact, as I have ascertained its truth by strict inquiry. I have no 
doubt the same peculiarity was observable in almost every village of the Anglo- 
Saxons. Every Englishman who notices the diversity of dialects to be found in 
Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, or Lancashire, and by these 
judges of the rest, and considers what they have formerly been, will perhaps enter, 
in some measure, into my views. 

7. This fact fully accounts for the discrepancies in the forms of words, 
occuning nearly in every page of a genuine A.-S. author. Not writing 
by established, often arbitrary rules of grammar, he wrote just as he 
spoke ; his writing was, therefore, the true representation of his dialect. 

8. There still exists another cause, which, though not less productive 
of variety in writing, ought to be carefully distinguished from variety of 
dialect. The diphthongal nature of the whole system of A.-S. vowels made 
it difficult for every writer to know by what letters to indicate the proper 
sounds of his words. Unable to satisfy himself, he often interchanged 
kindred vowels in the same words, at one time putting a or £o> and after- 
wards ob and y. Diversities arising from this cause are of the most 
frequent occurrence even in the oldest Anglo-Saxon MSS. 

9. This diversity in the spelling of a word is of the greatest importance 
to one who would ascertain the true pronunciation of the Anglo-Saxon. 
While the writer is groping about him for proper letters, we guess the 

%% FKI£*IC — LAWS OF SPEECH. IT. 10—13. 

soond be wished to express by assuming some middle sound b e t ween the 
letters be employs. This advantage would bare been totally lost to as if 
tbe orthography of the Anglo-Saxon could boast of tbe same uniformity 
as that of tbe English recorded in Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary. 

10. In this respect we owe a thousand thanks to Lge, who gives us 
tbe Anglo-Saxon words as be found them, and never alters the orthography 
to suit his own views. 

At the bead of bin articles be occasionally attributes to tbe word a rowel which 
it has noL For instance, be pots tbe a in staf and lat, which these words have 
only wben a second syllable is added, as in late, stalk : when monosyllables, they 
are written staef a *taff, 1st late. Whether be considered the rowel he inserts as 
the primitive one, or did not know the laws of permutation in Anglo-Saxon rowels, 
matters not, as it is impossible to be misled by them, standing alone and without 
any authority. He moreover rectifies his faults by his citations, in which neither 
staf nor lat occurs. Such trifling mistakes should not obscure his immense merits 
in faithfully giving us the vowels of the Anglo-Saxon authors, with all their odd 
and lawless exertions to express the sounds they heard. 

11. I fear that those who credit what 1 hare stated about the diversity 
of Anglo-Saxon and Friesian dialects, will consider these infinite variations 
as tbe curse of Babel. They will, however, permit me to say, that human 
speech in general has its mechanical rules fixed by the frame of the organs 
of speech, to which all tongues submit This frame admits modifications 
to which every nation yields. These modifications admit of farther modi- 
fications, to which not only districts, but even villages are liable. There- 
fore, every language is of necessity what it is, and it is not in the power of 
fancy or choice to obey or disobey these laws. From this cause proceeds 
much of the diversity in language. 

12. From the sounds which can be pronounced, every nation selects 
those which are best adapted to the frame of his organs, and the feelings 
he endeavours to express. 

Now this choice, in which we are free, opens an immense field for diversities in 
tongues ; but, whatever the choice may be, the first grasp decides all the rest : every 
consonant brings its corresponding consonant, and the vowel its corresponding vowel. 
In a word, every language is a compact, well-framed whole, in which all the parts 
sympathize with each other. Insult one of its essential properties, and the disgrace 
will be felt through the whole system. Remove one series from its original place, 
and all the others will follow the motion. What is true of any language may be 
asserted of any of its branches or dialects. Reason and never-failing experience 
vindicate the justice of these conclusions. The dialect corresponds to itself in 
its dialects, and the principle on which the form of a word is framed, is always 
followed in similar cases. If this analogy be unobserved, it is not the fault of the 
dialect, but of the dim sight of the observer. The majority of grammarians deem 
dialects lawless deviations in the speech of the dull mob, to which they attach all 
that is coarse, vulgar, confused, and ridiculous. Indeed, the chaos of tongues then 
begins, when grammarians, ignorant of tbe operations of the mind, and its exer- 
tions to express its thoughts, obtrude their arbitrary rules,* and, by heterogeneous 

• This assertion may be verified by many examples in English. On this point, the 467th 
paragraph of the Principles prefixed to Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary, is very striking. 


mixtures, ever fertile in producing others, set the well-framed system of sounds in 
inextricable confusion. Regardless of the interior structure, wholly unknown to 
eyes gliding over the surface of things, they use language as the rich hut ignoraut 
man his library, who, deeming it to be a matter of chief importance that his books 
should be of the same size, ordered them all to be cut to 8vo. and 12mo. The 
public is not generally expert in forming a judgment on these matters : weighing 
no argument, it regards only the tone of the proposer, and places its confidence in 
him who is the boldest in his assertions, though he is generally the most ignorant — 
for the greatest ignorance is ever accompanied with the greatest assurance. How- 
ever men may suffer themselves to be imposed upon, nature still defends her rights. 
As our bodies have hidden resources and expedients, to remove the obstacles which 
the very art of the physician often puts in its way, so language, ruled by an in- 
domitable inward principle, triumphs in some degree over the folly of grammarians. 
Look at the English, polluted by Danish and Norman conquests, distorted in its 
genuine and noble features by old and recent endeavours to mould it after the 
French fashion, invaded by a hostile entrance of Greek and Latin words, threatening 
by increasing hosts to overwhelm the indigenous terms ; in these long contests 
against the combined might of so many forcible enemies, the language, it is true, has 
lost some of its power of inversion in the structure of sentences, the means of de- 
noting the differences of gender, and the nice distinctions by inflexion and termina- 
tion — almost every word is attacked by the spasm of the accent and the drawing of 
consonants to wrong positions ; yet the old English principle is not overpowered. 
Trampled down by the ignoble feet of strangers, its spring still retains force enough 
to restore itself; it lives and plays through all the veins of the language, it impreg- 
nates the innumerable strangers entering its dominions with its temper, and stains 
them with its colour, not unlike the Greek, which in taking *up oriental words 
stripped them of their foreign costume, and bid them appear as native Greeks. 

13. But to return. — In human language, as in the whole creation, the 
great law of beauty and happiness is this — variety in unity. Though there 
are great difficulties in discovering the true pronunciation of Anglo-Saxon, 
we have still left to us two means of investigation. First, the comparison 
of its vowels and consonants with those of a kindred dialect existing at 
a more remote period ; and secondly, the same comparison with a kindred 
dialect of posterior age, both as it is written and still spoken— for, however 
altered in some of its features, it must still retain genuine traits of its 
original countenance. The Gothic or Moeso-Gothic* will answer for the 
first, and the Friesic the second ; two languages combining the advantage 
that the nations who spoke them bordered on the Anglo-Saxons, the 
Moeso-Goths on the north, and the Friesians on the south, and by 
enclosing the Anglo-Saxons, limit their influence, both as it respects their 
geography and language. 

14. It is evident that all the tongues spoken by the great people which 
the Romans called Germani, considered on a large scale, appear as 
dialects all issuing from one common source. There was a time when all 
these languages were one. If we could mount sufficiently high in the 
scale of time, we should arrive at the period when the progenitors of all 
the tribes were gathered within the compass of a little camp under a few 

* See VII. §. 1, and note 2. 


tent*, and spoke one language, containing the germs of all the diversities 
by which the dialects of their posterity were distinguished. The nearer 
we approach this time and place, the more will all the Germanic tongues 
become similar to each other, and their boundaries vanish by which at 
present they are enclosed. For this reason, the oldest and best poet of 
the Greeks, retaining symptoms of a particular dialect, blends in his poems 
all the dialects of Greece. In regard to antiquity, the Gothic of Ulphilas, 
being written about a.d. 360, has the precedence of any Anglo-Saxon 
MSS. by four or five hundred years. In comparing the Anglo-Saxon 
with the Gothic, we shall have the double advantage of measuring by 
a standard approaching nearest the genuine dimensions, and of approach* 
ing to a nearer contact with those kindred tongues which subsequently 
developed themselves into more striking differences. 

15. The nearer we approach the source, the more pure will be the 
water. If the developement of language were left to its natural course, 
without any disturbing shock or foreign influence, all things would change 
according to the established rules of nature, and every word bear in its 
changes some resemblance to its primitive state. But every age brings 
on some disturbance of the system, and the intermixture of foreign ingre- 
dients, originating in wars, migrations, revolutions, and other causes, 
introduces so many changes, that in some respects the rule is overthrown 
by the exceptions, and the language rendered quite unfit for comparison. 
A sufficient reason can be given for the present state of disorder only by 
ascending to the period of order, and not by a comparison of the dialects 
lying in their present confusion. Now the higher the step on which we 
can observe the language, the less it is disturbed in its original structure, 
and the better adapted for the standard of comparison. It is the high 
age of the Gothic, and its real character, known by what is remaining of 
it, which in these respects stamps its value. Spoken by one unmixed 
tribe of warriors, it appears on the stage fresh and unpolluted, quite 
original and sui generis, with members of due proportion, and dressed in 
its own native costume, without a shred of foreign ornament. 

J 6. The advantages derived from a comparison with a language of this 
sort, may be exemplified by some names of the numbers. 

The English having composed eleven and twelve from en, twe, and lifen, you 
would conclude that they would express unus, duo, by en, twe ; but no, they say 
one, two. The Dutchman says twaalf, veertien, from twa and veer ; but his simple 
numbers are twe, vier. The German has his zwanzig twenty, and zwei two. 
The country Friesian uses olwe, t6alf, tretjen, with manifest indication of Runic 
admixture, from ellefu eleven, tolf twelve, ^rettan thirteen, from the Icelandic tveir 
and )>rir. Their twenty has the sound of tweintich — ought they not to say also to 
two, tr® three, one one, as the Hindelopians do P Rather incongruously they use 
fen, twa, trye : and having fjouwer/cmr, they compose tsjien with vier into fjirtjen 
fourteen. Hence, when the numbers were composed, the English had the Dutch en 
and twe ; the Dutch had the Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, and modern Friesic twa, with 
the Germans ; the country Friesians had the one, two, of the English. Would not 


these tongues, when taken as a basis for analogical research, lead into a thousand 
mistakes P If in English the number eleven were unknown to you, would you not 
say, from analogy, that it was formed from one, on-leven contracted into olven ? It 
is not known in Gothic, but we may be sure that ai in ains one, will not be dis- 
owned in ainlif, as twa is not in twalif, nor twaim duo bus in twain tigum (d. pi.) 
twenty. In the same analogical manner the Anglo-Saxons compose words, f>reo 
three, )>reotyne thirteen, twegen two, originally twen, tweuluf contracted to twelf ; 
an by pushing the accent sen-d-lufan. Does not Kero make, from zuene two, 
zuelifin twelve? In Otfrid, from zuei *tc0,zueinzig ? Finally, does not the old 
Friesian, from twia twice, or twi, Ab. 1, 93 ; thre three, Ab. 177, traj Hindelopian ; 
fiuwer/owr, flower, Ab. 1, 5, 87, form analogically twilif twelve, Ab. 14; thred- 
tine thirteen, Ab. 19, 93; fiuwertine fourteen, Ab. 19, 94 ? 

17. There still exists auother anomaly in the numerals. 

The Greeks and Romans, counting only by tens, composed their numbers from 
ten to twenty with Zuca, decern ten; IvZtica, undecim eleven; ZvmZzkcl, duodecim 
twelve. The German tribes fonn the same numerals in a similar manner, except 
eleven and twelve, which were composed with Ger. lif ; A.-S. laefan, lif, lef, IT, in 
other dialects. But as this anomaly entered our numeral system in a period 
anterior to the history of our tongues, and is common to all the Germanic lan- 
guages, the analogy between the kindred dialects is not disturbed by these irregu- 
larities, but rather advanced. 

18. The cause of this disturbance lies in the old practice of using both 
ten and twelve as fundamental numbers. 

The advance was by ten, thus J?rittig, Country Friesic tritich ; feowertig, Ab. 2, 
&c. but on arriving at sixty the series was finished, aud another begun, denoted bv 
prefixing hund. This second series proceeded to one hundred and twenty, thus: 
hundnigontig ninety ; hundteontig a hundred ; hundenlufontig a hundred and ten ; 
hundtwelftig a hundred and twenty : here the second series concluded. It thus 
appears, that the Anglo-Saxous did not know our hundred = 100, as the chief 
division of numbers; and, though they counted from ten to ten, they, at the same 
time, chose the number twelve as the basis of the chief divisions. As we sav 
5 x 10 = 50, 10 x 10= 100, they multiplied 5 and 10 by 12, and produced 6*0 
and 120. When the Scandinavians adopted a hundred as a chief division [100 
= 10 x 10], they still retained one hundred and twenty ; aud calling both the*; 
numbers hundred, they distinguished them by the epithets Utile or ten hundred, 
lill-hundrad or hundrad tiraed, and great or the twelve number hundred, stor-him- 
drade or hundrad tolfraed. The Danes count to forty by tens, thus, tredive Uiirty, 
fyrretyve forty ; and then commence by twenties, thus, halvtrediesiudstyve, liter- 
all v in A.-S. }>ridda healf siSon twentig* [two twenties], and the third twenty 
half, i. e. fifty. The Icelanders call 2500 half f>ridie Jmsand, [Dut. derdehali- 
duizend,] i. e. two thousand, and the third thousand half; firesindtvve [four- 
timrs twenty] eighty, and so on to a hundred. The Francs, be inn a mixture of 
kindred nations from the middle of Germany, when they entered Gallia, partly 

• The ellipsis of the tiro twenties is supplied in the expression twa inure and J?ridde healf 
two yean and half the third year, literally in Frtt.c. twajier in 't tredde heal, hut custom con 
tracts it to tredde heal jier. Hickes compares this ellipsis with the Scotch expression half 
tm, which is also the Dut. half tien, hut in this he is not accurate. The Country Frioian^ 
not having this ellipsis, prove that it must be supplied in another way. They sav, lieuhwi 
tsjienen half pray of the present hour to ten o'clock. Dr. Dorow has also fallen* into the saim: 
mistake, p. 127, DenkmiUir, I. 2 and 3. 

* ' r: 


adopted the Anglo-Saxon mode of numeration, and partly that of the Danes, and 
they afterwards translated verbally their vernacular names of the numerals by Latin 
words. From twenty to fifty it proceeds in the usual manner, vingt, trente, 
quarante, cinquante, soixants ; but having arrived at seventy, the same place where 
the Anglo-Saxons commenced with hund, hundseofontig, it uses soixantedix, 
quatrevingt, just as the Danes express eighty by firesindstyve four times twenty. 
As it appears that the old Germans had two fundamental numbers, ten and twelve, 
it follows that eleven and twelve are the last two numerals of the twelve series, and 
theirs* two in the ten series ; hence perhaps came the use of the termination lif 
or luf, in eleven and twelve. 

19. Let us still add another example. 

The conjugation of the Anglo-Saxon verb stigan ascender e, and the Gothic 
steigan, is thus inflected : ic stige, steiga ; he stihft, steigith he ascends ; he stah, 
staig he ascended; we stigon, stigum we ascended. Here it appears, that the 
Gothic ex corresponds with the A.-S. i ; ai with a ; i with t. Now I conclude, if 
the evolution of both languages was regulated by the same principle, there must be 
an analogy between the vowels in similar instances. Indeed we do observe the 
same analogy preserved in verbs of the same class. Let us take, for instance, 
gripan, arisan, and spiwan : 

A.-S. gripan to gripe ; gripe, gripft ; gr&p* gripon. 

Moes. greipan to gripe ; greipa, greipith ; graip, gripum. 

A.-S. arisan to arise ; arise, arist ; aras, arison. 

Moes. reisan to arise ; reisa, reisith ; rais, risum. 

A.-S. spiwan to vomit ; spiwe, spiwft ; spaw, spiwun. 

Moes. speiwan to spit ; speiwa, speiwith ; spaiw, spiwum. 

20. These instances are all regular, but as soon as ever the accustomed 
evolution is disturbed in its course, the analogy is gone. 

Thus, the verb scinan to shine, ic seine / shine, he scirrS he shines, we scinon 
we shone, corresponds to skcinan, skeina, skeinith, skinum. The long d, however, 
in scan, Gothic skain, by some error being changed into short a, this short a is 
converted into ea and forms scean shone . It has already been observed, that every 
dialect corresponds in its several parts, and that a certain form in the present tense 
brings on a certain form in the perfect tense. Of course the practice of some gram- 
marians, in fonning the conjugation of a verb out of the present tense of one dialect, 
and the perfect tense of another dialect, is contrary to the first rule of sound analogy. 
If any dialect had scunan or sceonan, the perfect tense scean would not be an ex- 
ception, as it is when appertaining to scinan. 

21. It is a most happy circumstance, that the Gothic, and not the 
Theotisc, had the advantage of being recorded in the oldest monument of 
Germanic literature. Though much of the coincidence of this lauguage 
with all its kindred dialects may be owing to its age, it owes still more in 
this respect to its locality in the genealogy of language. 

22. It is hardly necessary to observe, that there is scarcely a single 
word in the A.-S. which we do not also find in all the kindred German 
dialects. We do not ask whether an A.-S. word can be found in the 
language of the Scandinavians, the Goths, or Theotiscans, but, to which 
of these it has the nearest relationship ? In an etymological point of view, 
the great point is to ascertain the species, and not merely the genus ; to 
discover to which particular dialect a word is most closely allied, and not 
to be satisfied with pointing out to what sort of language it belongs. 


23. There are three chief species, of which the Anglo-Saxon and the 
Friesic take the left side, the Theotisc or Alemannic the right side, and 
the Icelandic, Moeso-Gothic, Westphalian or Saxon, and Netherlandish, 
the middle : that is, so far as the vowels and consonants are concerned. 

The Anglo-Saxon agrees in the consonants with the middle series, represented 
by the Moeso-Gothic, but in some important points it differs from the Moeso-Gothic 
and the Theotisc in its vowels, and has a system of its own. On the other hand, 
the Theotisc agrees with the Gothic in its vowels, having regard to the lapse of lime 
and dialectic variations. In the consonants, the Theotisc is as different from Gothic 
and Anglo-Saxon, as the Anglo-Saxon is in its vowels from the Gothic and Theo- 
tisc, and I venture to say still more original ; for, the consonants have not only 
quitted their old ranks, but those into which they have entered are also disorbed. 
The Gothic, then, being allied to the consonants of the Anglo-Saxon and the 
vowels of the Theotisc, is thus the proper standard of comparison for all the Gothic 
tongues, having been, from its locality, connected with them all. Thus the Gothic 
diups deep is allied by the vowels iu to the Theotisc tiuf, and by the consonants 
d and p to the Anglo-Saxon deop. 

24. The Gothic has some peculiarities, which, whether they arise from 
its place in the pedigree of tongues, or its seniority, exemplify similar 
peculiarities in other languages. 

For instance, the Icelandic is noted for the termination r or ur, which, in kin- 
dred tongues, changes into one of the vowels, and these vowels again into the lean 
sheva e; thus, diupr deep, A.-S. deop, or deope. For the r the Gothic uses s, as 
the Latin arbos, honos, for arbor, honor ; thus Goth, diups deep ; A.-S. waeg, 
geard ; Theotisc wee, karto ; Gothic wigs, gards, are in Icelandic vegr and gardr. 

25. These observations may account for the different opinions of 
philologers in determining the just relations of the Germanic tongues. 
The reducing them all to Gothic origin was an exuberant spring of error. 
The Gothic is not of such antiquity as to boast in being the mother of all 
Germanic tongues with which we became acquainted in a latter period. 
In the age of Ulphilas, it was a dialect of Germanic lineage, having other 
dialects by its side, as the Anglo-Saxon, which in the fourth century 
differed less from the Gothic than in the 9th century. It will be enough 
for my purpose to observe, that all critics do not agree in arranging the 
pedigree of the Gothic. The reason is evident. 

26. The Gothic or Moeso-Gothic is a language of transition or 
passage. If you consider the vowels of a word, you make it of Gothic 
origin : another, only looking at the consonants, will assert it has nothing 
to do with the Gothic. Some, only keeping in view grammatical forms, 
discover similarity of structure in the language of the Heliand ; while 
others, neglecting vowels, consonants, and grammatical forms, will only fix 
their attention on the etymological meaning of the word, and will find 
another filiation. 

It is evident that the A.-S. mot a coin,* as to the vowel, is nearer the Gothic 
* q. Tribute money, nomisma census, vectigal. — J. B. 


inota custom-house* than Get. maut custom-house; but, as to etymological sense, 
maut is nearer to the Gothic mota ; and though the word mota may be older and 
more complete than the A.-S. mot, the signification of coin was anterior to that of 
custom-house. In this case, the Icelandic and Friesic still mount a step higher 
than the Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, or German, e. g. the IceL mota insculpo, typico, 
and mot typus ; Frs, c. moet an impression, gives origin to the idea of a coin, as 
coin does of the house where the tax-money was gathered. — The Theotisc mahal 
concio, curia, agrees with the Moes. mathls forum, as to the vowel and significa- 
tion, but the A.-S. mettel sermo as to the consonant $ : we find also Moes. mathlei 
sermo, which agrees with A.-S. me&el, both in the consonants and the signification. 
— Feawa/*tp, pauci, has the w of Moes. fawai pauci, but the Theotisc fabe few, 
the vowel. If we consider the a in IceL vargr furiosus, it is nearer the Moes. 
wargjan damnare, than the A.-S. wergean to curse, maledicere, but in the signifi- 
cation the A.-S. draws nearer. Let us take an English example : the word abb 
the yarn on a weaver's warp. The w (pronounced nearly as Eng. v) being the 
aspiration of the lips, is often changed into A, the aspiration of the throat, as fahe 
for fawai. The Moes. biwaibjan to surround, encompass, from waips a garland, 
Aertum, A.-S. wefan to weave, Theotisc uueban, Grk. v^cuiv, from vtytiv. The 
Scandinavians cast away both these aspirations in the per/, of eg vef I weave, 
saying vof, vaf, and of, hence of tela in use by the Scandinavians. In abb, then, 
the a is Icelandic, from vaf, and without the w in of texebam ; but the b changes 
into/, or remains a b, as in the Moes. and in the A.-S. web ; Frs. c. wob ; both 
e and o originating from a. 

27. From these few examples, it is evident that a word may have as 
many affinities as the points of view from which it may be observed. 
The Gothic was a tongue of transmigration, and all Germanic languages 
coming in contact with it in some point or other, it was very easily 
imagined to be the mother of the whole race. I may lastly add, on the 
ground of my own experience, that, having regard only to vowels and 
consonants, I cannot arrive at the common source of the Germanic tongues, 
as we trace back human kind to one common father in paradise. History 
begins too late to permit us to trace, with any satisfaction, even the first 
half of the period. Let us, therefore, not attempt what is impracticable ; 
but, keeping in mind the seniority of the class at the head of each column, 
let us range them all in one line, as dialects of the same language. 
Finding, 1st. the Anglo-Saxon older than the English, the Old Friesic 
than the Country Friesic, — 2ndly, the Meeso-Gothic older than the 
Swedish, — Srdly, the Theotisc or Alemannic older than the present 
German ; and considering how much of grammatical forms, in the present 
languages, time may have destroyed, as to the vowels and consonants, the 
languages must be classified in the following order: — 

* Telonium. 

IV. 28. 






by the intermixing 
of Old Danish, Nor- 

Old and Modern, 

[Language of Kero 


of the xxvi Hymns,<\ 

man French, Latin, 

mixed with Ger- 


Greek, &c. is formed 

man, Saxon, &c. 



forms the present 




Austrian, and 

Scottish, kc* 

Danish, $c. 

other dialects. 


Saxon or WestphaHan 

German, a mixture of 

at present divided 

language of the po- 

High -German and 


em HeHand,f Low- 

some Saxon, [Low 



[Reineke de Vos,\\ of 

German] as esta- 

Country Friesic, 

blished by the ver- 


Henry van Alkmar, 
Luheh, 1498.] 

sion of the Bible by 


Martin Luther, and 

North Friesic, 

From the Province 

since adopted as the 

[A small part of the 

of Overyssel, along 
the whole coast of 

general language 
through the whole 

All these dialects are 

the North-Sea to 

of Germany, a.d. 

more or less tainted 

Sleswick, the Baltic, 


by the languages of 


the respective sur- 

Netherlandish [Coren 

rounding people. 

van der stat van 
BruesseU, 1229.§] 
Statutes of the town 
of Brussels. 
Dutch, now daily be- 
coming more denied 
by Gallicisms and 

• See Jamieson's opinion of the origin of the Scottish in Table L ( 19, p. viiL 

t Heliand oder die altsachsisohe Evangelien-Harmonie. Herausgegeben von J. Andreas Schmeller, Monachii, 
sumptibus J. G. Cottse, 1830. The Cottonian MS. of the Heliand is of the 0th century. The MS. of Bamberg 
is a century later. With the Heliand oompare Dmkm&ler, alter spraehe und kunst von Dr. Dorow. I. 2nd and 
3rd part, Berlin, 1824, where are explained some admirable specimens of the dialect spoken between Munster and 
Paderborn in the 10th century. It is a list of the rents of the convent Freckehorst near Warendorf. 

X Niedrr-tachsisch, liaU-deuUh [Low-deutch] in German as opposed to Highdeutck. See the history of these 
dialects in Geschichte der Nieder-tdehsisehen spraehe von J. F. A. Kinderiing, Magdeburg, 1800. 

I See VI. 13—18. 

( First published in a treatise entitled Verhandeling over de Nederdvytstke tad en Letterkunde opzigtefyk de 
xttydetyki provintien der NederJanden door J. F. WUUms, Antwerpen, 1819, torn. i. p. 133. This piece being the 
oldest specimen of Netherlandish now extant, fully proves that the present Dutch is mere Brabantish, and that 
the strongly marked dialectic diversities of these two sisters were formed when the Netherlandish was cultivated 
in the seven United Provinces. The Netherlandish was called the Vlaemsche iael ; the Flemish tongue, la lanaue 
Flamande. as long as the southern part of the Netherlands was the most flourishing, and Flanders the chief 
province. It was called Hollandish (Dutch) after the Spanish revolution, when the northern part was become 
a powerful republic, and the province of Holland a ruling province. To be a language or dialect, is often merely 
a question of predominant influence. See VI. 11,20. 

T Hymnorum veteris eccleais XXVI. interpretatio Theotiaea, ed. Jacobus Grimm, Gottingw, 1830. 

•* See X. 51. 

28. Considering the frame of the whole, I take no notice of the little 
interchanges between the columns — for instance, that the Friesic is nearer 
to the Icelandic than the Anglo-Saxon. All the three columns are 
considered as proceeding together, and developing themselves in succeed- 
ing ages with more or less facility.* An attempt shall subsequently be 
made to show the locality of the Germanic languages in a higher period, 
and how they developed themselves in advancing to the station of the 

• This hypothesis most be regulated by a due attention to the fact, that the first ap 
ance of the Anglo-Saxon in the orbit of languages, is some centuries later than the Mceso- 
Gothic, which has, therefore, its phases more advanced than the Anglo-Saxon. This con- 
sideration is of common application. 


29. It must be observed, that the monuments of Friesian literature are 
of a far more recent date than the Anglo-Saxon ; but the development of 
language does not always depend upon its age. The Friesians, encom- 
passed on the one side by the sea, and on the other by the Saxons, owe 
it to their geographical position that they have experienced no mutations 
but those of a Saxon origin, and in many respects homogeneous with 
their own language. I do not recollect any intermixture of a foreign 
language with the Friesian, except what was caused by the frequent 
inroads of Normans, and by the settlement of some bands of the same 
race among the Friesians. 

30. Add to this, that the language of the Friesians never felt the 
shock caused by migrations. From the time of Caesar to this very day, 
amongst the endless revolutions of nations, they have never changed their 
name or the place of their residence, and they are noted as an exception 
to the locomotive temper of the Germanic race.* 

31. These causes would render the language so stationary, that it would 
be less altered in the 12th century, than others in the 10th. In the 
following comparison, many instances will occur of true Anglo-Saxon 
sounds still flourishing in Friesland. What I consider still more impor- 
tant, the development of some vowels has produced now the same result 
as it did eight centuries ago — a convincing proof that the germ of both 
languages must be homogeneous. 

32. Discovering such striking features of likeness, after a separation 
of almost fourteen centuries, a complete separation by the ocean, by the 
adventures and the diversity of their means of subsistence, and of the land 
they occupied, I conclude, that at the time of their union, about the 
middle of the 5th century, the Anglo-Saxon was distinguished from the 
Friesic only by slight differences of dialect We do not become acquainted 
with the A.-S. before the 8th or 9th century, and with the Friesian not 
before the 12th or 1 3th century, about four and eight hundred years after 
their separation. The series of evolutions each tongue has sustained, 
affords a full account of the chief discrepancies then existing, t 

33. As this whole matter can be proved by a strict comparison, we 
need not seek for authorities. 

I f authority were wanted, that of Francis Junius would be amply sufficient. After 
a long scrutiny of the whole Germanic antiquity in regard to languages ; after the 
compilation of glossaries of almost every dialect of the race, unparalleled in labour 
and accuracy; after a stay of two years [1652-1654] in those parts of Friesia 
noted as tenacious of their old manners and language, this scholar has always 
declared it as his opinion, that, of all the Germanic tongues, none approached so 
closely to the Anglo-Saxon as the Friesian. This decision will, I trust, outweigh 
all contrary opinions. As there are few in this century even deserving to march 
by the side of Junius, so I do not think any one can be vain enough to imagine he 
is superior. 

• Precis de la Geoaraphie Universale, par M % Malte-Brun, Paris, 1810, voL L p. 344. 
f See § 14, 58, kc. 


34. The geographical position of this people in question coincides with 
their philological pedigree. Let us begin with the Goths, taking care 
that the epithet Moesian, coupled with their name, does not deceive the 
common reader. 

Some fragments of the Periplus of Pytheas, the renowned navigator from Mar- 
seilles, inform us, that he, being in search of the amber coasts in the Baltic, doubled 
the cape of Jutland, and sailed about 6,000 stadia along the coasts of the Guttones 
and Teutones, through the gulf Mentonomon [Kattegat, Belt, &c] This was 
about 325 years before the Christian era. The Geutones or Goths, seated in Jut- 
land, descended afterwards to their brethren at the southern coast of the Baltic,* 
for the chief seat of the race was on the banks of the Vistula [Weichsel]. After a 
part was gone into Scandinavia, the great bulk moved thence to the banks of the 
Danube [Donau] in Dacia [Moldavia and Wallachia, about a. d. 180]. A part 
of the Goths, called West-Goths, pushed on by the Huns, retired, about a. d. 377, 
into Moesia [Servia and Bulgaria], and hence these Western-Goths obtained the 
name of Moeso-Goths. It was to this people that Ulphilas, the renowned transla- 
tor of the Scriptures, was bishop. 

85. On the southern borders of the ancient Goths were seated the 
Angles, spreading southward perhaps to the banks of the Eider. The 
chief town of these people at a later date was Haddeby or Haithaby, 
A.-S. Haefte in Schleswig, or Sleswick. 

36. While the Angles filled nearly the whole of the Chersonesus Cim- 
bricus, they were bordered on the west by another people of their kindred. 
These were the Friesians, whose posterity still live in the district of Bred- 
stedt near the coast of the sea, and whose dialect will afford some words 
for comparison. 

Hence the Friesians spread themselves in one uninterrupted line along the coast 
of the German sea to the mouth of the Scheld ;f though the extremities of this 
line were very distant from each other, and the people subdivided into sections de- 
nominated Brocmans, Segelterlanders, Rustringer, Hunsingoer, and Emlander, each 
people ruling its own section by its own private statutes ; still they were one peo- 
ple, and spoke the same language, and ruled by the same common law, as a close 
examination of its Vetus jus Frisionum will prove. We remark that the Friesians 
lived close to the coast, as if allured by some magic attraction of the water ; and 
though, when exigencies required it, they sometimes extended into the interior 
parts, they never spread far in breadth, and even in their partial extension they soon 

* SeeVII. § 1, &c. 

f The learned S. Turner cites six lines of M elis Stoke, in which the chronicler asserts that 
Jjower Saxony has been confined by the Scheld. This accurate historian would not place any 
confidence in these words, if he had been acquainted with the following edition of the Rhymer : 
Rijmkronijk van Melii Stoke, met aanmerkingen door Balthazar Huydecoper, torn. iii. 8vo. Ley- 
den, 1772 ; i. p. 9. See Lex Fritionum tdita el notis illustrata u Sibrando Siccama ; Frane- 
ktrm % 1617. — Van Wijn, bijvoegzeb en aanmerkingen opde Vaderl-Gesehiedenis van W'ayenaar, 
torn. L — ir. p. 83—90. The same remark is of still more forcible application on a passage of 
Cohjn, also cited by Mr. Turner. Colijnus is a supposititious child. History of the Anglo- 
Saxon*, i. p. 328 and 150, London, 8vo. 1828. In the history of Friesia after the time of 
Charlemagne, those Friesians who governed by their own laws, and spoke Friesic, must be 
carefully distinguished from the surrounding people, who are also called Friesians because 
the political division of countries refers them to Friesia. The blending of these two races 
haii been the source of endless errors in history. 


relinquished their internal possessions. The historian, recollecting these (acts, will 
not overlook the importance of the Friesians, thongh they only inhabited the 
borders of the continent, and the little islands "by which the coast of the German 
ocean is covered. 

37. This Friesian line was early broken in two places by two mighty 
nations — one making its appearance from the continent, the other from 
the ocean. 

Between the Ems and the Weser were settled the Chauci Minor es, and between 
the Weser and the Elbe the Chauci Majores. It is reported by Tacitus, that this 
immense extension of land, even from the borders of Hessia, was not only under 
the dominion, but was inhabited by the Chauci, bnt, he adds, they only kept some 
part of the strand, leaving the Friesians for the most part in their old possessions. 
The Chauci, entering into alliance with other people against the declining power of 
Rome, and assuming the name of Francs, left this country, and their name, being 
absorbed in that of the Francs, disappears from historic record. The Friesians 
availed themselves of this opportunity to occupy the vacated possessions of the 
Chauci, it not being unusual for a steady people like the Friesians to make use of 
the changes produced by the roving disposition of their neighbours to increase their 
own territory. 

38. Two descriptions of the Chanci are given by Tacitus. He first 
records some facts, and then, in the thirty-fifth chapter De Moribus 
Germanorum, he draws their portrait 

In the record of the facts,* the Chauci appear cruel oppressors of the feeble, 
vindictive pirates, and to be prone to foreign military expedition, and also to make 
inroads on their neighbours. In delineating their character,-)- it is said that they 
wish to support their grandeur by justice, being free from covetousness, masters of 
themselves, calm, modest, and retired. They never excite wars, nor harass their 
neighbours by predatory excursions or highway robbery. It is deemed the strong- 
est proof of their bravery and might, that they act as superiors, and never pursue 
anything by injustice. Nevertheless, every one is ready to take up arms, and, in 
case of exigency, to unite in forming an army. They have plenty of men and 
horses, and their placitude detracts nothing from their valour. Had Tacitus first 
given this description, and afterwards recorded the facts, one might have supposed 
that he was misled through ignorance of the facts ; but how he could contradict 
known facts related by himself, is hardly to be conceived, it must be clear to all 
who know the Friesians and their disposition, that the character ascribed to the 
Chauci agrees even in the least particulars with that of the Friesians. Is it then 
impossible that Tacitus at a distant period, and misled by later reports, should blend 
two neighbouring people together, and attribute to the Chauci what was alone ap- 
plicable to the Friesians ? 

39. The lino of the Friesian tribes was broken again in a second placo, 
to the north of the Elbe. 

The Saxons, occupying only some islands, such as Nordstrand, and some points 
on the continent to the westward and south of the Angles, and their western neigh- 
boars the strand Friesians, were in time so increased that they descended from their 

• Taciti Annates xi. 18, 19. Dion. Cast. ix. 30. Toe. Ann. xiii. 55. Didius Julianus re 
atitit iis Belgicam aggredientibus, Spartianus in Did. Jul. I. 

f Taciti Germania, cap. 36. It is said that he wrote his German in later than his Aunalrs 
ent people. 


narrow abodes, and spread along the northern banks of the Elbe, and filled up the 
whole extent of country between this river and the land of the Angles.* This 
second breach, being near and enlarging that of the Chauci, was never entirely 
filled up again ; and where it was afterwards, either by the departure of the Chauci, 
or the expeditions of the Saxons, the bishops of Bremen and Hamburg determined, 
by their power and spiritual influence, to destroy the Friesic spirit of freedom, by 
subjugating the Friesians to their sway in government, religion, and language. 

40. Hence two divisions of Friesia originated at an early date : the 
southern part began at the mouth of the Weser, and terminated at the 
mouth of the Scheld ; the northern pail from the west strand of Schleswig 
[Sleswick,] towards the mouth of the Elbe, much less than the southern 
part, and for this reason called Friesia Minor. In the 13th century, this 
small territory had power to raise for the king of Denmark an army of 
sixty thousand meu.f 

41. The Moeso-Goths are traced to their first position in the northern 
parte of Chersonesus Cimbricus [Jutland, Denmark] ; the Angles in the 
narrower part and to the banks of the Eider ; the Friesians extended on 
the sea-coasts by the side of the Augles to the mouth of the Elbe. We 
intend to place our philological comparison in the same order; first the 
Gothic, then the Anglo-Saxon, aud finally the Friesic. 

42. It must not be overlooked, that the geographical position of the 
whole Germanic race coincides with the arrangement of the preceding 
table of their languages. Going from the Baltic to the Netherlands, you 
pass through the original seats of the Icelandic, Moeso-Gothic, West- 
phalian, Netherlandish ; on the right you find the Angles and Friesians ; 
and on the left you have the Alemannic or Tfieolisc race.J 

43. This position may, perhaps, afford some idea of the order in 
which the respective tribes marched from the orieut to the west of Europe. 

The foremost were the Anglo- Friesic race, who, being pushed forward by follow- 
ing tribes, did not halt till they arrived on the shore of the German ocean. The 
Goths with their attendants followed, and the train of the Germani was closed by 
the Theolisc race. The coast of the German ocean, along which the Anglo-Friesic 
race was forced to spread itself, was the basis of the direction in which the two fol- 
lowing races took their position, and were placed nearly in three parallels from 
north-east to south-west. Tnese parallels are crossed and disturbed in a thousand 
ways by migrations and wars, but their genera! direction manifests itself to this 
very day in the remnants of the respective old languages. 

44. The adventurers who subdued Britain are called Anglo-Saxons ; 
but here an important question arises — what is implied in this name ? 
First, it is to be observed, that this people never called themselves Anglo- 
Saxons; but this name is given them by historians. Paul us Diaconus 

• As the Saxons were unknown to Tacitus, the irruption of the Chauci was, of course, 
anterior to that of the Saxons. 

f M Imperator Otto, Holsatiam sibi subigere volebat, contra quem venit rex Waldemarus 
cum exercitu copioso, habens secum de solis Frisionibus scxagintamillia hominum." — Ericut 
Rex,adann.\2\5. J § 27. 

* H 


called them Angli-Saxoves ,-* Codoaldus, rex Anglorum-Saxonum ;\ 
and, inverting the construction of the words, he says, Hermelinda ex 
Saxonum-Anglorum genere.% They did not call themselves by these 
compound names, but indiscriminately, Angles or Saxons. Anglorum, 
sive Saxonum gens.\\ The case seems to me as follows. 

45. After the Goths had evacuated the Chersonesus Cimbricus, and 
left only their name to the country, colonies of the neighbouring Angles 
succeeded in their place, and assumed the name of the Country Geatas, 
Eotas, Ytas. 

The Scandinavians, and more particularly the Danes, were quite distinct from 
these Juths,% being their mortal enemies, and being distinguished from them by 
some strong features in the respective languages. Neither did the Danes originally 
possess any part of the Chersonesus Cimbricus, unless it was the very northern 
point. In later ages they succeeded in gradually subduing the population of the 
Chersonesus, and mingling their language with that of the innates ; but this very 
mixture proves by its ingredients, now visible, that nearly the whole peninsula was 
before populated by a race different to the Danes, and similar to the Angles. The 
definite article the, both in Danish and Icelandic, is placed after the noun and 
made to coalesce with it, while in the Anglo-Saxon and the kindred tongues it is 
always set before the noun : thus A.-S. seo strset the street ; Icel. straetit ; A.-S. 
se strand the strand ; Icel. strondin ; A.S. se man the man; Dan. manden, gen. 
mandens of the man.% This peculiarity of the Danish idiom is not to be found 
in the dialect of the Jutes, however Danish it may be. If you draw a line from 
Skanderburg to Wiburg, and to the gulph of Liim, what lies south and west of this 
line, Thysted not excepted, retains still the remains of its Anglo-Saxon, or rather 
its autiscandinavian origin.** 

46. The combined power of the Angles and Jutes was easily overcome 
by that of their southern neighbours; for such was the number, the 
power, and the extent of the Saxons along and above the northern banks 
of the Elbe, that all the surrounding people, whether Friesians, Angles, 
or Jutes, were considered by foreigners as subdivisions of the Saxons; 
even what was effected by a union of all these tribes, was often ascribed 
to the Saxons alone. 

It is likely that the Saxons were the most prominent, and therefore attracted the 
greatest attention from southern scholars, while the Friesians, Angles, and Jutes 
were less observed on the strand or the inner part of the peninsula. It is known, 
from their geographical position, that the Angles constituted a part, and being the 
chief actors, probably a great part of the migrating allies; so that, on their depar- 
ture, their native soil was left nearly destitute of inhabitants. f f The Angles, how- 
ever, were considered a subdivision of the more powerful Saxons, and took a share 

* De gestis Longobard. iv. 23. f Id. vi. 15. J Id. v. 37. || Bede, i. 15. 

§ " Guti cum veniunt suscipi debent, et protegi in regno isto sicut conjurati fratres, sicut 
propincjui ct proprii cives regni hujus. Exierunt enim quondam de nobili sanguine Anglo- 
rum, scilicet de Engra civitate, ct Anglici de sanguine illorum, et semper emciuntur populus 
unus et gens una," — Leget Edwardi, WUkins, p. 206. 

H See II. § 1. 

** See this position defended by a Danish gentleman, Dr. C. Paulsen, in the Nordisk 
Review, No. I. p. 261, Copenhagen, 1833. 

ft See HI. § 5, 6. 


in their expedition : this union is correctly expressed in the denomination Anglo- 
Saxons. For, whether this word he considered as German or Latin, the first part 
denotes the species, and the second the genus, and the whole implies the tribe of 
the Angles belonging to the Saxon confederacy. The Angles bore the chief and 
leading part in the expedition to Britain, though considered as only a part of the 
Saxon confederacy, and therefore denominated Anglo-Saxon.* Time has done 
justice to the Angles ; for while the name of Saxons has either completely disap- 
peared, or has only a faint vestige in such words as Essex, (East-Saxons,) Mid- 
dlesex, %c, the name of the Angles is still embodied in England and Englishmen* 
and is in mil vigour and known from pole to pole ; nor will it ever die, unless the 
declining empires of Germanic race should be washed away by a flood of barbari- 
ans, as the Roman empire was by the Germanic. 

47. It has already been shown that Anglo-Saxon is a word formed by 
old Latin authors, and not by the Saxons themselves. Independently of 
historical proof, the foreign descent of the word is proved by its formation. 

Thus we say, in the Latin form, Anglo-Saxones, Hiberno-Anglus, Polono- 
Russus, whether we take Anglo, Hiberno, Polono, for substantives or adverbs ; but 
in expressing these words in the Germanic tongues, we should say English Saxon, 
Polish Russian; in German, Englischer Sachse, Russischer Pole. Thus the 
Dutch poet Maerlant, Dus werden heren dingelsche sassen, Thus the English 
Saxons turned rulers, (iii. 29.) This Germanic form is verbally translated by 
Paulus Diaconus, (iv. 15,) Angli-Saxones. 

48. It is often stated that the word Seaxan Saxons is derived from seax 
a sword ; in East Friesia, saeghs a little sabre. 

If this be true, there is some reason for the supposition that the kindred nations 
derived their names from the weapon which they chiefly used. Thus, Franc, from 
franca a javelin ; German, from gar jaculum ; Dut. Kil. gheer fuscina ; and man 
a man, that is, a dart man. Angle the Angles, from angel aculeus hamatus. The 

word seax is nothing else but Moes. ahs spica ; Sans. s&\ [ti &si a sword, en sis ; 
A.-S. aecbir, ear an ear ; sex, eax an axe, an instrument consisting of a metal 
head with a sharp edge, preceded by the sibilant s ; and perhaps gar is the same 
word as (ar) ear; But. aar, air, aer arista, preceded by the guttural g ; Dut. Kil. 
anghel an ear or spike of corn — all proving the idea of something pointed. The 
word franca is seen in Get. fram, properly the sharp end of an instrument , the be- 
ginning of any thing, and hence the preposition from, agreeing in signification with 
the Moes. fram. Fram fruma, {Moes. Jn. 15, 27,) is on that account properly 
the edge, commencement of the beginning, that is, from the beginning. Is it not 
also possible that the Brondingas, {Beo. K. p. 37, 11,) are so called from I eel. 
brandr lamina ensis. 

49. In the comparison of languages, care should be taken not to be 
misled by mere names. The Saxons increased so much in power, as to 
dare to oppose the hosts of Charlemagne, and at last they occupied an 
immense territory about the Elbe and the Weser, which, after their name, 
was called Saxony. This Saxony was subsequently occupied by other 

* It is remarkable that king Ine, who commenced his reign in a.d. 700, calls himself, at the 
beginning of his laws, a West-Saxon. Ic Ine, mid Godes gyfe West- Seaxan a cyning, / Inc, by 
Godi grace king of the West-Saxons, But the people of his kingdom he denominates English- 
men. Gif wite- J>eow Englisc mon hine forstalige, if an Emglishman condemned to slavery steal, 
in. 24. Gif Englisc mon steal*, if an Englishman steal, In. 46 : 54 : 74. An Englishman, 
in all the paragraphs, is opposed to Wealh a Welshman. 


tribes, whose system of vowels approached to that of the Theotisc race, 
and therefore differed very much from the Anglo-Saxon sounds. These 
tribes, taking the name of Saxons from the country they inhabited, their 
language is also called Saxon. I need not remark, that we can neither 
compare Anglo-Saxon nor the English to this Saxon, as their nearest 
relative, if the mistakes of the most celebrated philologists did not render 
it necessary.* 

Dr. Johnson did not regard this rule, and therefore he often compares English 
words with the most remote German. "After cat you first find Teuton katz (read 
katze), then French chat, and afterwards A.-S. cat ; while A.-S. cat, Fr*.,aucl Dut. 
kal, being the proper form of the word, ought to have rtood first." Some hundred 
examples of this sort, and worse, may be quoted from this celebrated lexicographer : 
his errors, instead of being removed by his editor, Mr. Todd, are in this respect, and 
some others, increased : added to this, th;it many words are not to be found in the 
languages referred to. In the article hay, the Icel. hey is also said to be Dut., while 
the Dut. word is hooi ; and thus in almost every page. An impartial judge, con- 
sidering the medley of materials, the blunders, the negligence or typographical errors 
occurring in deducing words from their originals, will conclude that the etymolo- 
gical part of Johnson's Dictionary, even in the edition of 1827, is not deserving of 
the expense and the labour bestowed upon it, and is quite unworthy of the nation of 
whose language it is the chief interpreter, if not the uncontrolled lawgiver. The 
English etymologist will only meet with the proper forms of its words by consult- 
ing the nearest relatives of the English language. We may illustrate this by the 
preceding example of hay. Here we find the same change of g to y in the Country 
Friesian as in the English— a change which is not to be found so often in any other 
Gennanic tongue. A.-S. heg, in Frs. c. is hea; but hive (Italian a) to make 
hay, agrees with hay, having both a, as Aloes, hawi. So also A.-S. mceg potest, 
daeg dies, weg via, oaeg vlavis, were changed into may, day, way, key, of which the 
Englishman will scarcely discover instances, unless he goes to his nearest kinsmen 
the Friesians, Frs. c. mei, dei, wei, kai, (Italian a).\ 

50. It may be asked whether, when the Anglo-Saxons left their native 
soil, any of the neighbouring Friesians accompanied them, and whether 
any intercourse was subsequently maintained between the separated 
brethren f J 

I that the question is not whether a word exists in one 
rally the case, but whether the proper form of the 
I dialect When we cannot discover it in this dia- 
lect, then only we may apply to languages of more remote relationship. The question, for 
instance, is not whether the word cat exists in other Germanic tongues, but whether it is 
found in A.S., Frs. or Dui. 

J There is another class of Germanic words introduced in this century, or the two pre- 
ing, and making no port of the original frame of the language. The correct derivation of 
these words depends more upon an extensive knowledge of many thousand terms in modern 
tongues, than upon analogical acuteness : I should wish to bestow more praise upon this part 
of Johnson's Dictionary, but it is not better than the other. One example will be sufficient. 
What can be more simple than the derivatiou of the word tattoe, the beat of a drum 
warning soldiers to their quarters, from the Dut. tapeto, id. properly signifying tapping shut, 
the tans or ginshops shut from the soldiers ? Even in the last edition of Johnson, by Todd, 
it is derived from Fr. tapotez tous. 

+ The old Chroniclers are at a loss whether to make Hengist a Friesian or a Saxon. 
Maerlant speaks of him thus : 

Een hiet Engistus een vriese,een sas, 

Die vten lande verdreuen was; 

One was named [A.-S. het] Engist, a Friesian or a Saxon, 

Who was driven away out of his land.— Spiegel Historial. c. xv. p. 16. 


Upon which I would remark, that the faces of the Anglo-Saxon and the Friesic 
languages would have the more marked and decided likeness to each other, when the 
separation was the most complete. If a continued intercourse between the Frie- 
siaiis on the continent, and the Anglo-Saxons in Britain, had been maintained, the 
Anglo-Saxon would have been supplied with Friesian ingredients of a later date, in 
such a way as languages not otherwise homogeneous may form a distant similitude; 
but when there are innumerable resemblances between Anglo-Saxon and the Frie- 
sian of this very day, originating in the latter part of the fifth century, without being 
increased by a subsequent intercourse, it is a proof that this striking similitude must 
have been laid in the basis of the languages. I feel much inclined to think that this 
is the truth, while I allow that many of the neighbouring Friesians accompanied the 
Anglo-Saxons in their expedition. 

51. It is true that the Friesian is noted for his tenacity to his native 
soil. His residence about the mouths of the Ems and the Rhine for 
centuries before our era, in the midst of a wandering people, is a sufficient 
proof of this character. 

The Friesian8 on the confines of the Angles were not of such quiet and sedentary 
habits as those on the Ems and the Rhine. They acquired the restless habits of 
their neighbours. Suppose then a portion of the Saxons, many thousand Jutes, 
and nearly all the Angles, leaving their country for glory and riches ; would it not 
be a miracle, if the Friesians in the neighbourhood of the moving tribes were alone 
insensible of the general impulse ? This is on the supposition that the movement 
was voluntary; but, considering the subsequent emigration of the Cimbrians, the 
Gotfu, and Jingles, from the same peninsula, 1 cannot help retaining the supposi- 
tion, that some cause, now unknown, might operate to produce these migrations. 
This cause, whether famine,* or inroads from the Scandinavians, being general, 
would have the same influence upon the Friesians as upon their neighbours. 

52. I am aware that inquiry will be made, why Bede, in enumerating 
the tribes who peopled Britain, omitted the Friesians.f 

As well may we inquire why Procopius omits the Saxons, and names the Frie- 
sians. Bede was born about a.d. 672, and died in 735. Though he was well ac- 

Thus again: 

Engistus wart dus onteert 
Endc is in Vrieseland gckecrt. 

Engist was thus disgraced, 

And is into Friesia returned. — torn. ill. p. 29. 

The Chronicle of Maerlant is founded upon the Speculum Uisloriale of Monk Vincentius, 
who wrote about a.d. 1245. 

• Nennius says, that the first settlers arrived in three vessels, and that Hengist and Horsa 
were exiles : this intimates some internal combustion in Gothland. In those nations averse to 
the sedentary occupation of agriculture, famine was always the most efficient and general 
cause of emigration. This was at least the case with the Scandinavians, who, pressed by 
dearth, determined by lot who should emigrate. It is likely that the Scandinavians fell upon 
the Jutes, who, being settled in the corner of the peninsula, were the first prey of the hungry 
invaders. The jutes tell upon Britain, and were the first Saxon settlers in Kent and Wight. The 
Scandinavians then descended further to the south on the Angles and Saxons, and induced 
the tribes to comply with the request of Hengist and other leaders to come to Britain. The 
northern pirates, still descending further, ravaged the whole coast of the German sea: the 
Friesians were, therefore, the never-ceasing objects of their piratical incursions. In still 
later times they settled in France, and ultimately reached the descendants of the same tribes 
of the Anglo-Saxons, who, in the two preceding centuries, were exiled from their native soil. 
See on this subject, Normannemcs tikoge og deres nedsattelte i Fravkerig Hittorik Fremstillet af 
G. B. Orvpingmed adskiUige forandrmgerovenat qfN.M.Peteven KobenJtavn, 1830, p, 57,«t teq. 


quainted with the affairs of England in his time, he never left his native land. Proco- 
pius was a Greek of Caesarea, and after the year 535 the secretary of Belisarius, the 
companion of his general in his expeditions against the Vandals and Goths, and of 
coarse well acquainted with the general circumstances and relations of the Germanic 
tribes. He was also two hundred years nearer the Saxon expedition to Britain 
than Bede. This Procopius states in his fourth book on tbe Gothic war, that 
Britain was peopled by three nations, the Britons, the Angles, and the Friesians, 
Afyikoi rat Qpiffffovec. Could Procopius be mistaken or misled in an historical 
fact of such notoriety as the overthrow of an important island by swarms from the 
continent, an event iu which the political interests of his master Justinian, as to the 
influence of its example, were highly concerned ? It was to Procopius a com- 
paratively recent event, happening about 449, and therefore only about a hundred 
years before he wrote his history. If he were misled, how is it that he does not 
mention some nation of wider fame, and is satisfied to select the Angles and the 
remote tribe of the Friesians to be the inhabitants of Britain P 

53. I cannot omit to mention, that the leaders of the Anglo-Saxons bear 
names which are now in use by the Friesians, though by time a little 
altered or abbreviated. 

They have Hortse, Hengst* Witte, Wiggele, Eske, Tsjisse, Tsjerk, Ealse, 
Hessel; for A.-S. Horsa, Hengest, Witta, Wihtgil, Chr. Ing. p. 15 ; iEsc. Cissa, 
Chr. Ing. p. 16; Cerdic, Elesa, Chr. Ing. p. 17. Also Lense, Timen, EUe, for 
Ji.-S. Wlencing, Cymen, MWe, [Icel. at ellda ignemfacere ; A.-S. ellen, virtus, 
robur,] Chr. Ing. 16 ; Ine, lde, Offe, for A.-S. Ine, Ide, Offa. There are indeed, 
but few A.-S. names which may not be found in use with the present Friesians. 

54. The story of Geoffrey of Monmouth about Vorligern and Rouin, 
or Rowen, daughter of Hengist, is known. She welcomed him with, 
" Lauerd king, wacht heil," Lord king, wait for my hailing draught. 
He, by the help of an interpreter, answered, " Drinc heil/' Drink hail 
to me.f 

I intend not to discuss the verity of the history, but only to allude to the cere- 
mony which was observed. The Friesian Chronicles represent Rowen as drinking 
the whole, in compliance with the royal command, " Drink hail !" and then taking 
the right hand of the king in hers and kissing him, while she offered him the cup 
with her left hand. This is quite a Friesian custom. J The female is not named 
Rouin by the Friesian Chronicle, as the text of Geoffrey badly states, but Ronixa, 
a name still in use with us, though, by an analogical permutation of consonants, it 
is written Reonts. 

• See § 50, note J. 

f Galfredi Monumetensis Historia Regain Britanniae, iv. 12. 

+ Est preterea et alia quam pro lege vel quasi observant (Frisii) ut videlicet quoties alicui 
patheram vel pocnlum vino, vel cerevisia plenum propinant, turn dicunt sua materna lingua, 
Het gilt, ele frye Frieze ! [/< concerns thy hail, Ofree Friesian /] et non tradunt patheram 
give poculum, nisi datis dexteris, cujuscumque etiam conditionis, aut sexus fuerunt, quique 
turn accipientes prodictum poculum respondent eadem lingua, " Fare wal, ele frye frieze ! 
[Farewell, Ofree Friesians!] Etsi persona? dissimiles fuerint, aut utneque feminei sexus 
nihilominus addito oscuto idem pernciunt ; quern etiam morem in mine usque diem Frisii 
pertinaciter retentum observant -De orig. situ, qualit. et quant. Frisia, M. Corn. Kempio 
authore, Colonic Aar. 1588. 

" Respondens deinde Vortegirnus, Drinc heil jussit puellam potare, cepitque de manu ipsius 
Bcyphum et osculatus est earn et potavit." — Gatyredus Monum, vL 12. The maiden's taking 
hold of the king's hand and kissing him, is reported by Winsemius Frieseke Historien, p. 43, 
and others, who may be compared with Geoflrey of Monmouth. See Junii EtymoL AngHc. 
in voce Wait. 


55. Whatever may be the truth of the story, it is most certain that 
"Wachthail" is changed into Wassail; that wassail-cup is sometimes 
used at feasts and on New-year's day in England ; and that its origin is 
traced back to the supposed meeting of Vortigern and Ronixa. 

What has particularly struck me is, that the figure of the old English wassail- 
bowl is exactly the same as the silver cups in which, at weddings, the Friesians 
offer to the guests brandy with raisins, [spicy wassel-bowl]. This cup passes from 
the married couple to their guests on their left-hand, and from them to their left- 
hand neighbour, as in the corporation festivals in England. The liquor is called 
in the Friesian tongue, "breid's trienen" bride's tears, alluding to her reluctant 
willingness to enter into wedlock. 

56. I will only add that the Danes were the common enemies of the 
Friesians and Angles, and as much opposed by national hatred, as the 
Friesians and Angles were united by the ties of national sympathy. 

The Saxon Chronicle records, in the year a.d. 897. that the Friesians and Angles 
fought under the command of king Alfred against the Danes, who were defeated 
near Exmouth, Devonshire. The Friesians were of some repute, or the names of 
three of them would not have been preserved from oblivion in this record : ^Ebbe, 
Frs. c. Ebbe ; -dESelere, Frs. c. Eldert ; Wulfheard, Frs. c. Olfert Were these 
Friesians the allies of Alfred, recently come to his assistance from the banks of the 
Elbe or Rhine, or bis subjects settled in England P 

Before entering upon the comparison of the Friesic with the Anglo- 
Saxon, it will be necessary to form accurate ideas about the state in which 
the Anglo-Saxon language has reached our time. 

57. One common fate accompanied all the MSS. of the middle ages, 
that the text was modernized, and therefore spoiled when copied by a 
person who spoke the same language, and nothing but the ignorance of 
the scribe could give security from this perversion. Not understanding 
the MS. he was compelled to copy literally, and his errors, whether 
arising from inadvertence or the indistinctness of the old letters, are easily 
rectified by the critic. The fact is, that the copyist, considering the words 
only as a vehicle of the sense, did not care about the language. Every 
scribe, therefore, changed the language of his MS. into the dialect of his 
own time and dwelling-place. 

In this way the Roman du Renard,* which can be traced to the time between 
the first and second crusade, is come down to us in the language of the 13th cen- 
tury, a.d. 1288, 1290, 1292. It is on this account that Mr. Roberts observes — 
" Avant 1* invention de 1* imprimerie le style ne conduit qu* iin par fakement a re- 

* Le Roman du Renard public, par M.D.M. M eon, Paris, 1 826. This poem was the basis of 
a poem in the language of Flanders, van den Vos Reynaerde, a.d. 1404. This was followed 
by the Dutch Renard in prose, Gouda, 1479, and this again by the renowned Reinche de Vot of 
Henri van Alkmar, Lubek, 1498, the parent of ail later European versions. Carton'* folio 
edition of 1481, was a translation of the work published at Gouda. To the researches of 
recent scholars, we owe Reinardus Vulpes, carmen epicum secidis ix. et xn. conscriptum : ad 
fidem codd. MSS. annotationibus illmtravit, Fr. Jos. Mone, editio princeps, 8vo. pp. 336. 
It is proved by comparison, that this Latin poem has given rise to the very Roman du Renart, 
published by Mr. Meon, and also that the author was an inhabitant of the Belgic Nether- 
lands, to the localities of which, allusion is often made. See VI. § 13 — 17. 

66 FRIE8IC — MSS. OF CjKDMON. IV. 58. 

oonnoitre la difference des temps. Lee copistes ne se bornoient pas a transcrire ; 
ils corrigeoiont 1' orthographe substituoient des vers nouveaux a ceux qu' ils avoient 
soils les yeux, et des expressions nouvelles a celles qui tomboient si rapidement en 
d6suetude. La langue, qui changeoit d* un jour a l'autre devoit les engager a mul- 
tiplier ces alterations que le peu de severite de V art poetique rendoit alors si 
faciles."* The scribe, however, found some restraint in the alliteration, which was 
observed by Caedmon and other poets. In those MSS. where there was little except 
the rhyme to indicate the mechanism of the verses, or where the MS. was in prose, 
the scribe had more liberty to change. This wa* the fate of the oldest Dutch poet, 
Maerlant. Some leaves of parchment containing fragments of his Spiegel His- 
torial, much older than the MS. from which the edition of 1785 was printed, 
afford conclusive evidence, that neither the construction of the words, nor the man- 
ner of spelling in the MS. used in printing this edition, was that of Maerlant 
himself. Therefore, the question about language during the middle ages, is re- 
duced to the question of the time and place of the MS. 

58. The same fate attended the most ancient pieces of Anglo-Saxon 
poetry, not to speak of prose. Let me exemplify uiy assertions by the 
poems of Caedmon. The MS. of the Caedraon on which Mr. Thorpef 
founds his text, is apparently of the 10th century, and it strictly expresses 
the language of that period. Csednion, the author of the poem, died about 
a.d. 680. He was first a cowherd at Whitby, and afterwards became a 
monk. Would it not he a little strange to assert, that a man brought up 
in his station of life, especially in the uncivilized northern parts of Eng- 
land, and in the 7th century, has spoken the same dialect as the far more 
civilized inhabitants of southern England two centuries later ? This too 
in an age, when some parts of Englaud had as little communication with 
each other, as with foreign countries. In this case, Anglo-Saxon would be 
an exception in the history of languages ; it would be without dialect, time, 
and place, having produced no change in its forms. How far an assertion 
of this sort is distant from truth, is proved by the oldest remnant of Anglo* 
Saxon poetry now extant, compared with its appearance two and three 
centuries later. In a codex referred by Wanley to a.d. 737,J we read a 
few lines of Caedmon which are translated into Latin by Bede§, and we 
have the same lines as they are modernized by Alfred in his Anglo-Saxon 
version of Bede, about two hundred years after Caedmon. Let us com- 
pare these two specimens with each other : — 

• Fable* inedites des xii., xm., el ziy. sihcles, par A. C. M. Robert, Paris, 1825, p. exxii. 

f Cadmoris Metrical Paraphrase in Anylo- Saxon, with an English translation, notes, and a 
verbal index, by Benjamin Thorpe, London, 1832. 

t " Hisce pene omnibus in a.d. 737, concurrentibns, verisimile mini videtur hnnc ipsum 
codicem eodem anno, Ccolwulfo adhuc regnante, scu saltern ante Eadberhti inaugurationem, 
duobus qnoque annis post Bedae obitum, in Wiremuthensi monasterio fuisse scriptum." — 
Wanley, p. 288. 

§ Bede, lib. iv. cap. 24. 

IV. «8. 




MS. is of a.t>. 737. 
Cod. MSS. Epi$. Noruri- 
censis* Wanley, p. 287. 
Nu scylun hergan 
hefaen ricaes uard 

Metudses maecti* 
end his mod gidanc 
aerc uuldur fadur 
sue he uundra gihuaes 
eci drictin b 
or astelidae. 
He ©list scop 
elda barnum 
heben til hrofe 
haleg scepen 
tha 4 middun geard 
mon cynnaes uard 
eci dryctin 
setter tiadae 
firam foldu° 
firea allmectig. 

About i.d. 886, by King 


MS. C.C.C. Oxon. 

Thorpe Pref Cadm.xxii. 

Nu we sceolan herian/ 

heofon-rices weard. 

metodes mihte. 
and his mod-ge^onc.s 
wera k wuldor-faeder. 
swa he wundra 1 gehwaes. 
ece dryhten.J 
oord k onstealde. 1 
he serest gesceop." 
eorftan beam am. 
heofon to hr6fe. B 
halig scyppeud. 
J?a middan geard. 
mon cynoes weard. 
ece dryhten.* 
aefter teode. 
firum foldan. 
firea aelimhtig. 

Literal English Version. 

Now must we praise 
the guardian of heaven s 

the creator's might, 
and his mind's thought, 
glorious Father of men 
as of every wonder he, 
Lord eternal, 
formed the beginning. 
He first framed 
for the children of earth 
the heavens as a roof ; 
holy Creator ! 
then mid-earth, 
the guardian of mankind, 
the eternal Lord, 
afterwards produced ; 
the earth for men, 
Lord Almighty ! 

Primo cantavit Cxdmon istud carmen. 

• maectL b dryctin. c aerist d J>a, • fold* f herigean. s ge>anc. 
k abest. l wuldres. J drihten, k ord. ] astealde B. ■ gescop. 

• rafe. • drihtne. Various reading* in Smith's edition of Bede, 597, 20. 

Whether the reference of the MS. Episc. Norwicensis to the precise year a.d. 737, 
be correct or not, every one will agree with Wanley, that it is far before the age of 
Alfred, f and is by no means a re- translation of the Latin words of Bede. King Alfred 
strictly follows the lines and the words of the MS. Episc. Norwicensis. The obser- 
vation of Bede, J that he followed the sense of C<tdmon> and not the construction of 
his words, applies particularly to the latter part of the MS. Episc. Norwicensis, 
and is an additional proof that Bede found his original almost in the same form as it is 
presented to us in MS. Episc. Norwicensis. Alfred seems convinced that he had the 
true song of Caedmon before him, as in his Anglo-Saxon translation, he not only 
omits Bede's remark about giving merely the sense, and not the same collocation of 
words, but immediately before the insertion of this Anglo-Saxon song, he asserts, 
" J>ara endebyrdnes fis is " the order of which is this.% 

• Coder MS. omnium yetustissimus non ita pridem erat penes egregium ilium literarum 
fautorem Joannem Morum Episcopum nuper Eliensem, hodieque in Bibliotheca Regia, Canta- 
briguB asserratur, Smith's Bede, Cantabriyi*, folio, 1722, Pref. p. 3. The MS. named by 
Wanley in note [J p. 56,] described in his Catalogue as Cod. MSS. Episcopi Norwicensis, p. 
288, is the same as that mentioned by Smith in this note. Dr. John Moore was bishop of 
Norwich when Wanley made his Catalogue ; he was afterwards bishop of Ely ; after his 
death, king George the First purchased this MS. with the Doctor's library, which he pre- 
sented to the University of Cambridge, where the MS. is now preserved in the Public 
library.— J. B. 

f Ego iternm publicandum censeo, tanquam omnium quae in nostra Lingua etiamnum 
extent monumentorum pene yetustissimum. — Wanley, p. 287. 

J Hie est sensus, non autem ordo ipse yerborum quad dormiens ille canebat; neque enim 
possunt carmina, quamvis optime composite, ex alia in aliam linguam, ad verbum, sine 
detrimento sui decoris ac dignitatis transferri. — Bede 4, 24; Sm. p. 171, 10. 

I Bede Sm. p. 597, 19, and just afterwards, L 26, adds, " And >am wordum sona monig 
word in frset ylce gemet, Gode wyr&es songes toge)>eodde," and to those words soon joined 
f words of song worthy of God, in the same measure.— J. B. 

* I 


59. Having here the same words written in different ages, it is my 
intention to notice the discrepancies, that the changes the language under- 
went in the interval may be clearly seen. 

60. In the MS. Episc. Norwfcensis, we find no characters for p and p, the one 
being designated by w, the other by d, as in gidanc, or by th, as in tha for fa. In the 
same MS. casula is translated hearth for hearS. Hence may it not be inferred, that 
the \ and p were introduced later than the date of the MS.? Or was the \ a letter of 
the heathen Runic alphabet, and for that reason was not admitted amongst the letters 
of the holy Roman church ? 

61. The a is divided into its compounds a and e, as in hefaen, ricaes, in which a 
long a seems to be implied. Mr. Thorpe, in his second edition, p. 22, follows neither 
Wanley nor Smith, having hefaen, metudaes, for hefaen, metudaes ; but in this, Smith 
also differs from Wanley, who puts maecti for Smith's maecti. 

62. The c, when it had the sound of ch was not yet changed into h, as in maecti, 
drictin ; but in later times became mihte, drvhten. 

63. We find here two forms of heaven, the one written with b, and the other with 
/, hefaen ricaes and heben ;* and in the Veins Jus FHsicum, which is about four 
centuries older than the oldest laws written in Friesic, we have (Tit. iii.) thivbda for 
thiaftha, when the inscription is not from the hand of any Francic-Theotisc lawyer 
under Charlemagne. 

64. The resolving of a into a was not yet accomplished, we have fadur for faeder ; 
Frs.feder, Asg. bk. 2, Ch. 1. 389, 475, 612, contracted, Frs. h. feer. 

65. The g in the termination of the infinitive had not yet undergone any change; 
hergan celebrarevtas changed by Alfred into herian, and to supply the hiatus, replaced 
the g t and changed a into ea, making herigean. 

66. The a was already changed into e, where the more modern A.-S. still retains 
the a, as in end, sue, scepen, for and, swa, scapen. This was, perhaps, something 
peculiar to the Northumbrian dialect, agreeing with the Friesic in scepene clather 
made clothes, (Asg. bk. 84), but not in and and, (Asg. bk. 1 ) ; nor in Old Frs. and 
Frs. v. sa thus. Later in the Frs. I. we find ende like the above. They probably 
pronounced the words thus, eand, suea, sceapen. 

67. The a changed into e was not yet gone into i, as mectig, but at a later period 
mihtig ; with <b, as in maecti later mihte. Heliand has h&lag holy, MS. Episc. Nor- 
wicensis haleg, not yet halig ; on the contrary, Heliand mahtig, and of course MS. 
Episc. Norwicensis mectig. It further appears, from the exchange of e for <r, that m 
had nearly the sound of e, and of course like the Fr. ai. In terminations we find 
also <e used for e. 

68. The vowel has undergone a different change in the end v tic gi. Moes. ga 
produces the usual, when pronounced broad and like a diphlhong,y* becomes 
gi ; as, gidanc, gihuaes, for gefonc, gehwaes. 

69. The Vowel in the terminations of words and in all syllables unaccented, is 
sounded as indistinctly as the short e or Heb. sheva [ : ]. It is a proof that a 
dialect has some antiquity, when these unaccented syllables have not entirely lost a 
distinguishing feature. The MS. Episc. Norwicensis has ricaes, metudaes, astelidae, 
moncvnnaes, tiadae,for rices, metudes,astelide, moncynnes, tiade; and maecti, drictin, 
for maecte, dricten. 

70. It is a principle in English pronunciation, that the vowel before r in termina- 
tions takes the sound of u, [Walker's Pron. Dict.§ 98, 418]. In MS. Episc. Nor- 

* Like b in A.-S. lybban vivere, Asg. bk. libba; in Frs. v. libben vita ; Frs. v. libje vivere, 
and AS. lyfan vivere ,• Asg. bk, 189, lif life. 


wicensis we have, uuldur, fadur, for uuldor, fader. Before n the a is also changed 
into «, as fold: or foldun, mid dun, for foldan, middan. 

71. The a was not yet resolved into ea, as ward, barnuin, for weard, bearnum ; 
nor the o into eo, as scop [Old. Dut. sch6ep ; Moes. gaskop creabaf] for gesceop 
agreeing with the present Dut. schiep. 

72. The e, which has its origin in t, and was afterwards changed into eo, remained 
unaltered in heben, hefaen for heofon. It seems that eo has produced o in -fou, in 
the same manner as m proceeded from e, and affords an instance of some assimilation 
of vowels in two succeeding syllables. I must add, however, that it is questionable 
whether the vowel of the latter syllable operates upon that of the former, or the 
former upon that of the latter. If the vowel of the former syllable depend upon that 
of the latter, then -faen and -fou were changed before he- and heo-; but if the latter 
upon that of the former, then he- and heo- before -faen and -fon. I do not lay much 
stress upon this observation, as languages in their most ancient state have not this 
kind of assimilation ; it seems, however, to rest in the mind on the same foundation 
as alliteration, both being a feeling for rhythm. For whatever may be the assimilation 
of one syllable to another in the same word, the same relation one word has to another 
in two successive lines of poetry. This assimilation of vowels is called by German 
grammarians umlaut. 

73. The ia being proper to the old Westphalian and Zelandic, undergo no change 
in dads; the i being changed into e, the a ought to follow the impulse and pass too, 
and make teode from teon producer e; to hape tiath in unum convent unt , A sg. ££.335 ; 
tya ducere, Em. 1. 88 ; tioda ducebat ; Icel. tiadi, id. The Moes. tiuhan ducere ; 
tauch ducebat; hence the Frs. v. teach, taech, Frs. /. 79, 81 : but there was once an 
Old Frs. imperfect tiade, as the DuL tijde. 

74. So t had not yet passed to e, nor u to o, in metudaes, later metodes. 

75. The imperfect astelidss was not yet contracted to astealde. 

76. It is clear that the earliest languages consisted of single words, and 
that two separate ideas were expressed by two separate words ; but, by 
being constantly used together, at last united in one idea and one word. 
The adjective, in this process, passing from adjectives, separately existing, 
to the first and specifying component of the word, loses the adjective 
termination, by doubling its accent on the principal vowel, and looks like 
an adverb or preposition compounded with a word. 

Thus, on ealddagum olim, originally on ealdum dagum olim ; Dut. eertyds, 
originally eeres tijds informer timet. Dut. oudvader ; Ger. altvater a patriarch, 
formerly oude vader, and alte vater. In the MS. Epi&c. Norwic. we meet with an 
instance in which the meaning of such a compound appears, but the grammatical form 
is not yet developed. The compound aelda barnum appears as two words, yet aelda 
is not in the dat. as it ought to be when separate, and it only requires the process 
of time to become one word aeldbarnum, the same as Ger. altvater. Aelda barnum 
does not signify anliquis liber is, but children of old; and thus it has the whole 
meaning of the compound, but only half its grammatical form. Alfred, finding the 
phrase a little antiquated, used eorftan bearnum filiis terra. There could be no 
objection to the form, because, in Alfred's time, ealda-faeder, ealde-moder, and ealde- 
wita, were sometimes used for ealdfaeder avus, ealdmoder a via, ealdwita senior 

77. The pronoun we was omitted before scylun we must, precisely as the Moes. 
skulum debemus, Lk. xviii. 1. 


78. In this word the u had not yet been changed into eo. From Moes. sknlum was 
derived A.-S. scylun, the more modern sceolon. 

79. As a had not yet gone over into ea, or o into eo, or e into eo, so also e had 
not yet been changed into ea : thus we find astelidse for astealde. 

80. This comparison affords a few important deductions. As there 
appears to be no mixture of the dialect of the Northmen, the MS. must be 
of a date anterior to their conquest of Northumberland, which agrees with 
the statements of Wanley. 

81. In it we find also many analogies with cognate languages not 
apparent in the writings of Alfred, and this affords a further proof of the 
antiquity of the MS.; for we have already observed, that the resemblance 
of languages is greater in proportion to their age, and, on the other hand, 
that dialect differs most which has most diverged from the parent stock.* 

82. The development of the diphthongs ea and eo from simple vowels, 
was the result of nearly two centuries between the date of the MS. Episc. 
Norwic. and the time of Alfred ; for no one, I believe, will pretend that 
the simple vowel in these instances was a dialectic variation peculiar to 
Northumberland, as these diphthongs are still distinctly pronounced there, 
like death in Yorkshire. The diphthong was of course developed it the 
north, as well as in the south of England. If we now go back still 
further, from the time of the MS. Episc. Norwic. to the descent of the 
Anglo-Saxons on Britain, [from 737 to 449,] and if we suppose that during 
this period the cognate languages approached nearer to the A.-S. in the 
same proportion as they did from Alfred to Caedmon, then indeed we 
have a clear conception how all these tribes of Jutes, Angles, Saxons, and 
Friesians, whose languages some centuries later were quite unintelligible 
to one another, could, at their departure from their native shores to 
Britain, as men of one speech, unite in council and action. 

83. This comparison implies further, that the peculiarities by which 
the A.-S. is distinguished, relate to the state in which this tongue has 
come down to us. 

84. I have nothing more to add about the Moeso-Gothic, to what 
I stated in the fourteenth and fifteenth paragraphs. The peculiar cha- 
racter of the A.-S., as distinguished from the Moeso-Gothic, would for the 
most part be removed, if we could trace the A.-S. to the time of the 
Moeso-Gothic, about the middle of the 4th century. The means of 
comparison are greatly increased by the exertions of Angelo Mai, Count 
Castiglione and Massmann.f The stores within the reach of Junius were 
exhausted by him, for comparison with the A.-S. in almost every word of 
his Glossarium Gothicum, in many articles of hisEtjmologicon Anglica- 
num, and in his other Dictionaries, still sleeping, to the common shame 
of the English and Friesians, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. The first 
that made a classification and comparison of the Gothic languages was 
Lambert ten Kate, a Dutchman. The foundation laid by him has more 

* § 14. f See VIL 7—11. 

IV. 85—90. FRIESIC BOOKS. 61 

recently been greatly extended by the unwearied toil of Rask and Grimm. 
I need not boast that I have done the same, for it requires no genius— the 
labour is purely mechanical. Some will present you with the oldest form 
of a word, but this is not right, when it has to be compared with a subse- 
quent and more advanced development For my part, I shall not hesitate 
to avail myself of the labours of my predecessors, and to cite parallel 
words in different cases and times, when I think it does not affect tbe 
vowel or consonant to be compared. 

85. I do not know any A.-S. scholar, who has instituted a comparison 
between the Anglo-Saxon and Friesic so minute as their near relationship 
claims. Some did not see the force of the comparison, and all wanted 
materials. A brief account of the materials I have used may not be 

86. The Asega~b6k* the book of the judge, contains the laws of the 
Rustringian Friesians located around the gulf of the Jade, as far as the 
southern banks of the Weser. Its date may be about a.d. 1212-1250. 

87. Littera Brocmannorum,f the letter, i.e. the written law of the 
Br6cmen, Friesians bordering on the sea in the western part of East- 
Friesia, [Dut. Oostvriesland]. Its date is reckoned between a.d. 1276 
and 1340. 

88. The Amesga-riucht,% the code of the country of the Ems, con- 
taining registers of the mulcts for the Friesians situated about the eastern 
banks of the Ems, a.d. 1276-1312. 

89. The Reran f on Hunesgena londe$ [Dut Het Hunsingogr land- 
recht,] the statutes of the country of Hunsingo, a.d. 1252, revised and 
corrected, but as to their origin of a far earlier date. This most remark- 
able monument of Friesian antiquity is published in the Verhandelingen 
van het genootschap pro excolendo jure patrio, torn. ii. Groningen, 
1778, but in a manner so negligent, that I deem it matter of great danger 
for a critic to cite words from this edition. I, however, entertain the 
pleasiug hope, that this defect will soon be redressed by one of my friends, 
who intends to publish a second edition, founded on an excellent codex 
within our reach, as soon as the literary public feel inclined to defray the 
costs of the press. 

90. Jeld and botha,\\ the value of the money and the mulcts, to be 

• Asega-buch ein Alt-friesisches gesetzbuch der Rustringer, herausgegeben,ubersetztund 
erlintert von F. D. Wiarda, Berlin, 1805. 

f Willktiren der Brockmanner eines freyen Friesischen volkes, herausgegeben von F. D. 
Wiarda, Berlin, 1820. 

% Het Emsiger landregt van het jaar, 1312. Leeuwarden, 1 830, published by Mr. Hettema. 

§ Verhandelingen ter nasporinge van de wetten en gesteldheid onzes vaderlands door een 
genootschap te Groningen, pro excolendo jure patrio, torn. v. Groningen, 1773-1828. 

|| Groot placaat en Charterboek van Vriesland, verzamelt door G. F. Baron thoe Schwart- 
zenberg en Hohenlansberg, 5 vols, folio; Leeuwarden, 1768-1793. The pages 59—461, 
containing a catalogue of the ecclesiastical estates in Friesia, made up by order of Charles V. 
though already printed, are suppressed in the 3rd volume, and replaced by other materials. 
A great number of the estates, after the Spanish revolution, having fallen into unjust hands, 
it was feared that the publication would be an inducement to endless curses and persecutions 
against the aristocracy. The 6th tome is also printed, but not yet published, for the greater 
part of the copies was burnt during the disorders of the French Revolution. 

62 FKIE8IC — WHERE SPOKEN. IV. 91—95. 

observed in several parts of the country of Friesia, forming a part of the 
present kingdom of the Netherlands. This piece is of a.d. 1276, and 
published in the Groot placaat en Charterboek van Vriesland, torn. L 
p. 97, together with a great many little records of latter times in the 
Friesian tongue. 

91. The most complete system of Friesian laws,* though of a more 
recent date than the foregoing, is contained in the Old Friesian Laws, 
published by two eminent Friesian lawyers, P. Wierdsma and Brantsma, 
whose commentary bears witness to the depth and extent of their erudi- 
tion. The laws in this collection, as well as those found in the Charter- 
boek, had force chiefly within the limits of the country of Friesia in the 

92. To the same country belongs also the collection of charters 
dispersed in the history of its capital Leeuwarden, by Gabbema.t They 
are all of a recent date, when the Friesic was about to be disused in 
public charters. In the enumeration of these laws and records, I have 
descended from the north to the south, beginning at the Wezer and 
ending at old Friesia, situate at the mouth of the Rhine. But let us now 
ascend still higher, beginning with the Friesians conterminous with the 

93. Friesic is still spoken in a tract of country bordering the coast of 
the German sea, in the district of Bredsted, dutchy of Schleswig. It is 
strongly tainted with Danish ; but a corn-merchant of my native village, 
[Friesia, part of the Netherlands,] on going there to buy rapeseed, was 
not a little surprised that he and the peasants could understand each 
other in their respective mother-tongues. The late Reverend N. Outzen 
has left a glossary of the Friesic dialect, which for some years has been in 
the press, at the expense of the Royal Society of Copenhagen. The first 
eighty-eight pages, which were intended for me by my friend the late 
Professor Rask, and sent to me through the courteous attention of Professor 
Rafn, have fully convinced me of the identity of this dialect with the 
other branches of the Friesic. 

94. Of the language of the Ditmarsian Friesians, and those living 
between the Elbe and Wezer, nothing remains. Their long and obstinate 
struggle against the aggressions of the Danish kings, Bremish bishops, or 
dukes of Oldenburg,]: terminating with the extinction of their liberty and 
language, has long since effaced the last trace of the Friesian tongue and 
nationality, and destroyed the MSS. of their ancient laws. 

9ft. A more lucky fate was allotted to the land between the Wezer and 

• Oude Friesche wetten meteene Nederduitsche vertaling en ophelderende aantekeningen 
▼oorzien. Part I. Campen en Leeuwarden, 1783. The Preface and Part II., though pre- 
pared by the publishers, were lost after the death of Wierdsma. 

f Verhaal Tan de stad Leeuwaarden-beschreeven van Simon Abbes Gabbema, Franeker, 1701 . 

X U. Emmius, Hist Fries. 145, 588, &c. Wiarda, Ostfrisische geschichte, I. 202. 

IV. 95. 



the Ems. The latter subjugation of this country has caused the preserv- 
ing of a single codex of the Asega-b&k in the archives of Oldenburg. I 
here give a specimen of its language. 

Tkit is thet twintegoste londriucht. 
8a hweraa northmann an thet lond hla- 
path. and hia ennemon fath. and bindath. 
an nt of lande ledath. and eft withir to 
kmde brengath and hini ther to twingath 
thet hi hus-barne. and wif nedgie. and 
man ale and gadis bus barne. and bwed 
sa hi to letbe dwa mi. alsa hi tbenne 
undfliuch ieftha lesed wertb. and withir 
to londe kumth. and to liodon sinon. 
sa willath him tha liode thing to seka. 
and sinne opa werpa' truch thet ginte e 
morth ther hi er mith tha witsingon d 
efrennth* heth. Sa mire tbenne afara 
thene warf gnnga. and iecbta mire tala. 
enne eth hach r hi tbenne opa tha beligon 
to swerande. thet hit al dede bi there 
nede. alsa him sin bera bad. ther hi was 
lines, and lethana 1 en unweldicb mon. 
8a ne thuraon* him tha liode ne frana. 
to haldaseka nl sinna truch thettbi frana 
ne muchte him thes fretha 1 wariaj tbi 
skalk k skolde dwa alsa him sin hera bad 
truch thes lines willa. — Asega-B6k, p. 97. 

This is the twentieth landright (law). 
When any Northman leaps on the land 
(shore), and be takes a man, and binds 
and leads (Aim) out of the land, and brings 
(him) after (wards) again to the land 
(ashore) and forces bim to this, that be 
burns bouses and violates wives, and slays 
men and burns God'shouses, and what he 
may do to harm, ( A.-S. latfe.) When he 
then flees away or is loosed, and again 
comes to land, and bis lede h (is restored 
to his land and kindred). If then the 
court of justice of the people will seek 
him (prosecute him), and his relations 
intend to charge him with the horrible 
murder which he has ere (formerly) 
framed (committed) with the pirates ; he 
may then go (appear) before the court, 
and he may tell (con/ess) known and 
proved facts; he ought then to swear an 
oath by the saints, that he did it all by 
need (force), as his lord bade him, be- 
cause be was a man not wielding his life 
(body) and members. In this case, nei- 

ther the lede (people), nor the king's 
attorney, nor his relations, are allowed to seek him (harass him) with fetters, through 
(because) that the attorney might not (was unable) to secure bim his safety. The 
servantshould do as his lord bade him through will of the life (for the sake of his life). 

■ A.-S. weorpan, werpan, jacere. b Lede people, Jun. Et. Angl. 

• ginte Wiarda translates yonder. I deem it to be horrible, tremendous murder, which 
agrees with the Low-Saxon version of the Asega-bdk, which has great, enormous murder. 
This word is connected with the A.-S. ginian, of course yawning, enormously vast, horrible. 
In this way, the English adj. huge vast, great even to deformity, explains the meaning of Icel. 
ngr terror, whence ugly; of A.-S. oge, whence Frs. v. [ouw-lik] onjouwlik horrible, all de- 
rived from the idea of wide vastness, still apparent in Moes. auhn, Snxd. ogn, ugn. 

• A.-S. wicing pirata. The c by the Friesic and English being changed into tsh, wiring 
becomes witsing. Thus A.-S. cerene, Frs. v. tsher'ne or tsjerne, Eng. churn. Sometimes the 
Frs. v. retains both forms with some shade of the signification : Frs. v. k&tje to talk, but 
tsjatterje to chat, chatter. From A . -S. cidan, properly to make a noise as an inharmonious bird, 
and hence to quarrel, the Frs. v. has only tsjitte to make a noise as quarrelling sparrows and 
women. The original signification, now lost in English, was very well known in the old 
English. "The swalowes chyterid and songe." — Golden Legend, I. 493. Frs. v. De 
swealen tsjittene in songen. — tt is dubious whether wicing is to be derived from wic-cing 
sinus vel rip* unde insidiabantur pirata, rex, or from wig-cing the king of slaughter. 

• A.-S. fremad. Wiarda not knowing this Anglo-Saxon word, deems efrenuth to be spu- 
rious; for this word does not occur elsewhere. This instance may teach us how easily the 
most difficult words are explained in Anglo-Saxon and Friesic, when aided by each other. 

r Ah possidet, proprie, vinctusest, of the verb agan. 8 A.-S. lifca. 

h The Anglo-Saxon has the Friesian form in this verb thurfon. 

1 A-.S. frifcian protegere, frifc pax. i A.-S. warian cavere. k A'.S. scealc servus. 

64 FRIBSIC OF BROCMBN'S LAWS, A.D. 1280. IV. 96—98. 

96. Let it be remarked, that the u having the power of ou in 
Fr. doux, or Eng. cube, is changed by the Frs. v. into o ; undfliuch, 
unweldich, mucht, truch, gunga, are now pronounced ontflyucht, 
onweldichy mocht, troch, gonge. 

97. Brocmen kiasath thet to enre Brocmen choose {made) this to a 
kere* thet ther nene burga and mura b statute, that there no borough {castle) 
and nannen hach sten hus ne mota and wall, and no high house of stone 
wesa bi achta mercum. and hoc redieua must be by {the mulct) of eight marks: 
thit naud ne kerth and efter naud ne and whatsoever rede - giver {counsel, 
dele leith. sa geie c hi mith achta mercum judge) hinders not this, and after {being 
and mitha huse wit[h]liude. hine built) lays not {pulls) down, he may 
skiriene 4 fon. and werther aeng mon atone for it with eight marks, and with the 
[h]agera sa tuelef ier[d]foda hac[h] house with {the)\ede {people), unless he 
andre* duke, and wasa welle makia enne clears himself. And turns {builds) any 
aselnre sa mot hi ne makia vr tua feke. r man higher than twelve earth-feet (a 
ief hi welle. andre thiuke. and makath measure) high to the roof, and who will 
aeng otheres sa geie hi mith achta mer- {intends to) make a cellar, he must not 
cum,' thi ther otheres wercth. and tha make over {above) two stories. If he 
nya redieua skelin hit onfa,* efter tham will {intends) to the roof and makes any 
ther tha erra 1 thene frethe vt kethet J bi {thing), otherwise let him atone for it 
alsa denre geie. Stenslek k hwile efter al with eight marks, who works otherwise, 
tha londe buta munekum and godes And the new judges shall accept it after 
husen bi alsa denre geie. — Statutes of the former ( judges) have proclaimed the 
the Brocmen, p. 130. peace ( this statute for the public securi- 
ty) by the mulct mentioned. Let stone- 
cutting cease through all the land, but {except in building) monks' and God's 
houses by the mulct mentioned. 

98. From this example it may be seen that the text is corrupt, and 
cannot be cited without employing some criticism. It suffices, however, to 
show the extreme jealousy of a free people for their liberty, so as even not 
to allow the building of a house of stone, or of more than two stories 
above a cellar, that the possessor might not thence annoy his countrymen, 
and use his house as an instrument of tyranny. Building their churches 
alone of stone, they fortified them at the same time, together with the 
surrounding parishes ; and this forming a single connected stronghold, they 
retired there after the loss of a battle, and defended at the same moment 
the two dearest possessions of mankind, their liberty and their altars, 
against the insults of oppression. It is for this reason that Friesland does 
not offer any ruins of castles of the middle age to the eye of the antiquary, 
which are of so frequent occurrence on the borders of the Rhine and 
almost in every part of Europe. They still retain their ground, name, 

• A.-S. curan eiigere. b A. -8. mar mums. 

• led. geigr offensa, clades. * A.-S. scir purusi 

• An there. r A.-S. fade spatium. f A.-S. mearc moneta quesaam. 
fc A.-S. andfon accipere. * A.-S. erra, »ra prior. J A.-S. cyfcan notum facere. 

k A.-S. sten lapis, abege ictus, tlecge malleus major. Frs. v. ilei malleus major ligneus. 


language and national character, the only remnant of Friesian antiquity 
unknown to the travelling antiquary, whose eyes are attracted by the 
more glaring objects of old walls, palaces, tombs, and castles. It is most 
likely that we are indebted to these statutes for the absence of any vaulted 
cellar in Friesia. What castles there are, owe their origin to the fatal 
internal wars of the Schieringers and Vetkopers in the 14th and 15th 
centuries. The Friesians, however, stood not in want of cellars as they 
do not like any salted vegetables, or vegetables at all ; flour, peas and beans, 
salted meat in the winter, and some fresh in summer, being their ordinary 
food, they do not lay up any provisions. I speak from the experience of 
my own childhood, when every one, in winter as well as summer, daily 
bought what he wanted, and a single cellar was amongst the curiosities 
of the village and its neighbourhood. 

99. § VI. Ther ne mot nen mon There must no man sell the goods 
siner wiwe god wrkapie* er thet hia ( bona possessions) of his wife before they 
kinder 1 * to hape* tein d hebbath. — have reared children. 
Amasga-riuchty p. 59. 

§ LXV. Hvasa* annen vnscheldigen Whoso arrests an unguilty {innocent) 

mon feth sunder ther rediewe willa sa man without the will (autlwrity) of the 

breckt hi en grat mere anda alsa ful to judge, he so breaks (forfeits) a great 

bote/ — p. 84. mark (to the judge) and as much to the 

injured person. 

§ LXXI. Ther ne mey nen inunik There may no monk, as he is with- 

nene erfhisse ieftha lawa fagie alsa hi drawn (from the world), fetch (accept) 

biiewen is fon feider noch fon moder, fon an inheritance or leavings ( bequests) from 

suster noch fon broder noch fon sine father or from mother, from sister or 

fnundem; nen god wither eruie* ther hi from brother, or from his friends ; (on 

innath* claster brocht heth ieftha inna the contrary) also let nobody give, by 

claster wunnen heth. — p. 89. way of legacy, any possession he has 

brought into (won in) the cloister. 

100. Let us now pass over the Ems in the northern part of the kingdom 
of the Netherlands, called the province of Groningen [en de Ommelan- 
den], containing close to the sea the district of Hunsingo. 

Prima Petitio. 
Thet is thiu forme kest end' thes This is the first statute and the gift 
kenenges Kerles jeft end' riucht alra 1 of king Charles, and the right of all 

* A.-S. ceapian enure et vendere; Fr$. v. keapje emere, forkeapje vend ere, here wrkapie. 

b A. -S. cenned natu*, productus, contracted to cen'd, kind child, like beam Jilius, from 
beran /err* utero, hio kennefc or bereft sunu pariet filium. R. Mt. 1, 21. 

* A.-S. heapum by troops ; to hape in a tingle heap, i. e. together. 

* Tia producere, part tegen, contr. tein productu* ; A.-S. teon ducere, part tegen vet togen. 

* A.-S. swa hwylcman swa quicumque homo. 

f Bote, A.-S. bote reparation [of the harm] to the injured person. But A.-S. brecan to 
break, relates to the breaking of the law, and indicates the mulct to be paid to the representor 
of the law, the judge. 

I A.-S. yrf, erf, pecan, bona, hareditas. b Inna ith. 

1 Hwelic, contr. A.-S. hwelc, omnium hominum quitque, air a monna hwelic. 

* K 



Fresena thet alra monna hwelic and Friesians, that every one occupies his 
sine gode bisitte* alsa longe saret b unfor- possessions as long as he has not for- 
werkat* hehhe. — p. 2. feited them. 

Thet is thiu tiande kest thet Fresan 
ni thuren nene hereferd d firra fara sa 
aster tore 6 Wisere and wester to tha 
Fli he thiu thet hia hira lond bihelde* 
wither thet hef* and wither there he- 
thena here. Tha bed thi kenenk Kerl 
thet hia firra tha hereferd fore aster til 
Hiddes h eckere ande wester til cinc- 
fallura. 1 tha bihelden hit tha liude wither 
thene keneng thet hia nene hereferd 
firra fara ne thorste sa aster til there 
wisere and wester to tha Fli. truch thet 
sa scelen alle Fresa fon tha North liudem 
friJ wesa. — Keranfon Hunesgena londe, 
p. 6. 


This is the tenth statute, that the 
Friesians need not follow a campaign 
further eastward than to the Weser, and 
westward to the Flie; that they may 
hold their land against the sea, and 
against the host of the heathens (North- 
men). Then king Charles bade that they 
should fare {follow) the campaign further 
eastward to Hitsakker, and westward to 
Sinkfal. Then the people maintained 
their right against the king, that they 
needed not fare (follow) the campaign 
further eastward than to the Weser, and 
westward to the Flie. Through this all 
Friesians shall be free (protected, se- 
cured) from the north. 

101. Over the river Lauwers, now but a brook, we pass into Old- 
Friesia, properly so called. 

Old-Friesian Laws. 

Dat oder landriucht is. 
hweerso dyo moder her 
kyndes eerwe foerkapet, 
jefta foerwixled k niit her 
fryonda reed eer dat kind 1 
jerich is; als hit jerich se 
likje him di kaep so halde 

Dat 6arel6an-riuchtis: 
hwersa dy m6ar m hjar 
berns erfscip forkeapet of 
forwixeltmei hjar freonen 
ried foar *t it bern jirrich 
is ; as it jirrich is, liket a 
him dy keap, sa halde hy 

The other land right is : 
whenever the mother sells 
the inheritance of her 
child, or exchanges (it) 
with rede (counsel) of her 
friends (kindred), before 
the child is of age ; when 

* A.-S. besittan possidere. b g a er het. 
c A.- 8. wyrcasifacere. A.- 8. forwyrcan/arfendo perdere, amittere, mulctari. 

d A.-S. here exercitue, fere iter. Thus the A.- 8. heregang irruptio, faran ire. 

« To there. ' A.-S. behealdan custodire. 

* A.-S. ofer heafo super mare, Beow. Ed. Kemble, 1833, p. 171. 

h A little town or village near Danneberg, close to the Elbe— at present, Hitzacker. 

1 Sinkfal close to the mouth of the Schelde. See Van Wijn and Siccama, cited §36. It 
is now called het Zwin and het Hazegat. 

i Frisian protegere. 

k The word wixelje, whose theme wix or wex, is obvious nearly in all kindred dialects ; 
it sounds in A.-S. wrix. A.-S. wrixian permutare. The Scots, however, use to irhtisle. 

1 Kynd is unknown in the Country-Friesic, as in the A.-S. and Eng. 

■ Moar is now used in contempt, or to indicate the mother of a beast The term equal to 
mother is mem. 

* Lykje and A.-S. lician are neuter verbs with the regimen of a dative, like the Lat. in 
placet mihi, mannum lycafc hominibus placet. In English, the neuter signification has 
nearly degenerated into the active ; for to like signifies more to approve with preference, than 
to please. 



bitten* ende liker b hiin v t him, in lykke er him 

naet so fare hit" oen syn net sa farre hy it 6an syn 

ayn eerwe sonder stryd ein erfscip sonder striid in 

ende sonder schulde. sonder scild. 

So hwaso dat kind bi- 
fiucht jefta birawet op syn 
ayn eerwe so breckt hy 
tyen lyoedmerck ende u> 
jens dine frana d dat sint 
xxi schillingen : ende alle 
da lyoed agen him to 
helpen ende di frana, dat 
hy comme op syn ayn 
eerwe, deer hy eer hi 
riuchta aechte : hit ne se 
dat hioet* seld habbe jef 
seth, jef willed truch dera 
tria haudneda een, deer 
hio dis kyndes des lives 
mede hulp. Dyo forme 
need is: hweerso een 
kynd jong is finsen ende 
fitered noerd wr hef, jefta 
suther wr birgh/soe moet 
dio moder her kyndes 
eerwe setta ende sella 
ende her kynd lesa ende 
des lives bihelpa. Dioe 
oder need is jef da jere 
diore wirdet ende di heta 
honger wr dat land faert 
ende dat kynd honger 
stera wil, so moet dio 
moder her kyndes eerwe 
setta ende sella ende capia 
her hern ku« ende ev h 

Hwasa it bern benucht 
of bestelt op syn eigen erf 
sa brekt hy tsjien ljomerk 
in tsjin de frana binne dat 
ienintweintich sceljen, in 
al de ljo haw we de frana in 
him to helpjen, dat hy op 
syn ein erf komt der 't 
him eren nei riuchten ta- 
kaem, as it net is dat hja 
it forkoft bet, of forset, 
of wixle troch ien fen de 
try e haedneden, der hja it 
berns libben mei holp. 
Dy eerste need is : hwersa 
ien bern jong is finsen 
in fitere noard oer se of 
suwdlik oer berch, sa 
mat de m6ar hjar berns 
erfscip forsette in forkeap- 
je, in hjar bern losse 
in it libben beholpje (be- 
warje). De 6are need 
is : as de jirren djoer 
wirde in de hjitte honger 
oer it loan fart in it 
bern fen honger stjerre 
wol, sa mat de m6ar 
hjar berns erfscip forsette 
in forkeapje, in keapje 
hjar bern ky ! in eikes 
(sciep) in koarn der me 

he is of age, likes he the 
bargain, let him hold it (to 
the purchaser), and does 
he not like it, let him fare 
(enter) on his own inheri- 
tance without strife and 
without debts. 

Whoever fights or be- 
reaves the child on his own 
ground, he forfeits ten lede- 
marks (marks to be paid to 
the people as wronged), 
and to the king's attorney 4 
the mulct is xxi shillings; 
and all the lede (people) 
ought to help him and the 
king's attorney, that he 
may come to his own in- 
heritance, which he owned 
before by right ; unless she 
has sold, or set (pawned), 
or exchanged it through 
one of the three head needs 
(necessities) by which she 
helped the life of the child. 
The first need is: when- 
ever a child is made prison- 
er and fettered* northward 
over the sea, or southward 
over the mountains, the 
mother must set (pawn) 
and sell her child's inherit- 
ance, and release her child 
and save its life. The 
other need is : if the years 
become dear, and sharp 
hunger goes over the land, 
and the child will starve 1 
of hunger, then the mother 

* Hi it him. * Like er. • Hi it 

* From/ro, properly the first, frea dominus, and frana the lord, t. e. the king's attorney in 
the court of justice ; summus, princeps, t. e. judex populi, § 48. 

* Hioe it, effer hjoe it f A.-S. beorh, byrg coUis, arx, civitas ; borough. 

* Ku cow. Of ku pL Lf. 91, 93, 152. A.-S. cu, cow, pi. cu, gen. cuna. 
h A.-S. Eowu ovis matrix; ewe. 

* Kou cow, pi. ky ; y sounds like e in me, or like the Dut ij in my. i A.-S. feter pedica. 

k Starve is not to be derived from Dut. sterven to die, but from Ic. at starfa laborare, arum- 
nit premi. For to starve, is to suffer all sorts of miser}', in use chiefly that of hunger ; for 
this reason starveling, properly arumnosus, is used in the sense of hungry, lean, pining. Lye 
has stearfian without authority ; but steorfa pestis is in Lup. I., where Lye properly cites the 
English phrase, A starfe take you, te pestis ptrdat. Dut. sterven to die, is'not the first, but the 
second meaning. 



ende coern, deerma da 
kinde des Hues mede 
helpe. Dyo tredde' need 
is : als dat kynd is al 
stocknaken* jefta huus- 
laes, ende dan di tiues- 
tera b nevil c ende calda 
winter oen com t, so faert 
aller manick oen syn hof d 
ende oen syn hub ende 
an waranne* gat en, ende 
da wylda dier seket dyn 
holla baem ende der 
birgha hly, aldeer hit syn 
lyf oen bihalda mey ; sa 
weinet f ende scryt* dat 
onjeriga kind ende wyst h 
dan syn nakena lyae ende 
syn huuslaes ende syn 
fader deer hiin reda schuld 
to jenst dyn honger ende 
winter nevil cald dat hi 
so diepe ende dimme 
mitta fiower neylen is 
onder eke ende onder 

it bern mei yn 't libben 
helpt (halt). De tredde 
need is : as it bern alie- 
ned st6akneaken of hu ws- 
leas is, in den de tsjus- 
tere nevel in de kalde 
winter 6ankomt, sa fart 
( tsjocht) alle man yn syn 
hoaf in yn syn huws in 
yn warjende gatten, in 
de wylde djier siikje de 
holle beam in de lyte 
fen de bergen, der it 
syn liif yn behalde mei ; 
sa weint in scriemt it 
onjirrige bern in wiist 
den syn neakene lea in 
syn huwsleazens, in syn 
faer, der him rede scoe 
tsjin de honger in de 
winter-nevel-kalde, that 
hy sa djip in dimster 
(tsiuster) mei de fjouwer 
neilen onder de iik in onder 
de ierde is besletten in be- 

must set (pawn) and sell 
her child's inheritance, and 
buy her child cows and 
ewes and corn, wherewith 
the life of the child is 
helped (preserved). The 
third need is: when the 
child is stark-naked, or 
houseless, and then the 
dark fog and the cold 
winter come on, when 
every man fares (enters) 
his house and its appurte- 
nances, and lurking holes, 
and the wild deer (beasts) 
seek the hollow beam ( tree) 
and the lee 1 of the moun- 
tains, where it may save 
its life; then moans and 
weeps the minor child, and 
shows his naked limbs and 
his being houseless, and 
[points at] his father, who 
should provide for him 
against hunger and the 

* A.-S. stoc stipee, truncus ; stock. b A.-S. poster dark. 

* A.-S. newelnys nubes. d A.-S. hdfdomus, spelunca. 

* A.-S. warian to defend, wariande, by assimilation, waranne, part pres. act defending 
Wara, inf. Sch. 103, a. to defend. The first stronghold was an enclosure, and the root of the 
signification of the verb is in A.-S. waer septum. Went or wer hedge, fence, Lf. 204. 

f A.-S. Wanian plorare. Wcine is in Frs. v. to moan like a sick man, sc. to croon. 

8 Likewise scria to weep, from /re/, kria quteri ; led. at krita minurire, or rather from to 
cry, also to scream : Frs. v. scrieme to weep, from A.-S. hreman. 

h A.-S. wisian to show, obvious in weather-wiser. 

1 The root hie and le exists in A.-S. hligan : \>e \>ec men hligafc which incline thee to man ; 
where the reading of hnigafe for hligafc is to no purpose at all, Cd. 235, 25, Ed. Thorpe. 
The Icelanders have the same root in their hlickr obtiquitas, curvamen. To this is perhaps 
also related A.-S. ligan, (inclinare) cubare,jacere, (tegere) mentiri. Moes. hksp.tabernaculum, 
shows that the aspiration originally belonged to Moes. tigan jacere. The other form, Moes. 
laugnjan, nearly equivalent to Goth, liugan (tegere) mentiri et uxorem ducere, whence A.-S. 
leogan to lie, signifies to hide and to deny, in which the same transition of the sense is obser- 
vable. In the same manner, A.-S. J?acian tegere, and Moes. Gott. thahan tacere. 

The second form is furnished with a d in J eel. at hi Ida inclinare, cedere, obedire, from Icel. 
hlid devexitas vel lotus montis, whence also Dan. en fjeldlie. Lida, besides the A, takes also 
* and g in to slide and to glide, per devexa labi. To cover by inclining, hence A.-S. hlid 
covering, pot lid ; Ems. Land. 8, 82, hlid eyelid; Frs. v. eachlid, hd potlid; Icel. hlid ostium, 
porta (the cover of the entrance). The Goths had likewise this form in their hleithvaa tent. 

I return to le without a final consonant, A.-S. hleo covering, shelter, refuge; Ah. 86, place 
sheltered from the wind. Tlte lee side, Dut. de lij (a sea term) the side of the ship not exposed to 
the wind. As the sailor must determine the situation of surrounding objects from the relative 
position of his vessel, the coast opposite to his lee-side is called by nim the lee-shore, though 
it is the shore towards which the wind blows, and necessarily must blow. The sailor does 
not regard the position of the shore as to the wind, but as to the sides of his vessel, and lee 
in this phrase denotes too, calm, quiet. I was induced to make these remarks to silence an 
objection of Dr. Jamieson, who concludes, from the signification of lee-shore, that lee, Scot. 
le, cannot be sheltered from the wind, and derives the word from Icel. la, lea. See Todd's 
Johnson in loco, Jamieson in loco. 

IV. 102, 108. 


da eerda bisloten* ende 
bitacht; b so moet dio 
moder her kindes eerwe 
setta ende sella, om dat 
hio da bihield c habbe 
ende biwaer also lang so 
hit onjerich is, dat hit 
oen forste ner oen hoen- 
ger naet forfare.* 

ditsen ; sa mat de m6ar 
hjar berns erfscip forsette 
in forkeapje, om dat bja 
it opsicht het in de be- 
waring sa lang as it on- 
jirrich is, dat it 6an froast 
of 6an honger net for- 
farre (forreisgje, stjerre). 

wintry fog- cold, that he 
so deep and dim (dark) is 
locked up and covered un- 
der the oak and under the 
earth with four nails (spikes 
to fasten tlie coffin) : so the 
mother must set (pawn) 
and sell her child's inherit- 
ance, since she has the 
keeping and guarding as 
long as [the child] is under 
age, that it dies not from 
frost or from hunger. 

102. Let us now pass over the Zuiderzee, formerly the northern 
outlet of the Rhine, and by the irruptions of the German ocean enlarged 
to a mediterranean sea. The Friesians living on that side were ever the 
object of the tyranny of the Dutch counts, [Hollandsche Graven,] and 
after a furious struggle of three hundred years, in which their love of 
freedom and undaunted bravery recalled the days of Greece, they were at 
last subdued by the united forces of the Count and Emperor. Political 
power, assisted by the influence of the priests, soon triumphed in spoiling 
their national language and character. The country is, however, in some 
maps still marked Westfriesland, now called Noordholland ; and when at 
Amsterdam you pass the Y, a narrow water separating this town from 
Westfriesland, you perceive distinctly that you are amongst another 
people. The peculiarities of Zaandam, Broek, and other villages by 
which the inhabitants of North Holland are distinguished from other 
Dutchmen, are too well known to be recorded here. I will only mention 
the particular, that the peasants of Waterland spoke Friesic till the 
middle of the 17th century. 

103. We pass from North to South Holland. As we proceed and 
approach nearer to Sincfalla, (now the Swin or Hazegat, on the left side 
of the mouth of the Scheld,) the ancient southern border of Friesia, we 
find the Friesians, who were thinly scattered along the coasts, were the 
earlier blended with their more powerful neighbours. Nor are any 
traces of their tongue and character to be found, except in a few names of 
villages. It, however, deserves our attention, that the Flemish tongue 

• Read bialetten, part prat pass, of the verb bisluta to enclose. Hence the Scot, to slott to 
bolt. The root is Moet. and A.-S. lukan to close, preceded by the sibilation. 

b Bitekka to cover, bitacht covered. A.-S. J>eccan to cover, |>eaht covered. Hence taker* 
the case which covers and holds the feathers of a bed. Takeres-jefta the sum paid by the bride to 
her brother-in-law for ceding her his half in the bed of her man, Frs. I. 29. The Dutch in full 
beddetijk, and by ellipsis tijk, like the Eng. tick ; Frs. v. teek, from A.-S. f>ecan. It is singu- 
lar that the Eng. thatch, and the Frs. v. tek, have passed both in the special signification of 
straw laid upon the top of a house to keep out the weather. 

c A.-S. beheoldan custodire, despicere ; to behold. The Frs. v. have behalda to keep, to have ; 
bat not in the signification of to view. 

d A.-S. forfaran perire, compounded of for and faran to go, as perire of per and ire. 

70 FRIESIC — FRIESIA PROPER. IV. 104 — 108. 

now in use in that part of Belgium, bordering the southern frontier of 
Friesia, has retained a great many Friesian forms of words. 

104. It is for the third time that I return to Jutland, to investigate the 
relics of the Friesian tongue, still existing in some dialects. 

105. The remains of the Friesic on the western coast, conterminous to 
that of the Angles, have been mentioned, § 93. 

106. East- Friesia, lying between the Ems and the Jade, has forfeited 
all its claims to Friesian nationality. About the end of the 17th 
century, the people still spoke Friesic, though greatly corrupted by broad 
Low-Saxon. I am in possession of the celebrated Memorial* Lingua 
Friesic (B y exhibiting the state of this language in 1691, composed by 
Johannes Cadovius Muller, the clergyman of Stedesdorf. 

107. On the east side of East-Friesia, lies a small tract of country 
enclosed by the Ems and the Lee, which from its marshy ground is in- 
accessible during several months of the year ; it is called Sagelterland, or 
Saterland, where Friesic is still spoken. In this retired spot, which has 
no way of access, and offers no allurements to strangers in hopes of gain, 
many thousand words represent the true sounds of Friesian speech. 

Amongst these many bear a striking resemblance to English words, not apparent 
in the present Country-Friesic. For instance, SageL ji ; Frs. v. ja ; Eng. yes ; 
J&.-S. gise. SageL jier; Frs. v. jier; Eng. year; A.-S.gkBX. Sagel.Mddel ; Frs. 
v. lyts ; Frs. h. lyk ; Eng. little. SageL noase ; Frs. v. noas ; Eng. nose ; A-.S. 
nose. Sagel. queden ; Eng. imperf. quoth ; A.-S. cweftan. SageL slepen ; Frs. v. 
aliepe; Eng, to sleep. SageL two; Frs. v. twa; Eng. two; A.-S. twa. SageL 
fiaurtin ; Frs. v. fjirtjin ; Eng. fourteen : and as to the shades of signification in 
such words as SageL miede meadow ; Frs. v. miede hayland. Saterland, forming 
part of the kingdom of Hanover, has the same king as England. 

108: We lastly enter Friesia, properly so called, which is surrounded 
on the north, west, and south, by the Zuiderzee, forming almost a penin- 
sula, and frequented little by strangers, unless it be for the sake of 
commerce. Here the Friesians have manifested their national feelings ; 
here Tacitus and his contemporaries fixed their residence ; here the Frie- 
sians dwelt in past ages, and, through all the vicissitudes of time, here 
they remain to the present day. It is for this reason that the French 
geographer observes : " Dixhuit siecles ont vu le Rhin changer son cours et 
l'ocean engloutir ses rivages ; la nation Frisonne est rest6e debout comme 
un monument historique, digne d'interesser egalement les descendans des 
Francs, des Anglo-Saxons, et des Scandinaves."* This country bears the 
simple name of Friesia [Friesland], which has continued unaltered through 
all ages, and was respected even by Napoleon himself, who altered all 
other names. The surrounding parts are named according to their relative 
position with regard to this centre ; hence the name of East-Friesia 
between the Ems and the Jade, and West-Friesia on the opposite coast of 
the Zuiderzee. 

* Prtcis de la Geographie Universale, par M. Malte-Brun, torn. i. p. 344, Paris, 1810. 

IV. 109, 110. TXHJNTRY-FRIBSIC OF 1834. 71 

109. It is, however, not merely the name which distinguishes Old- 
Friesia in the present day, it is also the language of its inhabitants, 
which, from the circumstance of its being unintelligible to the Dutch, still 
proves itself to be Friesian. At least a hundred thousand persons speak 
the language commonly called Country-Friesic, which on comparison 
will be found to possess more true Anglo-Saxon sounds than any other 
dialect In § 101, 1 have already given a specimen of the Old-Friesic of 
the 13th century, with a Country-Friesic version. I shall now add 
another specimen, being a literal version of some stanzas by the Countess 
of Blessington, occurring in the Book of Beauty of the year 1834. 

110. This and the other specimen (§ 101) exhibit the Country-Friesic 
in its present state. 

Country-Friesic. Stanzas by the Countess of Blessington. 

Hwat bist dou, libben ?• What art thou, Life ?• 

Ien wirch b stribjen c A weary strife 

Fen pine, noed d in soarch ; Of pain, care, 6 and sorrow ; 

Lange oeren fen smerte, Long hours of grief/ 

In nochten* — ho koart ! And joys — how brief ! 

Det fordwine de moarns. That vanish the morrow. 

Dead, hwat bist dou, Death, what art thou, 

Ta hwaem alien buwgje, To whom all bow, 

Fen de scepterde kening ta de slawe P From sceptred king to slave P 

De laetste, bseste freon, h The last, best friend, 

Om uws soargen to eingjen, Our cares to end, 

Dyn gebietis yn 't graf. Thy empire is in the grave. 

Wenneer se alien binne fled When all have fled 

Jouwst dou ien bsed, Thou giv'st a bed, 

Waer wy kalm yn sliepe : Wherein we calmly 1 sleep : 

De wounen alle hele, The wounds all heal'd, 

De digerige eagen segele, The dim j eyes seal'd, 

Dy lang diene* wekje in gepje. 1 That long did wake and weep. 

• & « As strife is to stribjen, so is life to libben, § 63. 

b From wirich, A.-S. wehg/atigatus, by contraction wirch. d Noed solicitude, risk. 

« Moet. A.-S. car, and Eng. care, all signifying cura, find their original signification in the 
Frs. v. kar choice. For as the Dut. proverb says, Keus baart angst in optione cura. 

f The word grief is Eng. and Dut., whence the Fr. grief. It is not from gravis, but from 
Dut. grieven to stab ; the same with greva to dig, Frs. I. 303 ; Dut. graven, whence Eng. 
grave; A.-S. graft sculptura; A.-S. graef; Frs. v. graef grave. 

s Nocht pleasure, properly plenty, from noach, A.-S. noh enough, or noachje to satisfy.} 

h The Old-Friesic has friond, Asg. bk. 20, 91 ; Frs. I. 162, and friund, being part act of 
the verb fria to love, court. The Frs. v. agrees with the A.-S. freond in freon, pronounced 
also frjeun. Friend is the Dut. form vriend. 

1 Calm. The analogy of the consonants points out yaXrjvT) as the same word, but the de- 
rivation cannot be pursued further, unless in the Greek itself. 

J Dimme obscure, Asg. bk. 87, b. 

k Diene. A literal version, contrary to the genius of the Friesic, which forms its imp. 
like the A.-S. without the auxiliary verb to do. Low-Saxon characters, however, offer often 
the words, Hier doet men hct niwasschen, mangelen, &c., literally Here men (people) do 
calendering, &c., for calender, calenders. 

1 Gepje. This word is not Frs. v., it is Hindclopian, putting g for ir. 



IV. 111. 

111. The following specimen shows what the same dialect was about 
1650, nearly two centuries earlier. It is a rustic song composed by 
Gysbert Japicx, supposed to be sung by a peasant on his return from a 


Swiet,' ja swiet is % oer 'e miete b 
T Boaskien f6ar* 'e jonge lie ;• 
Krefticb swiet is 't, sizz' ik jiette,* 
As it giet* mei alders rie. a 

Mar 6ars tiget et to n pleach 
As ik 6an rayn geafeint seach. e 


Goune swobke, lit uws pearje, 
Bea hy her mei mylde stemm, 
Ofke, seise, ho scoe 'k it klearje ! f 

Wist du« rie to heite in mem P 
Ljeaf, h dat nim ik to myn laest. 

Dear mey wier dy knote* faest. 

Sweet, yes sweet is over (beyond) measure 
The marrying for the young lede (people) ; 
Most sweet is it, I say yet (once more), 
When it goes with the rede (counsel) of the 

But otherwise it tends to a plague (curse), 
As I saw on (by the example of) my village 


Golden Swobke, let us pair, 

He hade her with a mild voice, 

Ofke, she said, how should (would) 1 clear 

it ! (free from obstacles) 
Knowest thou rede, with father and mother P 
(My) love! I nim (take) this to my last 

(charge) ; 
Therewith the knot was fast 

Da dit pear to gear ,j scoe ite 
In hjee hiene nin gewin, 
Heite k seach, as woe hy bite, 

Mem wier stjoersch in lef fen sin. 

When this pair should (would) eat together, 
And they had no gain (livelihood), 
Father (the husband) saw as if he would 

bite (looked angry) ; 
Mother (the wife) was stern and cross of 

• It is the genius of the Anglo-Friesic, 1st, to change the u alter #, obvious in all other 
dialects, into the consonant w ; thus suet becomes sw£t : 2nd. to change the e into t ; swet, 
A.-S. swete, whether written or not with t, is pronounced like t. In the same way, lede 
people, rede counsel, were pronounced lide, ride, by contraction Fr$. v. lie, rie. 

b Miete, at present Frs. v. mjitte. « F6ar, at present Frs. v. foar. 

d Yet present Frs. v. just as it is pronounced in English. It is the Anglo-Friesic fashion 
to change g into y in many instances where all other dialects retain the g. Thus Old Eng. 
yern readily ; Frs. v. jern ; jerne, Asg. bk.2,b; A.-8. georn. Yesterday, Fn. v. jister ; A.-S. 
gistra. Old Eng. to yet to pour ; Fr$, v. jitte ; A.S. geotan. Yet adhuc, Frs. v. yet ; A.-S. 
gyt Yond ibi, Frs. v. jinder ; A.-S. geond. The German-Saxon dialect uses jot for gott 

« Seach saw, sea-gen videbant; A.-S. seah videbat; A.S. seagon videbani. 

* Klearje, at present kljerje. 

8 This du is now become dou, as the A.-S. bu sounds in the present Eng. thou. Tongues 
of the same original frame show the same development in their consonants as in their vowels. 

h Ljeaf, A.-S. leof charus. 

1 Kn6-te, present Frs. v. knotte, an ellipsis for love-knot. It was a knotted handkerchief 
in which was a coin; when presented by the woer and accepted by the maiden, the knot 
was fastened. 

J To geare, now to gjerre, contr. for A.-S. geader to gather ; compounded of ge and eader 
septum, septo includi, i. e., conjunetim ; together, to encompass. 

k This word heite father is Frs. v. and Moes. atta pater, aithei mater. I wonder that the 
word is neither in the Old-Friesic nor in the A.-S. 

IV. 111. 



Ofke, sei se, elk jierien bern • . . Ofke, she said, each (every) year a child . . . 
Wier ik faem! a Ik woe 't so jera. b Were I maiden ! I would (wish) it so yern 

(so willingly). 
4 4 

Hoite in H6atske e sneins d to keamer 
Mekken 't mei elk6arme klear. 
Tetke krigge Sjolle-kreamex* 
To sint Eal by wyn in bjear. 
Nu rint elk om as ien slet f 
In bekleye 't : mar to let 

Oeds die better nei ik achtje 
Da f by Ssets syn trou h tosei ; 
Hy liet de alders even plachtje* 
Hwet se 6an elke ich* joene mei. 

Nu besit hy haws in schuwr', 
In syn bern fleane alle man uwr. 

Ork, myn soan, wolt du bedye, k 
Rin naet oan allyk ien moll' ! l 
Jeld in rie lit mei dy frye, 
Bern, so gean' dyn saken wol ; 
Den scil de himel uwr dyn dwaen 

Lok in mylde seining' jaen. m 

Hoite and Hoatske every Sunday in the inn 
Made it clear (settled it) with each other. 
Tetke got Sjolle the pedlar 
To St Alofs fair unto wine and bear. 
Now each runs about as a slut, 
And complains (of) it, but too late. 

Oeds did better in my opinion 
When he said (gave) his troth to Saets ; 
He let the elders even plight (contract) 
What they on each edge (side) gave with 

(the married couple). 
Now he possesses house and barn, 
And his children outdo all men. 

Ork, my son, wouldst thou prosper, 
Run not on all like a mole ; 
Let age and rede (good counsel) woo thee, 
Child, then thy affairs go well ; 
Then the heaven shall (will) give over thy 

Luck (fortune) and mild (liberal) blessings. 

* Faem, in the dialect of Hindelopen, faen maiden ; A.-S.famna. virgo. The common 
Greek yvwn is a corruption of the Doric fava, corresponding with the Lot. fcemina, and the 
Anglo- Friesic fana ; for the Greek j8 corresponds with the Ger. p. sometimes going over to/. 
I wonder this word, obvious in A.-S. and Friesic, is totally lost in Eng. 

b See note ( d ) at p. ixxii. on jiette. 

* Hoatse, the proper name of a man, becomes that of a female by adding ke, Hoatske, at 
present Hoatse and Hoatske. A great many of these proper names of the Friesians are 
become familiar names in Eng. by adding son. Thus, Watse, Ritse, Hodse, Gibbe, Friesian 
proper names, become Watse-son, Ritse-son, Hodse-son, Gibbe-son ; in the Friesian syntax, 
the son of Watse, &c. by contraction, Watson, Ritson, Hodson, Gibbson (Gibbon). 

d Snein Sunday, Senen-dei, by contraction Sneen-dei, and casting away dei, Sneen, whence 
Soien and Snein. The Hindelopians still say Senne-dei or Sendei. Gabbema, p. 30, has 
8onendei ; and the Charter-boek, I. p. 534, 536, Snaynde dies solis : dei is also cast away in 
frie, and Frs. v. freed Fri-day. Correct, Junius, Gloss. Goth. p. 310. 

* From Frs. v. kream, Scot, craim a merchant's stall, is derived krcamer a merchant in a stall. 
r The etymology of slut is not apprehended either by Johnson, Jamieson, or Tooke. From 

A.-S. slidan to slide ; Dut. sleden labi, trahere, comes sledde traha, now sled. The other 
form is sletan or slutan, producing Frs. v. slet a clout, towel, a dirty woman, and Eng. slut a 
dirty woman. The Friesians in the same way form sleep a slut, from Frs. v. sleepje trahere. 
t A.S. |>a, the same as Frs. v. da then, is not in Eng. 

* Ttovl fidelity ; A.-S. treowa, treowS ; Scot, trouth truth ; Scot, to trow to believe. 

1 Plachtje to plead, bargain. It is the same word as A.-S. plihtan spondere, oppignorare. 

i A.-S. ecge forms by assimilation egge, Asg. bk. 273, edge (of a sword) ; igge, Asg. bk. 365 . 
Igge or ich means here side, part, as in Scot, the edge of a hill, the side and the top of a hill. 

k For be the A*-S. used ge, as ge-^ean to thrive ; the e pronounced like t, thia in Friesic, 
whence di-ja, i. e. dye. 

1 Mole is an ellipsis for mouldwarp, i.e. A.-S. moldweorp, as molle is for the common 
Frs. v. mol-wrot, from molde terra, and A.-S. wrotan, Frs. v. wrotte rostro vcrsare. The Scots 
use by inversion of letters mawdiwart and moudiewort. The Eng. mouldwarp has warp from 
the A.-S. wand-wyrp, properly the tnm-cast, i.e. who casts up mould by turning it. 

■ Frs. v. jaen to give, Frs. I. 26, 28, and a to oioe, Frs. 1.63. 101, for Scot, ga' to give. 
* L 


112. To give some idea of the Hindelopian dialect, I shall add a few 
lines which I found written above the months of January, February, and 
May, in a Hindelopian calendar for seamen. The Hindelopians were 
formerly all seamen, even in the beginning of the present century. 

J an uar ius het xxxi deggen. January has xxxi days. 

Nyje deggen,* nyje winscen, New days, new wishes, 

Nyje re b (an nyje minschen ! New rede (counsel) of new men. 

Weer us liwen ek* su ny Were our life (conduct) eke so (also as) new 

Sunden wardven lichst d fan fry. We grew lightly free from sins. 

Februarius het xxviii deggen. February has xxviii days. 

Silers 6 ineye winters reste/ Sailors may rest in winter, 

Th 6s tu blieuwen mut jerm leste ; To stay at home ( to house) must please them. 
Lot 8 men iertske surg mer stan (If) one let earthly sorrow more stand (be) 

Mengwar* scoe men better dwan. Many times we should (would) do better. 

Majus het xxxi deggen. May has xxxi days. 

As we tommelje oeuwer 't wetter 1 As we tumble (are tossed) over the water 
HeuweJ 't slim k en soms hwet better. (Then) we have it slim (bad m ) and some- 
times (then) what (a little) better. 
Su s de wrald ek as de *&, So the world is eke (also) as the sea, 

Soms fol kurje, 1 soms fol n&. Sometimes full of delight, sometimes full of 


• As we hare had in the preceding last for last a burden, f&st for fast, let for late, so here 
deggen for daggen. The A.-S. used also feast, d«g : but what may be the reason why the 
Eng. in a thousand such words write a, although they hare ever retained the old pronuncia- 
tion of e ? Does this oddity date from the time when a, losing entirely its genuine meaning, 
was called e ? 

b Re, contraction of the Old Eng. rede counsel. 

• Frs. o. eak ; A.-S. eac ; Hindi, ek, contr. of Old Eng. eke also. 

d It is a very remarkable property of the HindL dialect to insert * between ch and r; lichst 
for licht light ; ansichst visage ; suchst sickliness ; for ansicht (A.-S. onsien vultus, sight) sucht 

e I have not found this word in the particular signification of a seaman anywhere but in 
Eng. and Hindi. In Dut. een zeiler is a sailing vessel ; and in Frs. v. siler is a swimmer. 

( We have k in the Ger. ruhe and the Dot. rust, but e, originating from «, in the Anglo- 
Friesic rest. 

S Lot let ; Frs. v. lit 

h Mengwar is a compound of menig (men-ig) many ; and A.-S. hweorf (itus et reditu*) 
vices, many times. 

> Wetter: in this wordtheEng. is inconsequent by retaining the broad a in the pronunciation. 

i Heuwe we have ; Frs. v. wy hawwe. 

• Slim bad, wrong ; properly curved, crooked ; Did. KU. slimvoet loripes ; slim distort us. In 
the same way, wrong (aerived from A.-S. wringan, Frs. v. wringe to wring) is properly tortus. 
This primary signification of wringing is likewise in A.-S. slincan, slingan to sling; whence the 
frequentative form Frs. v. slingerje, and in slang a snake. In Dut. as in the north of England, 
slim tortuous has the analogical signification of sly. But slim denotes also wcuk and thin of 
shape in Eng. In feel, lam is a fracture, l&ma. fractns virions, whence at sterna (as Eng. sltm 
from lim litnus) debilitare ; Eng. slim wcalt, slight. It is not impossible that A.-S. lim limb, as 
a fracture, division, or member, belongs to this class. Further we find A.-S. lilaene fain, and 
with the sibilant instead of the aspirate: Dut. Frs. v. slank thin of shape, opposed to the 
swelling of an inflamed wound. Frs. v. linkje to grow less in bulk. Shnk furrow between banks 
in sett. Eng. sum slender, thin of shape. 

1 Kurje security and peace. From A.-S. cvse or eyre electio; kar in the Swed. laws is full 
freedom in his actUms, and security against ah violence in his house. In the same way, Frs. v. 
'w&ld, and A.-S. wela/c/taf;/, is from Did. walen and welen eligere. 

» The form of this word is one of the most ancient extant in the Eng. language not to 
be found in A.-S. nor any Germanic tongue, but only in the Persian Jj bad malignus ; in the 
Mogul language badd. The European form is wad, from A.-S. wedan \ Dut. woeden insanire, 
furcre— whence Dut. k-waad, kwaad bad. 


113. The never-ceasing floods of Germans at last overwhelmed the 
Friesians and their nationality. Had the Friesians sought for some 
refuge in the heart of the ocean, like their English brethren, they would 
have braved the combined force of all the continental tyrants, whether 
crowned, or representing the hydra of democracy. Only the North-Friesic, 
Saterlandic, Sciermonnikoogian, Country-Friesic, and Hindelopian remain 
as fragments that have resisted the influence of invaders to the present 

114. Low-Saxon has prevailed in all the country between Schleswic 
and the Dutch Zuiderzee, once possessed by the Friesians: it varies 
indeed in its dialects being always affected by the tongue of the bordering 
people ; in one part smooth and fluent, in another broad and coarse, as in 
the province of Groningen. All, however, are of an homogeneous nature, 
so that a person acquainted with one of them easily understands all the 

115. Glossaries of all these dialects have been formed. 

Of the dialect of Holstein by J. F. Schutze in his Hols leinisc lies Idiotikon, 4 
torn. Hamburg, 1800 ; — of the dialect of Hamburg by Michael Richey, in his 
Idioticon Hamburg ense, Hamburg, 1754 ; — of that of Bremen and Werden by Kelp, 
on which notes are to be found in the Collectanea Etymologic a of Leibnitz I. p. 
33, Hanover, 1717; and not only of the dialect of Bremen, but also of the Low- 
Saxon in general, by a society of Bremish philologists in their Versuch ernes 
Bremisch-Niedersdchsischen W'orterbuchs, Bremen, 1767, 5 vols; it will be un- 
necessary to cite more. I must, however, add, that a specimen of the present East- 
Friesic is to be found in the Sanghfona, a collection of songs and poetry, printed at 
Emden, 1828, Woortman. 

116. While these dialects prevail in those parts of Old-Friesia extend- 
ing from Schleswic nearly to the northern coasts of the Zuiderzee, Dutch 
is spoken in North Holland, South Holland, and Zealand, and Flemish in 
the country surrounding Antwerp, and in Flanders. 

117. I beg leave to draw the attention of the Anglo-Saxon scholar to 
the Low-Saxon glossaries above mentioned. Many hundred Anglo-Saxon 
words will be elucidated, as to their form and meaning, by closely comparing 
them with the Low-Saxon. Low-Saxon has all the appearance of German 
grafted on an Anglo-Friesic tree. The words are Anglo-Friesic with 
German vowels, as if the Friesians, in adopting the German, retained the 
consonants of the old language. This observation may with still greater 
propriety be applied to the syntax and phraseology, that is, to the mental 
part or soul of the language. They continued to think in Anglo-Friesic 
forms, whilst their organs adopted the vowels and some other mechanical 
parts of the German. Hence there is scarcely a single expression or 
phrase extant in Anglo-Saxon, Friesic, or Dutch, of which the parallel is 
not to be found in the Low-Saxon glossaries. In short, it is the Anglo- 
Friesic idiom, with words of Germanic form. This observation also 
explains another phenomenon, which is, that scarcely a single scholar, a 
native of any place on the coast of the German sea, where Low-Saxon is 

7* ?ai£sic — coaauPTioai of L3^u&&. IV. US — 120. 

the ssofher-toogae, nonsenses the true Genis» of the Genua language. 
Thaagh Klopstock was born at Hamburg, jet I rents** to affirm that no 
scholar ot the stamp of T. D. Wiarda is acqaaiaad with the trne spirit of 
the Gerssaa tongue. 

1I*l It » fbc this reason that any os* who rnseiA 
of the Anglo-Saxon, after baring thoroughly inreaDgated the Fricsie and 
Doteh, avast not omit to compare almost every part with the Low-Saxon 
glossaries- This is an important and almost a new task. To this daj the 
syntax of the Anglo-Saxon, r e quirin g a deep insight into the hidden 
spring* of speech, has been bat rndelj developed, only hinted at even bj 
Rash, while the different forms of conjugation and declffrnon hare been 
analyzed with the most minute attention. 

1 19. Moreover, if the syntax of the Anglo-Saxon be the basis of the 
English syntax, as I think it is, notwithstanding a partial degeneration 
since the Norman conquest by a mixture with French,* the absurdity is 
felt (4 modelling the construction of the English according to that of 
corrupt Latin, known by the name of French. The construction of the 
French language, is as regularly arranged as the pipes of an organ, while 
the most diversified inversion, exceeded only by that of the Latin and 
Greek, characterizes the Anglo-Saxon and Friesic ; and the more the 
English is made to differ from this standard of propriety, the more it 
deviates from its original form and its very nature. The diction and 
idiom, forming the mirror of the soul of nations, are in English and 
French as widely different as the character of the respective people. 
Hence the phenomenon, that when a foreigner well acquainted with the 
French easily understands an English author, it is certain that this writer 
is not possessed of the true genius of the English language. Addison 
may be deemed neat, pure, elegant, and fluent — but he is not English. 
Shakspeare wrote English ; in him the English tongue and genius are 

120. Great clamours have arisen about the total corruption of the 
English language by the mixture of French and other foreign words, and 
I readily grant that a rich language, possessed of the power of forming 
compound words from simples, wants no foreign words to express even 
new objects and ideas. But permit me to observe, that the deficiency 
has not hitherto been supplied »with due consideration and taste. For 
when an author (the translator of the Lord's Prayer for instance) uses 
a certain number of foreign words, it is no proof that the English 
language had not words of its own to express the same ideas. The 
fact is, that many thousand foreign words have been introduced when 
native terms already existed, and the English has, in this way, been 
endowed with the power of expressing the same idea by two different 

• " Children in scole against the usage and manir of all othir nations beeth compelled for 
to leve hire owne langagc, and for to construe hir lessons and hir thynges in Frenche." — 
Treviim'8 Trannlatum of llyyderi* Poiychronicon. See " The causes of the corruption of the 
Knglish language/' liouchar's Glossary, Ixmdon, 1832, IntrocL p. 39, 40. 


words — or, what is of still greater value, of appropriating this Dew word to 
mark some modification in the meaning of the indigenous word. In the 
phrases " Forgive us our debts, lead us not into temptation, but deliver us 
from evil," could there not be found amongst all the stores of the English 
language some words to express the ideas of debt, temptation, and deliver ? 
If these words now bear significations somewhat different from those of the 
foreign ones, if foreign words have usurped the office of native ones, this is 
no argument that at all affects the richness and proper essence of the 

121. For a proof of what I have advanced, I beg to refer the English 
reader to the Friesic pieces I have translated into English: this, however 
imperfect, will not I hope be entirely disregarded. 

My object was to show the analogy between the two languages, by translating them 

as literally as possible ; and the cognate words in English which do not perfectly agree 

with the Friesic in sense, I have explained by others in parentheses. In 1200 words 

I have only had recourse to 50 which are not of Saxon origin — a number which 

might be greatly diminished by a scholar thoroughly acquainted with the original 

stores of the English language. At this rate, about every twenty-fourth word of 

the original fund of the language is lost In 125 words in parentheses, I used 

50 foreign words : here one word is lost out of every 2£. The number of words 

was 1200; add the words in parentheses 125, it makes a total of 1325. The 

foreign words in 1200 were 50, and in parentheses, 50, making the sum of 100. Then 


-r— -=13J ; shows that there is one foreign word for every thirteen English. 

122. The stanzas of the Countess of Blessington contain seventy-seven 
words, of which eight are of foreign origin, namely, pain, hours, joy, 
sedPd, vanish, sceptred, empire, brief. Thus in nine and a half English 
terms, one word is exotic. 

123. The foreign words in the English language are, for the most part, 
used to express scientific or abstract ideas, and were introduced from the 
French. These terms, however, do not suit the feelings of the poet ; he 
involuntarily has recourse to the original stores of his native tongue — to 
the varied construction, and the energetic and picturesque diction of the 
Anglo-Saxon — a language formed by his valiant forefathers in their savage, 
that is, poetical state. This remark fully accounts for the phenomenon, 
that a reader who is a little acquainted with French and Latin, easily under- 
stands the writings of an English lawyer, divine, or philosopher, while he 
boggles at every sentence of the poets, whose Anglo-Saxon words and 
construction are equally unknown to him. 

124. The Anglo-Saxon appears greatly disfigured as it is at present 
represented in the English. But as the granting of citizenship to foreign 
words, and the moulding of them to an English form, have led to funda- 
mental laws in the English language, every one will allow the great 
advantage that results from such a change. While all the stores of the 
numberless tongues on the globe became perfectly English when in- 
troduced into England, the Dutch, on the contrary, which may boast of 


exquisite purity, cannot adopt a single word without its bearing the mark 
of its foreign origin. 

125. Finally, it scarcely needs be mentioned, that as genuine English 
words are for the most part Anglo-Saxon, an agreement of Friesic with 
English naturally implies an agreement of Friesic with Anglo-Saxon. 
It is for this reason, that the parallel Anglo-Saxon words are not always 
cited in the specimens in §§ 95, 97, &c. This comparison would also have 
taken too much time to pay due attentiou to the different degrees of 
development by which words of the same age are often distinguished from 
one another. 

126. All that has been said about the analogy between the Anglo- 
Saxon and Friesic, tends to prove that the Friesic tongue is absolutely 
indispensable in determining, as far as it is now possible, the genuine 
pronunciation of the Anglo-Saxon ; and that preceding writers, in passing 
over the Friesic, overlooked au important source of knowledge. 

127. What is less pardonable in modern Anglo-Saxon scholars, is 
their complete ueglect of English in this respect. Their ignorance of the 
English, as of the Friesic, will not, I hope, be alleged as an excuse. Is 
not the English tongue, as to its descent and substance, still a genuine 
daughter of the Anglo-Saxon ? Does she not bear to this very day some 
features of her fair mother, notwithstanding her foreign ornaments ? Do 
not many Anglo-Saxon vowels still exist in Yorkshire, in Scotland, and in 
other provincial dialects of England? May not the English alone boast 
of having preserved the true sound of the old etch (\ IhJ, which has 
disappeared from the whole continent of Europe, so as not even to leave 
the means of forming a faint idea of the sound of this consonant, without 
the aid of the English? Why should we consult only the Gothic, or the 
Icelandic, which is still more remote from the Anglo-Saxon? Why 
should that which is unknown be sought amongst the unknown, rather 
than in that which is known in the remains of the old sounds of the 
language? With a competent knowledge of the subject, and fair induction, 
I presume that no source can afford so much light in the pronunciation 
and other peculiarities of the Anglo-Saxon as the English. 

128. Of late, the accent by which some Anglo-Saxon MSS. are 
marked, is held as one of the most efficient means of ascertaining the true 
pronunciation of the Anglo-Saxon, and Wilkins and other publishers are 
to be blamed for omitting them. It is here necessary to state my opinion 
on this subject. A mark of accent, in modern tongues, may have three 
applications : — 1st. It may denote the stress of the voice on a certain 
syllable, and this is perhaps the only purpose for which the accent (') 
may be lawfully used. 2nd. But, improperly and contrary to its original 
design, it may denote the very nature of the sound of the vowel. 
And 3rd. it may be used to designate the lengthening of a short vowel, 
without altering the nature of its sound. 

In above and comfort, you. hear the short sound of o, and in ghost, potent, tow, we 
have the long sound; but in loose, the very nature of the sound is changed and 


varies from o to the French ou, and in for to au. Suppose pdtent to be noted by 
the accent, and the sound of the o to be unknown to you : what will this accent 
then mean ? Will it signify simply the lengthening of the short o ? or one of the 
four or five modifications of the sound of o ? and which of the modifications P Or 
does it mean that po in potent has the stress ? If no one can ascertain to which of 
these six or seven purposes this single mark is applied, of what use can it be in set- 
tling the pronunciation of Anglo-Saxon P 

129. Let us endeavour to illustrate the subject by some instances from 
Csedmon, published by Mr. Thorpe. 

Is the a longinfa then, (Cd. Th. p. 20, 11,) [J?a, 20, 6,] contrary to the short 
a in Frs. v. da; Mots, than ; Dut. dan then, and agree with the Icelandic \k tune, 
pronounced than or tav ? Or does it denote a inclining to o P Or does it mean 
s modified a little by t ? Is a long in n&man, (Cd. Th. p. 9, 11,) contrary to 
Moes. namo ; Frs. v. namme ; Icel. namn and nafn, which have all short a? Or 
does it mean an inclination of the a to the souud of the old o in oVo/ia and nomen P 
The same question may be applied to ham, (Cd. Th. p. 108, 33,) Eng. home ; and 
we further ask if the accent, in this instance, can also signify the verging of a to 
(Ai) apparent in Maes, haim abode; lcel. beimr domus ; Hesychius tlpaltg 
Toiptynr oIkicu; Frs. v. hiem homestead or the land jus f around a farm-house, en- 
closed by a ditch. What is the pronunciation of engel, ( Cd. Th. p. 137, 1,) written 
engel, p. 137, 23? If the e is long, then it is pronounced eengel, contrary to the 
pronunciation of the continental descendants of the Anglo-Saxous, but agreeing 
with that of their direct posterity the English in their angel P What is the sound 
of f in J?ysne this, (Cd. Th. p. 52, C) ? Is it long, and opposed to the present 
Eng. this, and Frs. v. disse, Asg. bk. 2, 3, 271, 278, thesse; Frs. I. 2, 5, disse ? 
Tell me also the meaning of the accent in life, (Cd. Th. p. 103, 4). Is the vowel 
only lengthened, and life pionounced liife ? Or has it the diphthongal nature of the 
Eng. i in life ? Or is it perhaps like ij in Dut. lijf body ? If the * in witan to 
reproach, (Cd. Th. p. 61, 9,) in wite-hus for lure-house, (p. 3, 21,) differ in its 
sound from i in witan to know, Frs. v. wite, like feel, vita reprehendere from Icel. 
vit ratio, has the t then a long sound as wiitan, or like the Dut. ij in wijten im- 
putare, or ei in weitan ? — What do you say of n in n6in cepit P Must the o only 
be made long, as noom, or is the o modified as if united with a, as in Frs. v. n6am P 
Is the 6 long in b6rd shield, (Cd. Th. p. 193, 28,) contrary to Icel. bord, Dut. 
bord, both being short like Moes. haurd ? Or is it something similar to the Frs. v. 
ou, or Frs. v. oe in boerd ? What is the sound of 6 in wordmn with words ? Is the 
o long as in Dut. woord, opposed to Moes. waurd ; Frs. v. wird ; Icel. ord ? Or is it 
pronounced like woarden, as the inhabitants of the Friesiau towns speak P Or does 
it denote the stress of the voice falling u]K>n wor ? Is on, (Cd. Th. p. 64, 1,) pro- 
nounced oon, contrary to Aloes, ana [short a] and Eng. on ? Or does it agree with 
Dut. aau, Frs. v. 6an ? Finally, what does the accent mean above rajd narration, 
derived from short a in Moes. rathan numerare, Jl.-S. ncdan to read? Is the vowel 
long P Or is some sound like Fr. ai in inais designated ? As soon as Anglo- 
Saxon scholars will answer these questions, and show me the rule which regulates the 
application of this single mark, in every particular instance, I will gladly observe 
every accent found in the MSS., and in the mean time I beg to be allowed my own 

130. Far* from depreciating the use of marks of accents, 1 am fully 

• As the sounds were more numerous than the letters, esi>ecially in the earliest state of 
the language, when the system of the vowels was more developed, and the letters fewer, being 


convinced of their being indispensable in the dead languages; but if two 
marks are used to denote the spiritus, and three the accent, in Greek, 
[• • ' * "] — and these are far from conveying a just idea of the pronuncia- 
tion of this language — how could a single mark effect this in Anglo-Saxon ? 
And how is this single mark used ? It is sometimes inserted, and some- 
times omitted, even in MSS. boasting of some accuracy in this respect, as 
the MSS. of Caedmon. I will not mention other MSS., as Beowulf in the 
British Museum, Vitellius A. xv., in which three marks [' * "] are em- 
ployed with so much confusion, that the grammarian, in using them, has 
not only confounded the ideas of emphasis, the nature of sound, and the 
simple lengthening of sound, as perhaps all who have used the accents in 
Anglo-Saxon MSS. have done, but he has often misapplied the marks. 
Several attempts have been made in our day to invent proper signs, and 
to define the true force of each ; but, as if it were to increase the confu- 
sion, the two principal advocates of accents, Rask and Grimm, differ in 
the import they ascribe to the same sign. 

131. It may be here asked, whether the authors themselves made use 
of accents, or their copiers, or if a later hand added them ? Finally, 
whether it was the hand of a genuine Anglo-Saxon, or whether, after the 
Danish conquest, it was some writer who had a strong tincture of Danish 
pronunciation that accented the MSS. Should I live to make my intended 
inquiries on the changes of the vowels, I may perhaps throw some light on 
the subject. 

132. Since the pronunciation of the old languages depends on the 
sound of the letters, it is important to inquire what these letters were. 

I answer, that the old Saxon letters were Runic. Rhabanus Maurus 
has left a Runic alphabet of the Marcomanni, called by some Nordmanni 
and Northalbingii,* located on the northern banks of the Elbe, and thus 
on the same spot that the allies of the Angles, the Saxons, inhabited* 
On comparing the form of these letters with the Runic alphabet of the 
Anglo-Saxons, t we shall perceive, on the whole, a striking resemblance, 
which is to me a convincing proof that the Anglo-Saxons brought with 
them the Runic alphabet into Britain. That these letters were once in 
common use among them, has been lately proved by the discovery of two 
sepulchral stones at Hartlepool,! bearing Runic inscriptions. § 

only sixteen Runes, it is evident that many letters must hare had a doable and even a triple 
sound. When, in process of time, the sounds which were sensibly distinct approached each 
other, the evil became still worse. Thus the e in red became in time the representative of ko 
in reod arundo; of ha in read ruber, and of <t in rod, Old Eng. rede consilium. This fully 
proves the necessity of marks to guide the pronunciation. 

• Consult Ueber Deutsche Runen von W. C. Grimm, Gottingen, 1821, in general, and 
p. 149 in particular. 

f Hickes's Gram. Goth, et Anglo-Saxonica, in the Thes. L. L. Sept torn. i. p. 135, 136. 

J An accurate delineation of these stones is to be found in the Gentleman's Magazine, 
Sept 1833, p. 219. 

§ Annuente Deo, Mr. Halbertsma intends to add in another publication, a second and 
third part to what is here given : the second on the sound of each Anglo-Saxon Letter— and 
the third part on the practical application of the preceding rules relative to the vowels, 
diphthongs, and Consonants. 



1. The Saxons* spoke the Old-Saxon, now called LowGerman, or 

2. The German confederacy, known under the name of Saxons, 
occupied the greater part of Low, Piatt, or Northern Germany. They 
were divided into — 1 . Eastphalians, on the eastern borders of the Weser ; 
2. Westphalians, on the Western borders of the Weser down to the 
Rhine and the North Sea; 3. Angrivarians, situated between the 
Eastphalians and Westphalians, and the borders of the North Sea ; 

4. North- Albingians, from the north of the river Elbe to Denmark; 

5. Trans-Albingians, comprising the whole country from the Elbe to the 
river Oder, with the exception of those districts occupied by the Wends 
or Sorbians, near the Baltic, and in the neighbourhood of the Oder. 
These Saxons, or Old-Saxons, chiefly remaining in their ancient localities, 
retained their low, soft, or Old-Saxon dialect in great purity. The Anglo- 
Saxons, a branch of the Old-Saxons, wrote and matured their language 
in England ; hence it differs from the tongue of their continental progeni- 
tors. The Old-Saxon, now called Low or Platt-German, seems to have 
descended to the present day with few alterations, and those only such 
as time always produces; but as we have no specimen of it earlier 
than the Heliand in the 9th century, we do not know the exact form of 
the Old-Saxon from which the Anglo-Saxon was derived. This Low- 
German, so called from being the vernacular language of Piatt, or Low- 
Germany, or of the common people, is, even in the present day, very 
extensive, being spoken by the lower classes in the greater part of West- 
phalia, in Hanover, Holstein, Sleswick, a part of Jutland, in Mecklen- 
burg, Magdenburg, Brandenburg, Pomerania, the kingdom of Prussia, 
and as far north as Livonia and Esthonia.f 

3. The origin and ancient history of the Saxons are enveloped in much 
darkness. The Fosi mentioned by Tacitus]: were most likely Saxons, 

• Those who wish for a full view of Low-German literature, may consult — Geschichte der 
Nieder-Sachsischen oder Plattdeutschen Sprache von M. Joh. Fried. August Kinderling, 
Magdeburg, 1800. — Biicherkunde der Sassisch-Niederdeutschen Sprache, von Dr. Karl, F.A. 
Scheller, Braunschweig, 1836. 

f Melis Stoke says, Verbal English. 

Oude Boeken horic ghewaghen, Old books hear I mentioning, 

Dat al tlant, beneden Nimaghen, That all the land below Nimeguen, 

Wilen Neder Zassen hiet; Formerly (was) called Low- Saxony. 

Also alst de stroem versciet So as the stream flows 

Vander Mazen eft vanden Rine. Of the Maas, and of the Rhine. 

Die Scelt was dat Westende sine, The Scheld that was its western end (boundary), 

Also als si valt in de zee, So as it falls into the sea, 

Oest streckende min no mee, Eastward stretching less or more 

Dan toter Lavecen of ter Elven. (Than) to the Laveccn or the Elbe. 

Huydecoper's edition, lib. i. v. 41, p. 9. 
% De Moribus Ger. cap. xxxvi. 

* M 


for Ptolemy,* who wrote in the beginning of the 2nd century, mentions 
the Saxons, and assigns to them nearly the same situation as Tacitus. 

4. The Anglo-Saxons, as has just been stated, were a branch of the 
Saxons, who, for distinction, are denominated Old-Saxons.t In the 
short account of the Anglo-Saxons^ will be found most of what is known 
concerning the origin and progress of this people. It is there ascertained 
that the Saxons were a confederacy of different tribes united for mutual 
defence against the Romans. Two of these were the Angles and Jutes, 
who, in a.d. 449, were among the first and chief settlers in Britain. 

5. Subsequently to this emigration, the Saxons, remaining on the con- 
tinent, were in a constant state of warfare with the Francs* These Old- 
Saxons preserved their freedom till about a.d. 785, when, after a gallant 
opposition of thirty-three years, they were subdued by Charlemagne, who, 
by much cruelty, forced them to embrace Christianity. Charlemagne 
would scarcely have succeeded in inducing the Saxons to submit, if their 
celebrated duke Wittekind, who was never entirely subdued, had not ter- 
minated the cruelties of Charlemagne by consenting to be baptized. Wit- 
tekind, by treaty, remained in possession of the greater part of Saxony 
till his death in 807. 

6. From Wittekind, not only the German Emperors of the Saxon line, 
Henry I., Otto I. and II., and Henry II., from a.d. 918 to 1024, and the 
house of Hanover, the royal family of Great Britain, but also the present 
king of Saxony, and the other princes of the house of Saxony, take their 

7. The most flourishing period of the Platt-Deutsch was just before 
the Reformation. Luther was accustomed to speak and write in High- 
German, in which dialect appeared his version of the Scriptures. As 
Luther's translation soon came into general use throughout Germany, the 
high dialect of his translation was not long before it prevailed over all the 
Low-German dialects. The influence of the Reformation in preventing 
the further cultivation of the Piatt or Low-German, and in confining its 
use only to the lower orders, is regretted by all who are acquainted with 
its beauties. The most learned agree, that while the Low-German or 

* Platt-Deutsch is equal to the High in strength and compositive power, the 
Piatt is much softer and richer. The true old German freedom, sincerity, 
and honesty, can have no better medium to express its full mental and 
political independence, its genuine and confidential feelings of the heart, 
than its old, unsophisticated, open, Low-German dialect. 

8. Where the High-German is obliged to employ most of the organs 
of speech to pronounce words, such as ochse ox> flachs J&zor, wachs wax, 
the Platt-German with the greatest ease says oss, flass, wass. The High- 

• Cellarius, lib. II. cap. v. p. 303. 

f Anglo-Saxon, Eald-Seaxan Old-Saxons, Chr. 449, Ing. p. 14, 22. See also the Anolo- 
Saxon Dictionary, under the word Seaxan. 

X in. § i—8. 


German pfeifer pfeif au/ 9 is in Piatt, like the English, piper pip up 
piper pipe up. The Low-German and Dutch proverbs are nearly all the 
same, both equally expressive, and in phraseology like English. 

As dat beer is in den man 
Is de wyshet in de kan. 

As (when) the beer is in the man 
The wisdom is in the kan. 

9. From the great extent of the territory in which the Low-German is 
spoken, it may be easily conceived that this dialect does not always as- 
sume the same shape. Mr. Kinderling,* in his history of the Low-Ger- 
man or Platt-Deutsch language, names all the minute peculiarities ; here 
the most essential need only be noticed. 

10. It is generally acknowledged that the purest Low-German, or Platt- 
Deutsch dialect, is spoken in Holstein and Sleswick, particularly in the 
neighbourhood of Kiel. The Brunswick and Hanoverian dialect is broad 
and coarse. In the south-east of Westphalia, it mixes with the High- 
German, while on the borders of the Netherlands it melts into Dutch. 
The dialect of Gelderland and Overyssel preserves many Piatt forms, as 
the Dutch gout, zout, hout, gold, salt, wood, is golt, zolt, holt ; the u, 
written to, is pronounced like the Piatt and High-Ger. ti, Eng. oo. 

11. The Piatt changes the High-Ger, au into oo and u ; as, auge eye, oog (o in 
no) ; auch also, ook (o in no); auf up, Piatt up ; bauch belly, stomach, in Piatt 
makes buuk (the uu pronounced like the Eng. oo in wood). The High-Ger. a is 
changed into oo ; as, alt old, Piatt oold. The High-Ger. ei into y and ee; as, mein, 
dein, sein, mine, thine, his, Piatt myn ; geist spirit, Piatt geest. The High-Ger. 
i very often changes into e ; as, wissen to know into weten; — ie into ee or a ; as, 
lieb dear, Piatt leev ; viel much, Piatt val ; — i into jii ; as, iinmer always, Piatt 
jiimmer. The High-Ger. o often changes into a long and broad a ; as, oben abote, 
bawen. High-Ger. alt, Piatt old, like the Eng. in signification and pronunciation. 
The High-Ger. uorue changes into 6; as, vergniigt content, vergnogt; — the u 
into o ; as, zu at, Piatt to ; rufeu to call, roopen (pronounced ropen) ; gut good. 

12. Change of the consonants. — b often changes into /and v, w ; as, dieb thief, 
deef; lieb dear, leev; — ch changes into k; as, ich J, ik or ick; — ch intoy; a*, 
mich me, my (pronounced like the Eng. me) ; — r into y ; as, mir to me, my (pro- 
nounced mee) ; dir to thee, dy (pronounced dee) ; — ss into t; as, wasser watti, 
water; — chs into ss; as, flachs flax, flass. The ch with the s preceding is often 
omitted ; as, schlagen to beat, slagen ; schweigen to be silent, swigen ; schwimmen 
to swim, swimmen. The Low-Ger. in this respect has great correspondence with 
the old High-Ger. which avoids this unpleasant hissing sound in all those words 
where it is omitted in the Low-Ger. as, High-Ger. sch wester sister; Old High-Ger, 
suester; Plait-Ger. suster; Sanscrit suasr; A.-S. suster, sweoster; High-Ger. 
schweiss sweat ; Piatt sw&t. In some parts of Holstein and Sleswick, particu- 
larly near the borders of Jutland, the sch is changed into sk; as, schuld debitum; 
Piatt skuld; Old High-Ger. sculd; Dan. skyld; A.-S. scyld. The auxiliary 
verb shall is in High-Ger. sollen ; Moes. skulan, skallan ; Dut. zullen, iu 
Piatt, commonly schullen, sullen, or like the Icel. skal ; High-Ger. suche 

* See note (*), § 1. 

84 LOW-GERMAN — HELIAND, A.D. 840. — TATIAN'S HAR. A.D. 890. V. 13, 14. 

changes into Plait syke; sicher sure into seker; — t very often changes into d; as, 
teufel devil, diivel ; tiefdeep, deep ; Gott God ; gut good ; tod death, dod ; tochter 
daughter, dochter; — v, with a few exceptions, is used instead of the High-Ger.f; 
— w is used and pronounced like the High-Ger. w; — z occurs only in a few in- 
stances, and is pronounced softer than the High-Ger. z, which in Piatt is mostly 
changed into t; as, zu to, at, to; Ziehen to pull, t6n; zwey two, twe; zeichen 
token, t&ken ; zeit time, tyd ; zoll toll, toll. The High-Ger. pf always changes 
into a single p ; as, ^wg plough, ploog ; pfanne pan, pann ; pflanze plant, plant ; 
pfund pound, pund ; pflaume plum, plum ; pfeife pipe, pipe ; pflucken to pluck, 

13. Heliand. An unknown author, in the early part of the 9th 
century, wrote, in alliterative lines, a Harmony of the Gospels in the Old- 
Saxon dialect The MSS. are preserved at Munich, and in the British 
Museum, London. Some extracts were published under the name of 
Franco-Theotisc in Hickeis The*, vol. ii. p. 101, and alsobjNyerup 
at Copenhagen, 1787. The entire work was well edited, and splendidly 
published, with the following title : — 

Heliand; Poema Saxonicum seculi noni. Accurate expressum ad 

exemplar Monacense insertis e Cottoniano Londinensi supplementis nee 

non adjecta lectionum varietate, nunc primum edidit J. Andreas 

Schmeller, Bibliothecae Regis Monacensis Custos, &c, Monachii, 1830. 

parable op the sower, Mt. xiii. 3 — 6 ; Mk. iv. 1—4 ; Lk. viii. 4 — 6. 

Huat ik iu seggean mag quad he* gesidos mine, huo imu en erl bi- 
gan* an erdu sehan* hren corni mid is handun. Sum it an hardan 
sten* obanuuardan fel* erdon ni habda. that it thar inahti uuahsan* 
eftha uurteo gifahan. kinan eftha bicliben. ac uuard that corn 
farloren. that thar an theru leian gilag. — Heliand, p. 73, 1. 6 — 10. 


Was ich euch sagenmochte, sprach er,Genossen meine, wie sich ein Landmann be- 
gann in die Erde zu saen rein Kora mit sein' Handen; Etliches aber auf harten 
Stein oberwarts fiel, Erde nicht hatte, dass es da konnte wachsen, 
oder Wurzel erfassen, keimen oder bekleiben, auch ward (ging) das Korn 
verloren, das da auf der strasse lag. 


What (now) I may say (tell) you, quoth he, my companions, how a farmer be- 
gan on earth to sow clean corn with his hands. Some of it on hard 
stone fell, had not earth that it there might wax (grow), 
or roots take, germinate, or stick, and that corn was 
lost, that there on the road lay. 

14. Tatjan's Harmony. An unknown author, about a.d. 890, trans- 
lated Tatian's Harmony of the Gospels into a softer dialect than the 
Alemannic and Bavarian : this translation contains words peculiar to the 
Old-Saxon dialect, and may be considered a sort of transition between 
Low and High-German. MSS. are preserved at Oxford and St. Gallen. 
This Harmony was first printed with this title : Tatiani Harmonia Evan- 
gelica e Latina Vicloris Capuani versione translata in linguam Theotiscam 
antiquissimam per Jo. Phil. Palthenius, 4to. 1706 ; and again in Schilter's 
Thes. vol. ii. towards the end* 

V. 13, 16. LOW-GERMAN— OLD-SAXON CHRONICLE, A.D. 1216. 85 


Matt xiiL 3. — Senu gieng tbo uz thie thar sauuit, zi sauuenne samon sinan. 4. 
Mitthiu her tho sata, sumiu fielun nah themo uuege, inti uurdun furtretanu, inti 
quamun fugala himiles, inti frazun thiu. 5. Andaru fielun in steinaht lant, thar nih 
habeta mihhila erda, inti sliumo giengun uf, noanta sie ni habetun erda tiufi. 
6. Ufganteru sunnon farbrantiu uuirdun, inti bithiu sie ni habetun uurzala, fur- 
thoTretun. — ScMlUr's Thee, vol. ii. p. 64, towards the end. 


Matt. xiiL 3. — Sieh, es gieng da aus, der da saet, zu saen Samen seinen. 4. In- 
dent er da saete, etliche ( Samen) fielen nach dem Wege, und wurden vertreten ; und 
(es) kamen die Vogel des Himmels, und frassen diese. 5. Andere fielen in steinig 
Land, wo (es) nicht hatte (gab) viele Erde ; und schleunig giengen sie auf, weU 
sienicht hatten Erde tiefe. 6. (Bey) aufgehender Sonne, wurden sie verbrannt; 
und da sie nicht hatten Wurzeln, verdorrten sie. 


Matt xiii. 3. — See now, there went out (he) who there soweth, to sow his seed. 
4. While he there sowed some fell on the way, and was trodden down, and came 
the fowls of heaven and devoured it. 5. Others fell on stony land, there had not 
much earth, and quickly went (grew) up, for they (it) had not deep earth ; 6. 
(By) risen sun were burnt, and, because they had not roots, withered. 

15. An Old-Saxon Chronicle in Rhyme of the year 1216, published 
in J. 6. Leuckfeld's Antiquitates Gandersh. in Leibnitii Scriptores 
Rerun) Brunsv., and in Harenberg Historia Gandersh. with the following 
title, " Battle of Henry I. the Saxon, against the Huns." 

Na by der Oveker lag koning Hinrik : 

Up hov he sek an der naten nagt alse ein dagen ; 

He en shuwede dusternisse nog den ragen, 

Dog folgeden ome kume halv de dir waren. — Scheller, p. 9. 


Near by the shore lay King Henry, 

Exposed to the wet night as a hero ; 

He did not shun darkness nor the rain, 

But scarcely half those who were there followed him. 

16. An allegorical Old-Saxon Poem, on love and fidelity, of the 
year 1231. Published in Eschenburg's Denkmale altdeut : Dichtkunst, 
Berlin, 1792. 


Mine truwe folget or alleine. 

For alien frouwen is se here, 

Ik wil nemandes syn wan ere. 

God geve or sulven sinen sagen, 

Unde dusend angele, de or plagen. — Scheller, p. 13. 


My fidelity follows her alone. 
Above all ladies she is noble, 
I will be nobody's but hers. 
May God give her his blessing, 
And a thousand angels attend her. 

86 LOW-GERMAN— THE CATELNBUHG SONG, A.D. 1350. V. 17 — 19. 

17. The Privilege conferred upon the citizens of Itzehoe in Holstein, 
in the year 1260, by Counts John and Gerhard of Holstein, about the 
Staple-right, from Westphalen's Monumenta Inedita, &c. vol. iv., and 
Halthaus's Glossarium, under the word Stapel, p. 1730. 

Dat alle de Schiphera— ere kopenschop schullen affleggen vnde beden den Bor- 
geren vnde Gesten to Itseho de to verkopende. 


That all the shippers shall deposit and offer their merchandise to the burghers and 
guests of Itzehoe to sale. 

18. The Catelnburg Song, made in 1350, on the rebuilding of the 
convent of that name, published in Letzner*s Chronica of Dassel and 
Eimbeck, vol. ii. 

the catelnburg song. 

Dat kloster ward gebuwet fyn 

Edt gifft nu einen nien scyn, 

Help Godt van Himelricke, 

Dat wol geraden ore swyn 

Vnnd werden wedder ricke. — Scheller, p. 36. 


The cloister was built fine, 
It gives now a new shine ; 
God help from heaven on high, 
That prosper well their swine, 
And so grow rich thereby. 

19. A Low-German translation of the Speculum Humans Salvationis 
of the 14th century, published in E. Nyerup's Specim. Literat Teuton, 
p. 446—454. 

Dit buk is den vnghelerden bereyt, 

Vnde het en spegel der mynsliken salicheit, 

Dar in mag man prouen, dor wat sake 

Got den mynschen wolde maken, 

Unde wo de mynsche vordomct wart, 

Unde wo dat god wedder vmme heft ghekart. 

Lucifer houarde tegen gode synen heylant, 

Dar vmme warp he ene in dat afgrunde altohant. 

Kinder ling, p. 296. 


This book is for the unlearned prepared, 

And is called a mirror of human happiness, 

Therein may one learn, by what means 

God would make man, 

And how man was condemned, 

And how God again that has changed. 

Lucifer boasted against God his Saviour, 

Therefore threw he him into the gulph instantly. 

Y. 20 — 22. LOW-GERMAN — LIFE OF THE VIRGIN MA BY, A.D. 1474. 87 

20. A journey to the Holy Land made iu the year 1356, written in 
Low-Saxon probably by Ludolfs, and copied from a MS. in 1471, by 
Nicholas Culenborch. The MS. in possession of Kinderling. 

In alien (guden) Dingen de eyn mynsche deyt edder wil vullen bringhen, schal 
dar tho bidden bevoren god, de den inynschen heft vterkoren, so blift dat warck un 
verloren. — Kinderling, p. 341. 


In all good things which a man does or will perform, he shall before pray to 
God, who has chosen man, then this work will not be lost. 

21. A Low-Saxon epitaph on the Duke Adolph of Sleswick and 
Holstein, in the year 1459. In Arnkiel's Cimbrischen Heidenthum 
(Cimbric Paganism), vol. iii. p. 400. 

Da man schref ein Ring von der Taschen (cid) 

Und veer Hangen van einer Flaschen, (cccc) 

Vief Dnven Fot vnd negen I (xxxxxiiiiniii) 

Dar denk man Hartoch Adolf by, 

Twischen Barber vnde Niclas Dagen, 

weh der jammerliken Klagen ! 

Do ward manch Og gewenet roth 

Wol urn des edlen Forsten Dod. — Kinderling, p. 158. 


As men wrote a ring of a pocket (cio) 

And four hangers (handles) of a flask, (ccoc) 

Five doves feet and nine I (xxxxxiiiiniii) 

Thereby think men on Duke Adolf, 

Between Barbara and St Nicholas days (Dec. 4.) 

Alas for the grievous sorrows ! 

When many an eye was red with weeping 

For the noble Prince's death. 

22. The life of the holy Virgin Mary, from a MS. of the year 1474, in 
the Low-Saxon dialect, in possession of Kinderling, partly published in 
Adelung's Magazine for the German Language, vol. ii. No. I. p. 63, and 
in the Deutsches Museum, Oct. 1788, p. 340. 


Se was de schoneste aller wyue 

Se was schone wyt vnde blanck, 

Se was nicht kort, to mate lanck, 

Ore Hende weren wyt gevar 

Ane aller hande wandels gar, 

Gel vnde goltvar was er har. — Kinderling, p. 343. 


She was the most beautiful of all wives. 

She was fine white and blank. 

She was not short, nor too lank. 

Her hands were of a white appearance, 

Entirely without any kind of defect, 

Yellow and of a gold colour was her hair. 

88 LOW-GERMAN — RRINBKB VOS, PRINTED, A.D. 1498. V. 23 — 26. 

23. A Bible printed at Cologne, 1480, folio. 

Mk. iv. 3 — 4. Hort, de dar seyet, de is uitgegaen to seyen. En do he seyede,. 
dat eyn vyl by den wech. en de vogel des hemels quemen en eten dat. 

24. A Bible printed at Lubeck, 1494, folio. 

Mk. iv. 3 — 4. Horet. seet de dar seyet is vtgbegan to seyende. vn do he seyede. 
dath ene vyl by dewech. vn de voghele des hemmels quemen vn eten dat. 

25. Mirror for the Laymen (Speygel der Leyen), printed at Lubeck, 
1496. This work is quoted in Brim's Old Platt-Ger. Poems, Berlin, 1798. 

Der leyen speygel heft hyr eyn ende, 

Den les gherne in desseme elende 

Uppe dat god dy syne gnade sende, 

Vn eynt leste dyme sele entfknge in syne hende. 

De dy t boek leeth maken. vnde ok de dar inne lesen, 

Leue here god wyl den io gnedig wesen. Amen. 

Anno dm. mccccxcvi, Lubeck.-— ScAe/fer, p. 107. 


The laick mirror has here an end, 
Read it willingly in this distress 
That God to thee his blessing send, 
And at last thy soul receive into his hand. 
(He) who this book made and also those who read in it, 
Dear Lord God, be merciful to them. Amen. 
Anno Domini 1496, Lubeck. 

26. Reineke Vos,* an allegorical and satirical Poem in the Low- 
Saxon dialect, by Hinreck van Alkmar, founded and for the greater part 
literally translated from the Flemish original of Willem van Utenhoven. 
The first edition of this Low-Saxon poem was printed at Lubeck, 1498. 
In the years 1517 and 1522, two other editions accompanied with remarks 
were published by Nicholas Baumann, and printed by Lewis Dietz at 
Rostock. All the numerous subsequent editions are founded on these 

Dat tote bok. 
Dat &rste kapittel. 
Wo de louwe, konnink aller deren, 16t utkrej&ren unde vasten vrede utropen 
unde let beden alien deren to synem hove to komen. 

It geschach up enen pinkstedach, 

dat men de wolde un velde sach 

grone st&n mit lof un gras, 

un mannich vogel vrolik was 

mit sange in hagen un up bomen ; 

de kriide sproten un de blomen, 

de wol roken hier un d4r : 

* See Netherland, or Holland, VI. § 17, and High- German, X. § 56, 57. 

V. 26. LOW-GERMAN — REINEKE VOS, 1498. 89 

de dach was schone, dat weder kldr. 
Nobel de konnink van alien deren 
Mit hof un l£t den utkrej&ren 
syn lant dorch over al. 
dir quemen vele heren mit grotem schal, 
ok quemen to hove vele stolter gesellen, 
de men nicht alle konde tellen : 
Liitke de kron un Marquart de hegger, 
ja, desse weren dar alle degger ; 
wente de konnink mit synen heren 
m&nde to holden hof mit eren, 

mit vrouden un mit grotem love, 

un hadde vorbodet dar to hove 

alle de dere grot un klene 

sunder Reinken den vos allene. 

he hadde in dem hof so vele misdin, 

dat he d&r nicht en dorste komen noch gan. 

de quat deit, de schuwet g£rn dat licht, 

also dede ok Reinke de bosewicht, 

he schuwede sere des konninges hof, 

darin he hadde ser kranken lof. 

Reineke Vos, p. 1.* 


The First Book. 
The First Chapter. 
How the lion, king of all animals, ordered to be proclaimed and published a 
last peace, and commanded all animals to come to his court. 
It happened on a Whitsunday, 
That men saw the woods and fields 
Green, standing with leaves and grass, 
And many a fowl joyful was. 
With song in hedges and on trees ; 
The herbs and the blooms sprouted, 
Which well perfumed here and there : 
The day was fine, the weather clear. 
Nobel the king of all beasts 
Held a court, and had it proclaimed 
Throughout his land every where. 
There came many lords with great noise 
Also came to the court many stately fellows 
Whom men could not all tell. 
Lutke the crane, and Marquart the magpie, 
Yes, these were there altogether ; 
For the king, with his lords, 
Meant to hold court with splendour, 
With rejoicing and with great honour, 
And had summoned there to the court, 

* Reineke Vos. Nach der Liibecker ausgabe vom jahre, 1498. Mit einleitung, glossar und 
anmerkungen von Hoffmann von FaUersleben. Breslau, 1834. 

♦ N 


All the beasts great and small 
Except Renard the fox alone. 
He had at court so much misdone 
That he there durst not go or come. 
Who does a wrong shuns much the light, 
So did Renard, the wicked wight, 
He shunned much the king's court 
Wherein he had a sad report. 

27. The book of the holy Gospels, Lessons, Prophets, and Epistles, 
&c. Brunswick, 1506, fol. 

Mk. iv. 3 — 4. He ghink vth de dar seyede sin saet vn do he seyede do vil des 
sades ein deel hi de wech vn wart ghetreden van den luden vnd de voghele des 
hemels ethen yd vp. 

28. A Bible printed at Halberstadt, 1522, fol. 

Mk. iv. 3 — 4. Horet, seet, de dar seyet, ys uthgegan tho seyende. Und do he 
seyede, dat eyn veyl by den wech, und de voghele des hymels quemen, und eten dat. 

29. The New Testament, printed at Cologne, 1525. 

Mk. iv. 3 — 4. Hoort toe, siet, het ginck een Saeyman wt om te saeyen. Ende 
het gescyede als hi saeyde dat Saet, dat somige viel by den Wech, doen quamen 
die Vogelen onder den Hemel, ende aten dat op. 

30. A Bible— Liibeck, 1533, fol. 

Mk. iv. 3 — 4. Horet tho. sfcth, Ein sadtseyer ginck vth tho seyende. Vnde 
ydt begaff syck, jn dem alse he seyede, veil etlick an den wech : do quemen de 
vogel vnder den hemmel, vnde fretent vp. 

31. Bugbnhagen's Bible, Magdeburg, 1578. 

Mk. iv. 3 — 4. Horet tho. Seet, Eyn Saedtseyer gynck vth tho seyende, Vnde 
ydt begaff sick, yn deme alse he seyede, veil etlyck an den Wech, Do quemen de 
Vogele vnder dem Hemmel, vnde fretent vp. 

Low-German Dialects. 

32. The following are specimens of the provincial dialects, spoken in 
Low, or North-Germany, as collected and written down in 1827. 

33. The provincial dialect spoken about Nienburg, 1827. 

Mk. iv. 3 — 4. Hort to : Seeth En seyer gunk ut to seyen. Un et begaff sick, 
unner't Seyen vull etlick an de Wech, do kemen de Vagels unner'n Himmel un 
fretent up. 

34. Platt-German dialect spoken about Hanover, 1827. 

Mk. iv. 3 — 4. Hart tau, et gunk ein Sagemann ut, tau sagen. Und et begaf 
seek, weil hei sogte, fellen edliche Koren en den Weg ; da keimen dei Vogeln 
under dem Himmel und fratten sei up. 

35. Platt-Ger. dialect of the Old Mark of Brandenburg, 1827. 

Mk. iv. 3—4. Horch tau, et gink en Buer up't Feld turn seen. Un (et begap 
sick) indem h& seete, fohl wat an der Side (oder: ob de Halve) ; da kamen de 
Vogel von Himmel (oder : von boben) un fratent up. 

36. Platt-Ger. dialect of Hamburgh, 1827. 

Mk. iv. 3 — 4. Hor't to : Een Buhr giing ut, sien Saat to say'n : As he nu 
say't, full een Deel von de Saat by den Wegg, un wurr von de Vagel unnero 
Himmel oppfr&ten. 


37. Brunswick dialect, 1827. 

Mk. iv. 3 — 4. Horet tau ! Sub et gung eu Saiemann ut to saien, Un et begaf 
sttc, bi den Saien, fell wat an den Weg ; do kaimen de Voggel under den Himmel 
un freiten et up. 

38. Mecklenburg-Schwerin dialect, 1827. 

Mk. iv. 3 — 4. Hiiret to : Sii, dar gink een Sajer uut, to sajen. Un et begav 
sik, as he sajete, feel week (wat) an de Straat, dar kemen de Vagel unner dea 
Hewen, un freten't upp. 


1. Hollandf is as remarkable for its origin, as for the intellectual energy 
of its inhabitants. About fifty years before the christian era, Caesar speaks. 

• The author has been very anxious to be correct He has generally cited his authorities, 
and to secure as much accuracy as possible, he has consulted his friends, amongst whom he 
ought to mention Professor Siegenbeek, with gratitude for his kindness in correcting the 
manuscript Those who wish for a more minute acquaintance with the Dutch language and 
literature, will find ample information in the following works : — Beknopte Geschiedenis der 
Nederlandsche Lettcrkunde, door Professor M. Siegenbeek, 8vo. Haarlem, 1826. — J. de 
'» Gravenweert, Essai sur 1' Histoire de la Litterature Ncerlandaisc, 8vo. Amsterdam, 1830. — 
Beknopte Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche tale, door Professor A. Ypey,2 vols. 8vo. Utrecht, 
1812-1892. — Collot oVEscury Hollands roem in kunsten en wetenschappen, 6 vols. Hague, 
1824-1833. — Proeve eener Geschiedenis der Nederduitsche Dichtkunst door J. de Vriei, 
2 vols. 8vo. Amsterdam, 1809. — Beknopte Geschiedenis der Letteren en Wetenschappen in 
de Nederlanden, door iV. G. van Kant pen y 3 vols. 8vo. Hague, 1821-1826.— Biographisch, 
Anthologisch en Critisch Woordenbock der Nederduitsche Dichtcrs, door P. G. Witsen 
Geysbeek, 6 vols. 8vo. Amsterdam, 1821-1827. — Verhandeling over de Nederduytsche Taalen 
Iietterkuade, opzigtelyk de zuydelyke Provintien der Nederlanden, door J. F. Wiltems, 8vo. 
Antwerpen, 1819. — Over de Hollandsche en Vlaemsche Schryfwyzen van het Nederduitsch, 
doer J. F. Willenu, 8vo. Antwerpen, 1824.— Batavian Anthology, by John Bowring and Harry 
S. van Dyk, 12mo. London, 1824. — Sketch of the Language and literature of Holland, by 
John Bowring, 12mo. Amsterdam, 1829. — Van IVijn's Huiszittend Levcn; also van Wijn's 
Historische en Letterkundige Avondstonden, 8vo. Amsterdam, 1800. — Acnleiding tot de 
Kennisse van het Verhevenc Deel der Nederduitsche Sprake, door Lambert ten Kate, 2 vols, 
4to. Amsterdam, 1723. 

f Mr. Halhertsina observes, that the name of Holland, applied to the Netherlands, is not 
beard of before the eleventh century [1064]. The meaning of Holland exactly suits the 
fenny and boggy soil which it designates. The oldest Dutch authors write it ollant. Thus 
Maerlant says — 

"Doe wart coninc Loduwike 
Karcl die caluwe, die wel geraecte, 
Die eerst graue jn ollant maecte." 

Vol. iii. p. 13, v. 8. 
And again, " Comes de Ollandia," a Count of Holland. See Huydecoper on Melis Stoke, vol. 
i. p. 524. Look for this word in the Teuthonista of van der Schucren, and you will find 
44 Beven daveren als eyn ollant, Scatere," tremble under the feet as a marshy ground. 

The word ol, in the sense of dirty or glutinous matter, mud, does not appear in Anglo-Saxon* 
but it is found in a derived signification. Ol, occasionally changed to hoi, signifies calumnia. 
Wachtendonk, in his Rhyme Chronicle, observes : 

" Hollant, een nieuwe naem, die schijnt 't lant te passen, 
Alsoo het meest bestaet in veenen en mocrassen." 

Matthams de NobUitate, p. 50. 


of the Batavi* the first inhabitants on record, as being located towards 
the mouths of the Rhine, between the Wbaal,f the most southerly stream 
of the Rhine, and the other branches to the north: thus the dominions of 
the Batavi appear to have extended from Dordrecht to about Haarlem. 
The country is generally low and marshy, and seems formed or enriched 
by the alluvial deposits brought down by the various streams into which 
the Rhine was divided as it approached the sea. Pliny, the naturalist, 
about a century after Caesar, gives a minute description of it as a land, 
where, "the ocean pours in its flood twice every day, and produces 
a perpetual uncertainty whether the country may be considered as a part 
of the continent or the sea."! The genius and industry of men have 
prevailed. The Hollanders or Dutch have originally taken their pos- 
sessions from the dominion of the deep; and the exercise of the perpetual 
thought, care, and industry, necessary first to raise, and then keep up such 
mighty embankments as defend them from their constant assailant the 
raging sea, has educated a people, adventurous, brave, and cautious. 
The Dutch, applying these habits to the cultivation of their intellectual 
powers, have thus taken the first rank in polite literature, and have also 
been successful cultivators of the arts and sciences. We are indebted to 
the Dutch not only for the discovery of oil painting,^ but for the finest 
specimens of the art : they were also the inventors of printing,|| painting 
on glass, and, as some say, of the pendulum, the microscope, &c. 

* Bataver is thought by many to be contracted from Bat-auwers, that is, inhabitants qf 
good or fruitful land, from bat, bet good (still found in beter), and auwe ground or country. 
It is supposed that the name is preserved in a part of Gelderland, the Betuwe/rtci(/W country, 
in opposition to Veluwe bad land, from vale falling, defective, and ouwe land, country. — Hist, 
qf Dut. Language, by Ypey. 

f Caesar's Comment lib. iv. 10. 

J Plin. Hist Nat lib. xvi. 

§ By John van Eyck, better known by the name of John of Bruges, in 1410. Korte 
leevensschets der Graaven van Holland, door LudolfSmids, 4to. Haarlem, 1744. 

|| At Haarlem, by Laurence Konter, about 1423. His real name wusLourens Janszoon Ko»- 
ter, a celebrated citizen of Haarlem, born about 1 370, He was treasurer of the city, and held 
other important offices. I once thought that Gutenburg of Mayence was the inventor of 
printing in 1440, (Elements of Anglo-Saxon Gr. p. 16) ; but every impartial person, upon a 
close investigation of the evidence produced in recent works, must ascribe the honour of the 
invention to Kostcr. Ample proof will be found in Verhandeling van Koning over den 
oorsprong, de uitvinding, vcrbetering en volmaking der Boekdrukkunst te Haarlem, 1816, 
bij Loosjes. Gedenkschriften wegens het vierde eeuwgetijde van de uitvinding der Boek- 
drukkunst door Lourens Janszoon Koster van stadswege gevierd te Haarlem den 10 en 1 1 
Julij 1823, bijeenverzameld door Vincent Loosjes, te Haarlem 1824. Mr. Jacobus Scheltema's 
geschied en Letterkundig Mengelwerk, vol. v. vi. One authority, among many others, is so 
strong in favour of H olland, that it cannot be omitted. A German Chronicle of the year 1499, 
acknowledges that though Mayence improved the art, it was first known in Holland. " Item 
wie wail die kunst is vonden tzo Mentz, als vursz up die wyse, als dan nu gemeynlich ge- 
bruicht wirt, so is doch die evrste vurbyldung vonden in Hollant uyss den Donaten, die 
daeselflst vur der tzyt gcdruckt syn. Ind van ind uyss den is genommen dat begynne der 
vursz kunst Ind is vill meystcrlicher ind subtilicher vonden, dan die selve manier was, und 
ye langer ye mere kunstlicher wurden." Item, though this art was found (out) as aforesaid 
at Mayence, in that manner in which it is now commonly practised, yet the first idea was 
taken in Holland from the Donates which were there published before that time. And from 
and out of them is taken the beginning of the aforesaid: art And is much more masterly and 
neatly performed than the former manner was, and the longer (it has continued) the more 
perfect it has become— Cronira van der hilligcr stat v " Cm/if. Gedrukt te Keulen, by Johannes 
Koelhoff, in den jare 1199. Gedenkschriften van de uitvinding der Boekdrukkunst, p. 437. 


2. This country has had more than its share of eminent men. It 
has produced an Erasmus, a Vossius, Lipsius, Junius, Grotius, 
Heinsius, van Dyk, Rembrandt, Boerhave, van Lennep, and Bilderdijk. 
Ten Kate developed the grammatical principles which have been so 
fully and ably illustrated by Dr. J. Grimm in his Deutsche Grammatik. 
Let it also be ever remembered that this land of freedom has not only 
fostered native talent, but supported and encouraged it wherever it was 
found. Here Linnceus formed and matured his Systema Natures : here 
Hotter studied, Descartes first received encouraging support, and at 
Gouda Locke finished his immortal work on Human Understanding. 
From Holland has also flowed a stream of classical erudition, conveyed 
in pure Latinity, and benefited the whole of Europe by the accurate and 
beautiful specimens of typography which issued from the press of the 
Elzevirs, Wetsteins, and other eminent printers. While, for their skill 
in the learned languages, their classical scholars have acquired European 
fame, the native tongue, which informed the mind and warmed the heart 
of the Hollander, has been either entirely unknown or disregarded by 
other nations, though it is a language of Teutonic origin, and well de- 
serves the attention of the philologer, being one of the purest, most 
nervous, and expressive of the Gothic root. 

3. We have no evidence of the language which was spoken by the 
Batavi in Caesar's time; but, as they were a German race, it must have had 
a Teutonic origin. That this language has undergone some mutations, will 
be evident from a very short view of the political changes which have taken 
place. Such changes as affected the language arose from tribes of Teutonic 
origin ; their language, therefore, was only altered by some small dialectic 
variations, and still remained Teutonic. 

4. The Batavi were allies of the Romans, who constantly eulogize 
Batavian bravery and fidelity ; but about the end of the 3rd century the 
Batavi were much oppressed by other Gothic nations, as the Saxons, 
Salian Francs, and other hordes, which forcibly obtained the settlements 
of the Batavi. Thus the country became inhabited by a mixture of 
Germanic tribes,* which were subject to the Francic power till the time 
of Charlemagne and his sons. 

Vincent Loosjes, Haarlem, 1824. A learned Italian, Tommaso Tonelli of Florence, after 
visiting Holland, and making minute and personal inquiries concerning the discovery of 
printing, unhesitatingly declares that the invention must he ascribed to Lawrence Koster. — 
Antologia di Firenze, Vol. 41, Jan. — April y 1831. 

* That the present Dutch are descended from the Batavi, is the opinion of some learned 
Dutch authors, such as Erasmus, Junius, Dousa, Grotius, and Scriverius. Grotius asserts 
boldly, [De Antiquitate Reipublica Batavica, c. iii. ad finem,] that the ever- succeeding in- 
vaders of the Insula Batavorum were swallowed up in the bulk of the Batavian population, and 
that of course the present Dutch arc the genuine offspring of the Batavians. Such was the 
importance of the Batavian support, that even the insurrection of the Batavi under Civilis 
could not prevent their restoration to the friendship of the proud conquerors of the world. 
As long as their name appears in history, the Batavi were the allies of the Romans. But 
that the present Dutch are the direct offspring of the Batavi, is still a controverted point ; for 
the Batavians were exhausted by the never-ceasing levies of troops, and by the bloody battles 
of the Romans, often decided by Batavian valour, and being the last supports of the tottering 
empire, they were crushed and almost annihilated by its downfal. The Germanic crowds of 


5. These pagan inhabitants and the Friesians did not listen to the 
preaching of the Francic monks. The Anglo-Saxons being more allied to 
the old Dutch, their missionaries had greater success. Willibrord,* with 
eleven Anglo-Saxon associates, in a.d. 692, left England, as missionaries 
to Heligoland, Friesland, Holland, Zealand, &c. They were coun- 
tenanced by Pepin, Duke of the Franks.f Willibrord exerted himself so 
much, and was so successful, that he became the first bishop of Utrecht 
in a.d. 697.J 

6. In the 10th century this country had its own particular sovereigns, 
known by the name of Counts. Diederik^ was the first raised to th6 
dignity of Count of Holland, in a.d. 903. There was a succession of 
thirty-six Counts, prior to Philip II. king of Spain in 1581, who was the 
last Count, || Philip being a bigoted catholic, and infringing the rights 
of Holland and the neighbouring states, Holland united with four other 
provinces, at Utrecht in 1579, to resist the Spanish oppression. Soon 
after, in 1581, two other states joined, and constituted The Seven United 
Provinces, which solemnly renounced the authority of Philip. William, 
Prince of Orange and Nassau, first held the dignity of Stadtholder under 
the authority of Philip. After the rejection of Philip, it was determined 
that William should be elevated to the chief power over the Netherlands, 
under the title of Count of Holland : all preliminary steps were taken, and 
there was nothing wanted but the solemn inauguration, when he was 
assassinated at Delft in 1584. His sons, Maurice and Frederic Henry, 

Saxons, Francs, and Cauchi, rushing on the borders of the Roman empire, could not suffer 
these socii, these amid et sodales populi Romani, to dwell with them on the same spot After- 
wards the Insula Batavorum is reported to be inhabited by the Francs, and the name of Batavi 
is never mentioned again in all the changes their country underwent In succeeding periods 
the Insula Batavorum was occupied by the Chamari j [a.d. 287], by the Salii [a.d. 358], 
shortly after by the Guadi (read perhaps Cauchi) and in the reports of the battles of the Ro- 
mans against these invaders, or of the invaders against each other, the name of Batavi is never 
mentioned. Eumenius states, that towards the end of the third century, the Insula Batavorum 
was possessed by Francic tribes. At last, about a.d. 470, the name of Batavi disappears for 
ever from history, and on this period it isjustly observed by tbe Dutch historian YVagcnaar, 
" This nation (the Batavi) seems to have been partly slain in the Roman armies, partly 
transplanted bv the Romans, partly killed by foreign adventurers, or drawn away from their 
native soil, and partly blended amongst the Francs, the Saxons, and the Friesians, so as soon 
to obliterate even their name in this country." Now if the Batavi were extinguished in the 
fifth century, it will be difficult to discover much of Batavian blood in those who occupy their 
territories in the nineteenth century. See Wagenaar Vaderiandsche historie, torn. i. p. 243, 
244, 251, 295, 296. Nalezingen op de Nederlandsche Geschiedenis, torn. i. p. 93, 97. Inleiding 
tot de geschiedenis van Gelderland door W. A. van Spaan, torn. iii. p. 2. Eumenius Pane- 
gyricus Constant. August c. v. Leibnitz reruni Brunswicensium Siriptores, I. 26. — The 
substance of this note is taken from a communication of the Rev. J. H. Halbertsma; it rests 
on his authority and that of the authors he has quoted. 

• Alcuin. Vita Willibr. Die sprachen der Germanen von Dr. T. G. Radlof, p. 4. 

f Advenissent ad Pippinum Ducem Francorum, Bd. v. 10, 11 j Sm. p. 192, 9. 

J Historia Episcopatuum Fwderati Belgii, utpote Metropolitani Ultrajectini, &c. folio, 
Antverpise, 1755, p. 1. 

& Some refer the origin of the Counts of Holland to the time of Charlemagne, Holland 
being one of the feudal grants of this emperor. " Noverint universi, quod serenissimus 
Dominus Rex Albertus Romanorum semper invictus, vacantem HoUandia Principatum, quern 
CaroluM Imperator olim magnus Theodorico (Diederik) Comiti concessit in beneficium feudal*, 
tarn jure, quam gladio ad Sacrum Romanum intendit revocare imperium. Trithemius Chr. 
Hirsaug. ad a. 1 300. Struvii Corpus Hist. Germani*, Periodus nona, § 8, note 33, vol. i. p. 574. 

|| Smids's Graven van Holland, 1to. Haarlem, 1744. 


held the dignity of Stadtholder in succession till 1647, when William II. 
son of Frederic Henry, was invested with this authority. 

7. The Stadtholder fled in 1795, and Holland became a more demo- 
cratic republic. In 1806, Lewis Buonaparte, by the powerful influence 
of his brother Napoleon, was proclaimed king of Holland. This prince 
abdicated in 1810, and Holland was united to the French empire. In 
1815, Belgium was joined to Holland, and the Prince of Orange-Nassau 
was inaugurated King of the Netherlands under the name of William I. 
Belgium revolted in 1830. On the abdication of William I. in 1840, his 
son, William II. ascended the throne. 

From these political changes the language, especially in early times, 
must have been affected. A few specimens will best show the mutations 
and the progress of the Dutch tongue ; but, before these are introduced, 
a few remarks upon its nature and character may not be useless. 

8. The distinguishing characteristic of the Dutch language,* is de- 
scriptive energy. If it be not soft and musical, it is dignified, sonorous, 
and emphatic. It has great compositive power ; all technical terms, which 
the English borrow from exotic sources, from the Latin and Greek, are 
composed by the Dutch from their own indigenous roots. Almost every 
polysyllabic word is descriptive of the object which it designates. In this 
respect the Dutch is much superior to the present English, t There is, 
however, a striking affinity between our language and the Dutch. Take as 
instances a Dutch proverb, and a short extract from Spieghel. 


"Als de wyn is in de man, 
Is de wysheid in de kan." 

Tuinman's Sprkw. Nalz. p. 19. 


As (when) the wine is in the man. 
Is the wisdom in the can. — Barring. 
" Parnassus is te wijd ; hier is geen Helicon, 
Maar duinen, bosch en beek, een lucht, een zelfde zon, 
Dit water, dit land, beek, veld, stroom en boomgodinnen, 
Met maghteloose liefd wij hartelijk beminnen." 

Hartspiegel, I. 127—130. 


Parnassus is too wide ; here is no Helicon, 

But downs, wood, and beck, one air, one selfsame sun, 

This water, this land, beck, field, stream, and wood-goddesses, 

With mightless love we heartily admire. J 

• I cannot omit a remark on the importance of language, in designating the mental powera 
of a nation, written by a learned and truly patriotic Dutchman. " Elk volk hecht prijs aan 
heteigendommelijke van zijn karakter, aan hetgeen, waarin het zijne zedelijke waarde, het 
nitmuntende Tan zijne verstandsvermogens acht te bestaan ; het moet dus, bij wettig gerolg, 
belang in die Taal stellen, welke het van alle volken onderscheidt "—Collet d'Escury Holland* 
roem in hunsten en wetensch. iii. bl. 9. 

f Astronomy is in Dutch sterrekunde, from ster a star, kunde knowledge, science ; or hemel- 
loopkunde, from hemel heaven, loop a course, kunde science. — Taalkuncte grammar, from taal 
language, kunde science. — Telkunst arithmetic, from tel a number, kunst science, art. — Aard- 
rijkskunde geography, from aarde earth, rijk realm, kunde science, &c. 

J Bo wring's Batavian Anthology, 12mo. London, 1834, from which interesting little work 
these translations and some other poetic versions are taken. 


9. The correct and emphatic version of the Scriptures, which owes its 
origin to the Synod of Dordrecht 1618 — 1619, affords a fine specimen of 
the expressive powers of the Dutch language. It is one of the best 
established versions, and the language of this translation is well calculated 
to express the devout and dignified emotions of the Christian. 

10. The earlier the specimens of the Teutonic languages, the more 
striking are their affinity and analogy, which prove that they originally 
sprung from one source. The oldest compositions in Dutch are very 
similar to Low-German (Platt-DeuUch.) 

The first specimen of the Dutch language is taken from a trans- 
lation of the Psalms made about a.d. 800. These Low-German Psalms, 
written in the time of the dynasty of Charlemagne, were published for the 
first time by F. H. von der Hagen Breslaw, 1816.* The manuscript of 
this translation is first mentioned in a letter of Lipsius to his friend 
Schottius, at Antwerp, dated Louvain, January 14th, 1599. t Professor 
A. Ypey of Groningen claims this fragment as a specimen of the old Low- 
German or Dutch. (Nederduitech.JX 

Psalm lvi. 2—6. 

2. Ginathi mi got ginathi mi. uuanda an thi gitruot sila min. In an scada 
fitheraco thinro sal ic gitruon untis farliet unreht. 

3. Ruopen sal ik te gode hoista. got thia uuala dida mi. 

4. Sanda fan himele in ginereda mi. gaf an bismere te tradon mi. 

5. Santa got ginatha sina in uuarheit sina. in generida sela mina fan mitton 
uuelpo leono. slip ik gidruouit. Kint manno tende iro geuuepene in sceifte. in 
tunga iro suert scarp. 


2. Begenadig mij, God ! Begenadig mij ; want op U vertrouwt mijne ziel. En 
in de schaduw uwer vederen zal ik vertrouwen tot dat het onregt moge voorbijgaan. 

3. Roepen zal ik tot den hoogsten God, God die mij wel deed. 

4. Hij zond van den hemel en verloste mij ; Hij gaf aan den smaad over, die 
mij vertraden. 

5. God zond zijne genade en waarheid ; en Hij verloste mijne ziel van het 
midden der leeuwen welpen. Ik sliep oDgerust. Kinderen der menschen ; hunne 
tanden (waren) wapenen en schichten en hunne tong een scherp zwaard. 

11. The Flemish is so closely allied to the Dutch, that it may, 
especially in its earliest form, be considered the same language. In the 
thirteenth century, because of the flourishing state of the Flemings, and 
the care of their writers to observe great purity in their diction, and to 
express correctly the gender and inflection of words, this improved form 
of the Dutch language was denominated Flemish. Even at the present 
day Flemish appears to be nothing more than the Dutch of the preceding 

• Niederdeatsche Psalmen aus der Karolinjrer Zeit, zum ersten mahl herausgegeben tod 
Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen, 8vo. Breslau, 1816. 
f Opera omnia Justi Lipsii, vol. ii. p. 986, Vesalis, 1675. 
J A. de Jager, Taalkundig Magazijn, No. L p. 65, Rotterdam, 1833. 


from the Book of Privileges, called the Book with the Hairs (Boek met 
den Hair en) from Verhandeling over de Nederduytsche tael en Letter- 
kunde, opzigtelyk de zuydelyke Provintien der Nederlanden, door 
J. F. Willems, Antwerpen, 2 vols. 8vo. 1819—1824. 

" Ic heinric bi der gfatien goeds hertoghe von Brabant, Ende ic heinric sijn 
oudste sone wi doen u cont dit ghescrifte alien dongenen die nu syn ende die naco- 
mende sijn. dat wi overmids vroeden rade onser mannen en der scepenen en der 
gesworne van bruesele desen coren hebben geset binnen Bruesele bi trouwen en de 
bi eede onser manne ende gemeinleec den poerteren van Bruesele Desen core te 
houden om gemeine orbore ende vordane meer in deser manieren." — Willems' 
Verhandeling, p. 133. 


" Ik Hendrik, bij de grade Gods, hertog van Braband, en ik Hendrik, sijn oudste 
coon, wij doen u weten dit geschrift aan al degenen, die nu zijn, en die nakomende 
zijn, dat wij, ten gevolgen van wijsen read onser mannen en der schepenen en der 
gezworenen van Brussel, deae keuren hebben gezet binnen Brussel door trouw en 
door ede onser mannen, en gemeenlijk de Poorteren (Burgers) van Brussel deae 
keuren te houden tot algemeen gemak en voortaan meer op deze wjjae." 


" I Henry, by the grace of God, Duke of Brabant, aud I Henry, his eldest son, 
we make (to) you known this writing to all those who now are, and who are to come, 
that we, in consequence of the wise counsel of our men, and of the sheriffs, and of 
the sworn of Brussels, these statutes have established in Brussels through the fidelity 
and oath of our men, and commonly the citisens (Burghers) of Brussels these 
statutes to keep, for general convenience, and for the future more in this wise." 

IS. Reinsert de Vos, an allegorical and satirical poem, is one of the 
most popular works ever published. The story soon spread over the 
whole of Europe, by translations in almost every language. The poem 
was first written in the old Flemish dialect, affording a fine and very early 
specimen of the language. The Flemish manuscript is undoubtedly the 
original of which the famous Low-Saxon Reineke Vos, published at 
Lubeck, 1498, is a free translation. The old prose editions of Reineke 
Vos, printed at Gouda, 1470, and Delft y 1485, appear to be only a neg- 
ligent translation of the Flemish poem, even preserving, in many instances, 
the metre and rhyme of the original. The English version, by William 
Cox ton > 1481, was made from the Gouda edition. By the indefatigable 
researches of Mr. J. F. Willems, it appears that the first part of the 
Flemish Reinaert was written about 1150, and by recent inquiries, as 
well as by the preface to his modernized Flemish Reinaert de Vos naer 
de oudste beryming, Eecloo, 1834, it is concluded that Willem van 
Utenhoven, a priest of Aerdenburg, was the real author* of the second 

* Madok was not the author, for the name of such a writer cannot be found. In the 
passage where Madok occurs, it cannot be the name of a man ; fur, as Maerlant observes, it 
merely designates a poem, (Hoffmann's Hone Brig i. 21, by the fertile and learned writer 
* O 


part wLich was composed about the year 1250. Jacob van Maerlant, the 
father of the Flemish chroniclers and Poets, so early as 1270, complains 
of the alterations and additions made by copyists of Reinaert's boerden, 
merry jests and tricks. 

14. That some of the materials of this fine poem are taken from 
French works, is confessed by Willem van Utenhoven himself: 

Daerom dedi de vite soeken, 

Ende heeftse uten walschen boeken 

In dietsche aldus begonnen. — Willem* Pre/, p. xiv. 1. 7. 

Therefore did he the tricks {of the fox) seek, 
And has them out of Welsh (foreign) books 
In Dutch thus begun. 

15. There have been many editions of this work. We have the 
erudite volume of Reinardus Vulpes, Carmen epicum seculis IX et xn 
conscriptum, ad fidem Codd. MSS. edidit et adnotationibus illustravit 
Franciscus Josephus Mone, Stuttgardia et Tubingce, 1882; also 
Mr. O. M. Meoris highly interesting edition of nearly all the parts of 
the fables and tales of the Fox, treated by Piere de St. Cloud, Richard 
de Lison, Marie de France, &c. which appeared under the title Le 
Roman du Renard, publie d'aprds les MSS. de la Biblioth&que du Roi 
des xiii. xiv. et xv. siecles, Paris, 1826, chez Treuttel et Wtirz, 4 vols. 
8vo. avec figures. The indefatigable researches of the learned Professor, 
J. Grimm are published under the title Reinhart Fuchs, Berlin, 1834. 
These and other numerous editions, as well as the complaint of Waltherus 
de Coinsi, Prior of Vic sur Aisne in his Louanges de nostre Dame, and 
Miracles de la Vierge, that Renard was preferred to the reading of 
legends, sufficiently show how many pens it has occupied, and at what 
an early period this celebrated poem served for entertainment and in- 
struction. A slight comparison of all these productions with the Flemish 
Reinaert de Vos must lead to the conviction, that whatever use its author 
may have made of the works of his predecesssors, he has far surpassed 
them all, and has composed a work fully deserving the praises which the 
most competent judges have bestowed upon it. It is important both for 
matter and composition ; and if it were the only interesting and valuable 
work existing in the old Dutch, it alone would fully repay the trouble of 
learning that language. This poem gives a true picture of the world, 
with all its orders, states, conditions, passions, and characters, in an easy 

Hoffmann Ton Fallersleben, to whom we are indebted for a very correct edition of Reineke 
Vos, from the Lubeck edition of 1498, with a valuable glossary). Besides, the article de is 
never used before Dutch proper names. That all may judge for themselves, the passage ia 
here cited : — 

" Willem die Madok maecte " Willem, who wrote (made) Madok, 

Doer hi dicken omme waecte About which he was much awake, 

Hem vcrnoide so haerdc Annoyed himself so much 

Pat die geeste van Reinaerde That the actions of Reinaerde 

Niet te recht en es geschreven." Were not correctly written." 

Willem*' Reinaert de Fo#, p. xiii. 

VI. 16, 17. DUTCH OR FLEMISH— -REINAERT DE VOS, A.D. 1250. 99 

and flowing versification, in a rich, powerful, and sonorous language, 
hitherto, for want of knowing its powers, not so valued as it deserves. 

16. Professor Grimm's invaluable Reinhart Fuchs is a rich mine of 
philology, history, and general information, that cannot fail to revive 
a love for the old Dutch or Flemish, which, notwithstanding all en- 
deavours to suppress it, has still preserved its pristine vigour and 
strength. In the present age, the Flemish owes much to the patriotic 
feeling and well-directed energy of a native Fleming, J. F. Willems, Esq. 
whose exertions are above all praise.* 

17. The first example is taken from Grimm's Reinhart Fuchs, Berlin, 
1834, printed from the Codex Comburgensis, an old Flemish manuscript 
preserved at Stuttgardt There is still a manuscript of it at Antwerp ; 
there was also one at Amsterdam, which a few years ago was sold to an 
Englishman.f The other example is taken from the modernised Flemish 
edition by J. F. Willems 12mo. Eecloo, 1834. These may serve to show 
the great affinity of the Flemish dialect with the English : 


Hot was in enen pinxen daghe, 

dat bede bosch ende haghe 

met groenen loveren waren bevaen. 

Nobel die coninc hadde ghedaen 

sin hof craiertn over al, 

dat hi waende, hadde his gheval, 

houden ten wel groten love. 

Doe quamen tes coninx hove 

alle die diere, grot ende clene, 

sonder vos Reinaert allene. 

hi hadde te hove so vele mesdaen, 

dat hire niet dorste gaen : 

die hem besculdich kent, onsiet. 

also was Reinaerde ghesciet : 

ende hier omme scuwedi sconinx hof,' 

daer hi in hadde cranken lof. 

Grimm! '$ Reinhart Fuchs, p. 116. 


T was omtrent de Sinxendagen. 
Over bosschen over hagen 
Hing het groene lenteloof. 
Koning Nobel riep ten hoov* 

* Verhandeling over de Nederduitsche tael en letterkunde opzigtelyk de zuydelyke- 
Provintien der Nederlanden, J. F. Willems, Antmerven, 1819. — Wilkms' over de hollandsche 
en vlaemsche schryfwyzen van het Nederduitsch, Antwerpen, 1824, 8vo. 

+ Mr. Heber, at whose sale, as I am informed by the friendly communication of Mr. 
Willems, it was purchased by the Belgian government, and printed under the learned and 
judicious superintendence of Mr. Willems, in royal 8vo. containing 352 pages, a glossary of 
the antiquated words, and 13 well-executed lithographic plates, with a short specimen of the 
MS. in each plate. It's title is — Reinaert de Vos Episch Fabeldicht van de twaelfde en 
dertiende eeuw, met aenmerkingen en ophelderingen van J. F. Willems, Gent, 1836. A 
warm interest for the early literature of the Belgians has been revived, not only by the well 
edited works of Mr. Willems, but by Theophilus, a Flemish poem of the 14th century, and 
other pieces, published by Mr. Blommaert of Gent 

100 DUTCH OR FLEMISH— REINAEET DB YOS, A.D. 1200. VI. 18, 10. 

Al wie hy, om bof te houden, 

Roepen kon nit veld en wouden. 

Vele dieren kwamen daer, 

Groot en klein. een bonte schaer, 

Reinaert Vos, vol sKimme treken, 

Bleef alleen het hof ontweken ; 

Want hy had te veel misdaen 

Om er been te dorven gaen. 

Die zicb scbuldig kent wil vluchten. 

Reinaert had er veel te duchten ; 

Daerom schuwde hy het hof, 

En dit bracht hem kranken lof. — Ifillems, p, 1, 


It was upon a Whitsunday, 

When over hedge and bush so gay 

Waved the greeny leaves of spring. 

At the command of Nobel, king, 

To his court they did convene 

All whom he did faithful ween, 

Bowing with submission true. 

Then to the royal court there drew 

All the beasts, both great and small, 

But one was missing of them all, 

Renard whose misdeeds were so great 

He durst no more approach the gate : 

A guilty conscience shuns the light, 

And such was Renard s evil plight, 

That to the court no more he came, 

Where he did bear so ill a name.* — MorreR. 

18. Jacob van Maerlant is the father of the Dutch Poets. Ho 
was born at Damme in Flanders, a.d. 1235, and died in 1300. Maerlant 
was a layman, and distinguished as a philosopher and orator. He trans- 
lated several works into Dutch rhyme, such as The Beauties of Aristotle, 
of which 


Dese bloemen hebben wi besoeht 
En uten Latine in Dietsche brocht 
Ute Aristotiles boeken. 


All these beauties haue we soughte, 
And out of Latin to Dntche brought©, 
From the bookes of Aristotle. 

10. His famous work is, " Spiegel Historiael," or " tiitforic Mirror" 
In his Leven van Franciscus, he makes the following apology for using 
flemish words. 

• For the German of this passage, see Hijk-Gerwm*, § 56> 67; and LnhOtnmm t % 9& 

VI. 20, 21. DUTCH— MELTS STOKE, A.D. 1288. 101 


Ende, otndat ic Vlaminc ben, 
Met goeder herte biddic hen, 
Die dit Dietsche sullen lesen, 
Dat si myns genadich wesen ; 
Ende lesen sire in somich woort, 
Dat in bet land es ongehoort, 
Men moet om de rime sonken, 
Misselike tonghe in bouken* 


For I am Flemyah, I yon besecbe 
Of youre courtesye, al and eche, 
That sbal thys Doche chaunce peruse, 
Unto me nat youre grace refuse ; 
And y f ye fynden any worde 
In youre codntrey that ys unherde, 
Thynketh that clerfys tor her ryme 
Taken an estrange Worde somtyme. 

Bowing's Batav. AnthoU p. 25. 

20. In power, extent, and population, Holland soon became the 
predominant province ; and after the Union, the States-General was held 
at the Hague in this district : hence, the language of Holland became 
the language of the government, the learned, and the press-^in short, the 
arbiter of what was to be considered true Dutch, and it is therefore often 
denominated Hollandsche tool or Hollandsch. 

21. Melis Stoke began his "Rijmkronijk," or "Poetical Chro-. 
nicle? before the year 1296, perhaps about 1283, as it was dedicated to 
Count Floris the Fifth, who died in 1296.* This Chronicle was pub- 
lished in 1591, and again in 3 vols. 4to. 1772, by Huydocopor, with 
valuable notes. This last is by far the best edition.! 


Dese pine ende dit ghepens 
Send ic u, Heef Grave Florens, 
Dat ghi moghet sien ende horen 
Wanen dat ghi srjt gheboren, 
Ende bi wat redenen ghi in hint 
Hebbet Zeelant ende Hollant; 
Ende bi wat redenen dat ghi gottt 
Vrieslant, dat u so sere vloect. 

Hmydecoper's M*U$ Stoke, b. i. v. 27. 


The fruit of my pains* and thoughts also, 
Sir Count Florens* send I to you ; 

• YpeVs Beknopte geschiedenis der Nederlandsehe Taal, Utrecht, O. S. van Paddenbtmr. 
1812, 7ot L p. 334. 

f B. Hnydeeoper Rijmkronijk ran Melis Stoke, met HiftorieOudheid-en TasJkaiidige 
aanmerkingen, Leyden, Johannes Le Mair, 1772. 

102 DUTCH— JAN VAN HEELU, A.D. 1291. VI. 22, 23- 

That you might see, and also hear, 
From whence they came that did you bear, 
And by what right, within your hand, 
You hold both Zealand and eke Holland, 
And by what right you seek yet more 
Friesland, that curses you so sore. 


22. Charter of Leyden, a.d. 1294. 

In het Jaar, 1294. 
Wy Florens, Grave Tan Hollant, van Zelant, ende Here van Vrieslant, maker* 
cont alio den ghenen, die desen brief sullen sien, of horen lesen, dat wi hebben 
ghegheven Rutghere den Scomakere, ende Kerstanse sinen broder, derdalf morghens 
Lants in eghindoem, die ligghen alrenast der Burch van Leiden, ende dat vorseide 
Lant hevet Daniel van den Warde quite gheschouden, als dat by *t held van ons te lene. 
Ghegheven alsmen scrivet vire ende neghentie. 

Handvesten der Stad Leyden, folio, Leyden, 1759, p. 478. 


In the year 1294. 
We Florens, Count of Holland, of Zealand, and Lord of Friesland, make known 
to all those who this letter shall see, or hear read, that we have given to Rutghere 
the Shoemaker, and Kerstanse his brother, two and a half acres of land, in property, 
which lie nearest the castle of Leyden, and this aforesaid land has Daniel van den< 
Warde quite paid, so as he held it from us in fief. 
Given, as men date, four and ninety. 

Jan van Heelu. 

23. Jan van Heelu, or van Leeuwe, so called from the name of the 
place in Brabant where he dwelt. About 1291 he wrote the chronicle of 
the feats of Jan I. Duke of Brabant,* which has just appeared in a splendid 
edition with this title " Rijmkronijk van Jan van Heelu," &c. van J. F. 
Willems lid der Koninglijke Academic van Brussel. 4to. 1836. 


Want, gelyc dat die Euerzwyn, 
Daer si moede gejaget zyn, 
Verbeiden spieten ende sweert, 
Alsoe drongen si, onuerueert, 
Jeghen die Brabantre weder, 
Dat si doen den Hertoghe neder 
Twee orsen onder hem staken. 


As the furious boare, pursued 
By the daring hunter rude, 
Teares the earth, and, raging loudlie, 
Rushes on the hunter proudlie, 
So the fierce Brabanter then 
Driues the Hertoch back agen, 
Under him two horses stagger. 

• Professor Siegenbeeks Beknopte Geachiedenis der Nederlandsche Letterkunde, 8vo. 
1836, p. 27. 

VI. 24—26. DUTCH — EVANGELIUM, A.D. 1477. 103 

24. The Life of Jesus, an interesting and a very useful harmony of 
the Gospels, most probably formed from the Vulgate, as the parables and 
other parts are in Dutch prose, and almost a literal Dutch translation from 
the Latin of this celebrated version. This early Harmony of the Gospels 
must be interesting to divines, while the philologist will rejoice at the 
discovery of this pure specimen of ancient Teutonic. The MS., written on 
one hundred and two leaves of coarse parchment, was preserved in the 
Abbey of St. Trond, and presented to Dr. Meijer, in 1828, while he was 
professor in the University of Louvain. It is the opinion of his friend, 
Professor F. J. Mone, and of Mr. Willems of Ghent, as well as his own, 
that this MS. is a composition of the latter part of the 13th century. It 
was published with the following title : 

Het Leven van Jesus. — Een Nederlandsch Handschrift uit de dertiende eeuw, 
met taalkundige aanteekeningen, voor het eerst, uitgegeven door G. J. Meijer, 
Hoogleeraar te Groningen. — Te Groningen bij J. Oomkens, 8?o. 1835, pp. 431. 

A very short specimen from the parable of the sower will be sufficient 

Een sayere ghinc ut sayen syn saet. en alse hi sayde so uil som dat saet neuen 

den weghe. Aldar wardt vertorden. en de voghele quamen en a tent op. (Chap. 89, 
p. 77, 1. 9.) 

25. Spiegel onser behoddenisse. This is one of the first books 
printed at Haarlem by Laurens Janszoon Koster ; it is in the old German 
character, and in a quarto form, consisting of sixty-two pages. The 
printing is only on one side of the leaf, the blank sides being pasted 
together, and the pages are without numbers. Many of the letters stand 
out of their connexion, and irregularly in the lines. The book has not 
any title, but its object is to illustrate Scripture history by means of wood- 
cuts. It is without date, but supposed to have been printed about the 
year 1424. The introductory sentence will be an interesting specimen of 
the Dutch language about the time when it was printed : 


Dit is die prologhe vader spieghel onser behoudenisse so wie ter rechtuaerdichet 
vele mesche lere selle blencke alse sterre in die ewighe ewichhede. Hier om ist 
dat ic tott' lerige vele mesche dit boek heb aegedacht te vgaderen (vergaderen). 


This is the prologue of the mirror of our redemption, such as for justification, 
many men shall teach to shine as stars in the everlasting eternity. Therefore it is 
that I, to the instruction of many men, this book have meditated to compose. 

26. Evangelium, is a translation from the Latin Vulgate, a monument 
of the Dutch language, and a fine specimen of typography : it was printed 
at Gouda, 1477, in 4to. The Evangelium was just preceded by Neder- 
duitsche Bybel, Delft, Jacob Jacobsz (van der Meer) en Mauritius 
Yemantsz van Middelborch, 10 Jan. 1477, small fol. 

104 DUTCH— JACOB CATS, A.D. 1600. VI. 27—30. 

Liu viiL 4, 5. 
4. In dien tiden doe ene grota scare vergaderde, ende uten steden quame to the* 
seide hi bi ghelikenisse. 5. Hi ghinc wt saeyen die syn saet saeyet Ende als hyt 
aaeyet. eommic hviel biden weghe. ende het wort vertreden ende die voghelen des 
bemels atent 

27. Dat hiewb Testament, Delft, 1524, 8?o. 

Mk. iv. 3, 4. 
3, 4. Hoert toe Siet, een sayer gine wt om te sayen, ende het geboerde onder 
tsay€, dattet soommich saet vial bij den wech, ende die vogele des hemels syn 
gecomen, ende hebbe dat opgegete. 

28. Dat gheheel Nyeuwb Testament, Tha*twerpe, 1527, 8vo. 

Mk. ir. 3, 4. 
3, 4. Hoor toe, siet, een sayer ghinc wt om te sayen. En tgebnerde onder 
tsayen, datt et sotnmich saeyt viel bey den wech, ende die vogelen des Hemels zijn 
gecomen ende hebben dat opgegeten. 

29. Biblia, tot Leyden, 1581. 

Mk. iv. 3, 4. 
3, 4. Hoort, siet een Zaeyer ginck wt om te zaeyen. Ende het gheschiede 
dat als hy zaeyde, een deel (des zaets) viel by den weech, ende de voghelen des 
hemels quamen ende aten dat op. 

30. Jacob Cats, generally styled Father Cats, was born at Brouwers- 
haven, a small town in Zealand, 1577, and died 1660. He is the poet 
of the people : everywhere practical and useful, everywhere original, and 
often sublime. Bilderdijk says — 

Goede, dierbre Vader Cats, 

Wat behelst ge niet al schats ! 

Good, beloved Father Cats, 

How much treasure dost thou contain ! 

Gij, daerom, geeft uw liefde niet 
Aen ieder die u liefde biet ; 
Maer eerst op alle saecken let 
Eer dat gij sucht of gunste set ; 
Want die te licht een vrient verkiest, 
Wei licht sijn vrient en al verliest 

Minne en Sinnebeelden, I. D. p. 133. 1828. 

Then love not each who offers thee 

In seeming truth his amity ; 

But first take heed, and weigh with care, 

Ere he thy love and favour share ; 

For those who friends too lightly choose, 

Soon friends and all besides may lose. 

Geluckigh is de menscb die gelt en hooge staten 
Kan hebben buijten sueht, en willigh achterlaten ; 
Kan seggen tot de pracht, tot eer, en tot de lust, 
Al ben ick sonder u, soo ben ick toch gerust. 

Spiegel van den ouden en nieuwen tijt, I. D. p. 539. 1828. 

VI. 31— 38. DUTCH— HUGO DE GROOT, A.D. 1618. 10fl 

Oh ! happy, happy he, whose generous soul can rise 
Above the dross of wealth, or pomp, or vanities — 
Scorn splendour, pleasure, fame ; and say with honest pride, 
I have ye not indeed, hut yet am satisfied. — Bowring. 

31. Pieter Cornelius Hooft, born at Amsterdam, March 16th, 
1581, and died 1647. Vondel said of him— 

Dat Doorluchtig Hooft der Hollandsche Poeten. 
Of Holland's poits most illustrious head. 

He was also so eminent a prose writer as to obtain the appellation of 
the Tacitus of Holland. 

32. Hugo de Groot, better known by his Latinised name Hugo 
Grotius, was born at Delft in 1583. He had extraordinary and preco- 
cious talents, and was a zealous Arminian. Grotius was one of those 
whose influence excited some of that universal attention to religion so 
prevalent in Holland. When imprisoned at Loevesteyn, he wrote his 
most celebrated poem in Dutch, " Bewijs van de ware Godsdienst? 
Evidences of the true Religion.* Though he was one of the most learned 
men Holland ever produced, and is deservedly eulogised for his critical 
as well as for his historical writings, his reputation as a poet is not very 
great One short specimen is given from the conclusion of his Evidences. 

Neemt niet onwaerdig aen dit werkstuk mijner handen, 

O des aerdbodems markt, o bloem der Nederlanden, 

Schoon Holland : laet dit sijn in plaets van mij bij u 

Mijn koningin : ik toon soo als ik kan noch nu 

De liefde die ik heb altijd tot u gedragen 

En draeg en dragen sal voorts alle mijne dagen. — p. 136. 1728. 


Receive not with disdain this product from my hand, 
O mart of all the world ! O flower of Nstherland ! 
Fair Holland ! Let this live, tho' I may not, with thee, 
My bosom's queen ! I show e'en now how fervently 
I've loved thee thro' all change— thy good and evil days — 
And love, and still will love, till life itself decays. 

33. Dirk Rafael Camphuysen, a disciple of the famous Arminius, 
was a native of Gorkum, born in 1586, and died in 1626. He wrote a 
paraphrase on the Psalms, and much religious poetry. One of the most 
popular pieces of the Dutch poets is Camphuysen' 8 " May Morning" 

Wat is de Meester wijs en goed, 
Die alles heeft gebouwt, 
En noch in wezen blijven doet: 
Wat's menschen oog aanschouwt* 

• Better known in England by its Latin title, De Veritate ReUgUmis Christiana. He wrote 
this work in Dutch verse for fishermen, and sailors on long voyages. The Rev. J. Halbertsma 
says," I have often heard old Friesian sailors reciting whole pages from this book. Grotius 
was afterwards induced by the learned to translate it into Latin, and it has been since trans- 
lated into almost all the languages of Europe, and I believe into Arabic." 

* P 


Ach ! waren tile Menschen wgs, 
En wilden daar bij wel ! 
De Aard* waar haar een Pandas, 
Na is ze meest een Hel. 

SiiekUlyke Rymtn, 1^27, p. 639. 

What love, what wisdom, God displays 

On earth, and sea, and sky, 
Where all that fades and all that stays 

Proclaim his Majesty ! 

Ah ! were the human race bnt wise, 

And would they reason well. 
That earth would be a paradise, 

Which folly makes a hell. 

A line is often quoted from his Lawful Amusement, [Spels Mate] : 

T is wel, goedheyts fonteyn, 't is wel al wat gy doet 
Fountain of goodness Thou — and all thou dost is well* 

34. Joost van den Vondel was born in 1587, and lived to the age 
of ninety-one. He is the Dutch Shakspeare in bis Tragedies: his 
" Lucifer " is one of the finest poems in the language, and is compared to 
Milton's " Paradise Lost" 


-O noit volprezen 

Van al wat leeft, of niet en leeft, 
Noit uitgesproken, noch te spreecken ; 
Vergeef het ons, en schelt ons qnijt 
Dat geen verbeelding, tong, noch teken 
U melden kau. Ghij waert, ghij zijt, 
Gbij blijft de zelve. 


Forgive the praise — too mean and low — 

Or from the living or the dead. 
No tongue thy peerless name hath spoken, 

No space can hold that awful name ; 
The aspiring spirit's wing is broken ; — 

Thou wilt be, wert, and art the same ! 

35. The Established Dutch Version, according to the Synod of 
Dordrecht, 1618-1619. 

Me. iv. 3—8. 
3. Hoort toe, Ziet, een zaeijer gingh uyt om te zaeijen. 4. Ende het geschiedde 
in bet zaeijen, dat het een [deel zaets] viel by den wegh, ende de vogelen des hemels 
quamen, ende aten het op. 6. Ende het ander viel op het steenachtige, daer het niet 
veel aerde en hadde : ende het gingh terstont op, om dat het geen diepte van aerde 
en hadde. 6. Maer als de sonne opgegaen was, soo is het verbrant geworden, ende 
om dat het geen wortel en hadde soo is het verdorret. 7. Ende het ander viel in de 

VI. 56, 37. DUTCH — JACOBUS BELLAMY, A.D. 1780. 107 

doornen, ende de dooraen wiessen op, ende verstickten het selve, ende het en gaf 
geen vrucht. 8. Ende het ander viel in de goede aerde, ende gaf vrucht : die 
opgingh ende wies, ende het een droegh dertigh, ende het ander sestigh, ende het 
ander hondert [vout]. 

86\ As the chief object of this short account of the Dutch language 
and literature is philological, to show the close analogy between all the 
Teutonic languages, especially in their earliest form, very little of more 
recent literature can with propriety be introduced ; but the 17th century 
is so splendid an era, that a few remarks and extracts must be excused in 
this period, and even one or two in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 
17th century, Holland had its heroes in De Ruiter and Tramp : its 
statesmen in Barneveldt and the De Wits. Its learned writers are Hugo 
de Groot [Grotius], Daniel and Nicolaas Heins [Heinsius], P. Schryver 
[Schriverius], John Frederick Groenhqf [Gtouoyius], Casper van Baerle 
[Barlaeus] , Gerard Vos [Vossius],* and many other eminent classics. For 
science, Huygens, Leeuwenhoek, Ruysch, Tulp, Swammerdam. For 
its painters, it had Rubens, Van Dyk, Rembrandt, Mierevelt, the 
Teniers, the Van de Veldes, Jordaans, Kuyp, the Ostades, Gerard 
DouWy MieriSy John and Philip Woutoerman, Metsv, Berchem, Paul 
Potter, Pynaker, the Ruysdaels, Van Huysem, Wynants, Steen ; and 
during this period the Universities at Groningen in 1614, Utrecht in 
1636, and Gelderland, 1648, and the celebrated school at Amsterdam in 
1629,t were established. "The age of which we speak," says the 
learned Professor Siegenbeek, " and more especially the earlier part of it, 
was, in every point of view, so glorious to the Dutch nation, that it would 
be difficult to discover, in the history of any other people, a period of 
such resplendent fame and greatness."! 

37. "Jacobus Bellamy, born at Flushing in 1757, after gaining much 
applause, died at Utrecht at the early age of twenty-nine. § A ballad of his 
[Roosje] is perhaps the most touchingly told story which the Dutch possess. 
It is of a maid — a beloved maid — born at her mother's death — bred up 
amidst the tears and kisses of her father — prattling thoughtlessly about 
her mother — every one's admiration for beauty, cleverness, and virtue — 
gentle as the moon shining on the downs. Her name was to be seen 
written again and again on the sands by the Zealand youths — and scarcely 
a beautiful flower bloomed but was gathered for her. Now in Zealand,. 

• Of whom Vondel said — 

" Al wat in boeken steekt is in zyn brein gevaren." 
Whatever is anchored in looks, floated about in his brain. 

f The University of Leyden was founded in 1574. 
X Bowling's Batavian Anthology, p. 15. 

J » Some of the beautiful little poems of van Alphen ought to be given, but want of room will 
y admit of a short eulogy from the pen of Dr. feowring. u Van Alphen's Poems for Children 
(Gedichtjes voor de Jeuga 1 ) are among the best that were ever written. They are a precious 
inheritance for the youth of the Netherlands. They teach virtue in simple eloquence, and 
are better known in Holland, than are the hymns of Dr. Watts or Mrs. tiarbauld here." — 
Sketch of the Lang, and Lit. of Holland, p. 79. 

108 DUTCH — JACOBUS BELLAMY, A.D. 1780. VI. 38. 

when the south winds of summer come, there comes too a delicate fish, 
which hides itself in the sand, and which is dng out as a luxury by the 
young people. It is the time of sport and gaiety — and they venture far, 
far over the flat coast into the sea. The boys drag the girls among the 
waves — and Roosje was so dragged, notwithstanding many appeals. 
u A kiss, a kiss, or you go further,** cried her conductor — she fled-r-he 
followed, both laughing: — "Into the sea — into the sea,** said all their 
companions ; he pushes her on — it is deeper, and deeper — she shrieks — 
she sinks — they sink together — the sands were faithless — there was no 
succour — the waves rolled over them — there was stillness and death. The 
terrified playmates looked— 

Bellamy's roosjb. 
De jeugd ging, zwijgend, van het strand, 

En zag gedurig om : 
£en ieders hart was vol gevoel, — ■ 

Maar ieders tong was atom ! 

De maan klom stil en statig op. 

En scheen op 't aaklig graf 
Waarin het lieve, jonge paar 

Het laatste zuchtje gaf. 

De wind stak hevig op uit zee 

De golven beukten f t strand ; 
En schielijk was de droeve maar 

Verspreid door 't gansche land, 


All silently — they look'd again—* 

And silently sped home ; 
And every heart was bunting then, 

But every tongue was dumb. 

And still and stately o'er the wave, 

The mournful moon arose, 
Flinging pale beams upon the grave, 

Where they in peace repose. 

The wind glanced o'er the voiceless sea, 

The billows kissed the strand ; 
And one sad dirge of misery 

Filled all the mourning land. 

Bo wrings Balavum AnthaL p. 75 — 77. 

88. Willrm Bilderdijk, born at Amsterdam, 1756, and died at 
Haarlem, December 18th, 1831, was educated for the law. He was a 
giant in literature and intellectual strength, the most fertile of the Dutch 
writers. Willem Bilderdijk is the Samuel Johnson of the Dutch. 

VI. 39, 40. DUTCH— WILLEM BILDERDIJK, A.D. 1830. 109 

Bilderdijk wrote on almost every subject, but poetry was his forte, and he 
stands in the foremost rank of the Dutch poets.* 


O vloeibar klaoken, waar, met d' adem uitgegoten, 
De ziel (als Godlijk licht, in stralen afgeschoten,) 
Zich-zelve in me&deelt ! Meer dan licht of melody ; 
Maar schepsel van 't gevoel in de engste harmony 
Die 't stofloos met het stof vereenigt en vermengelt ! 
Door wie zich 't hart ontlast, verademt, en verengelt ! 
Gij, band der wezens ; en geen ijdel kunstgewrocht, 
Door arbeidzaam verstand met moeite en vlijt gezocht, 
Maar goddelijke gift, met d' ademtocht van 't leven, 
Aan 't schepsel ingestort zoo verr' er geesten zweven. 

Bilderdijk* $ De Bier en, p. 19. 


Ye flowing sounds, in which, with breath pour d forth, 

(Like Godlike light in rays) the soul imparts 

Itself! surpassing light or melody ; 

Deep feeling's offspring, in close harmony, 

Spirit and matter blending and uniting ! 

Thro' which the soul, unburden'd, breathes and lives 

The life of angels I Thou blest tie of beings ; 

No vain attempt of human skill art thou, 

By toilsome minds with pains and care sought out, 

But heaven's own gift, breathed with breath of life, 

Shed thro' creation, far as mind pervades. — Morrell. 

39. The services of Professor Siegenbeek, in restoring and remodeling 
the Dutch language, have been so highly estimated by his country, that 
his system of Orthography obtained the sanction of the Dutch government 
in 1806. Since this time, for the sake of uniformity in expressing words, 
it is required that every public document should be written in strict 
accordance with the Professor's orthographical system. 

40. A free translation of the whole Scriptures, in the modern Dutch 
style and orthography, was made by the learned and eloquent Professor 
van der Palm, of Leyden. It was published in 4to. in 1825; and, 
though it has not the sanction of the States-General, nor is it adopted in 
the churches, it is greatly esteemed, and in general use. The following 
extract may serve as a specimen. 

Me. iv. 3—8. 
3. Hoort toe ! ziet, een zaaijer ging uit om te zaaijen. 4. En het geschiedde, 
terwijl hij zaaide, viel eendeel (van het zaad) op den weg ; en de vogelen des hemels 

• Though living authors scarcely come within the scope of this work, Tollens cannot be 
omitted. He is styled, "the most agreeable, the most popular living poet of Holland." An 
edition of ten thousand copies of three volumes of his poetry was promptly sold among a 
population of no more than three millions of people. This itself is no small praise, and 
implies no small merit, to have so happily touched the feelings of an entire nation. His 
power is descriptive, his characteristic is originality. — See more in Dr. Bowling's Sketch, p. 98. 


fcwamen,enatenhetop. 5. En een ander ded nel m steenmchtigen grand, waar het 
niet reel aaxde had ; en bet school terstond op, omdat bet geen diepie mi aarde had. 
6. Doch toen dezon opging, verbrandde het, en omdat bet geen'woitel had, rerdorde 
het 7. En een ander deel rid onder de doornen ; en de doomen wiessen op en 
verstikten bet; en bet bragt geen vrncht voort. 8. En een ander deel rid in de 
goede aarde, en bragt vrncht voort, die uitbottede en opwies; en bet een droeg 
dertig, en bet andere zestig, en bet andere honderd. 

41. The established version of the Scriptures, made according to the 
regulations of the Synod of Dort, 1618-1619, and first published at 
Leyden in 1637, bad its orthography modernised, according to the system 
of Professor Siegenbeek, by the Rev. Henry Cats, minister of the Dutch 
Reformed Church at Leyden. Mr. Cats dying before the work was 
completed, it was finished by Professor van Hengel, and published in 4to. 
by Tbieme of Arnbem, in 1834. The same passage is selected as in the 
last paragraph, for facility of comparison with Professor van der Palm's 
translation, and with the old orthography in the 36th paragraph. 

Mk. iv. 3—8. 

3. Hoort toe ! ziet, een zaaijer ging ait om te zaaijen. 4. En bet geschiedde 
in het zaaijen, dat bet eene [deel zaads] riel bij den weg ; en de vogelen des 
hemels kwamen, en aten het op. 5. En het andere riel op het steenachtige, waar 
het niet veel aarde had ; en het ging teratond op, omdat het geene diepte van arde 
had. 6. Maar als de zon opgegaan was, zoo is bet verbrand geworden, en 
omdat het geen* wortel had, zoo is bet verdord. 7. En bet andere riel in de 
doornen, en de doornen wiessen op, en verstikten hetzdve, en het gaf geene 
vrucht 8. En het andere deel riel in de goede aarde, en het 6ene droeg dertig,* 
en het andere zestig, en het andere honderd [voudig], 

42. It is difficult to pass over many of the fine passages to be found in 
Feith's Old Age, [Ouderdom] ; The Grave, [Het Graf], &c; Helmers's 
Dutch Nation, [Hollandsche Natie], &c. ; and also in the works of many 
of the old as well as the modern Dutch poets. It would be gratifying to 
mention their divines, philosophers, and those numerous individuals ex- 
celling in science and literature ; but even a list of their names would far 
exceed the limits of this brief sketch. A reference can therefore, only be 
made to those, who have professedly treated the subject more fully.* 
Enough has been probably advanced to prove that Holland has cast more 
than her share into the intellectual treasury of the world, and this must 
suffice for the present. 

Dutch Dialects. 

43. There are several dialects of the Dutch language, such as the 
Flemish, the Gelderic, &c. The Friesic need not be here named, as the 
peculiarities of the country and town Friesic are both pointed out and 
compared with Anglo-Saxon in IV. page 35. 

• See note to § 1, page 91. 


44. The modern Flemish dialect, according to Mr. J. F. WiUems* 
is distinguished from the Dutch, — First, by a too far-fetched inclination to 
express the distinctions and shades of all varying sounds and significations 
of words, united with a careful endeavour to preserve in the pronunciation 
the radical syllable. For this reason the Flemings not only double the 
long e and o, but when doubled they also accentuate them, as e6, e6, and 
06. They indeavour, in all inflections of words, constantly to write ae 
or ee, as plaegen to plague ; verdraegen, beklaegen, ne£men, geeven, 
graeven ; from plaeg plague, verdraegt he agrees, klaegt he complains. 
They also try to distinguish, by orthography, all words of the same sound, 
but different in signification ; as, wagen to hazard, waegen to weigh, 
leven life, leeven to live. They distinguish compound words by always 
uniting them with a hyphen, as spraek-konst, grond-word, haeg-appel- 
boom, aen-nemen, aen-te-nemen. 

Secondly. — The long sound of the vowels a, e, i, and u, is expressed 
by immediately adding an e in syllables where the vowel is followed by 
a consonant. Some words are exceptions ; as, vader father ; nader 
nearer; vergaderen to gather ; kamer chamber; averechts preposterous ; 
where the single vowel is considered as sufficient. The y is considered 
a real vowel, and thus the Flemings have a vowel more than the Dutch. 
The o is not lengthened by the additional e. These two letters are pro- 
nounced short, like the French au, or the German u. 

Thirdly. — By the particular pronunciation of the ei or ei in beer, But. 
bier beer; peerd, Dut. paard a horse; peerel, Dut. paarel or parel 
a pearl; ge£rne, Dut. gaarne, gaarn wilUngly, readily ; rechtveerdig, 
Dut. regtvaardig righteous, just; weerd, Dut. waard dear. To 
this pronunciation the Dutch object, and call it the blaetende, bleating 
sound, though in reality it appears to be the true pronunciation of the 

The modernised Flemish version of the extract from Reinaert de Vos 
will serve as a specimen.f 

45. The dialect of Gelderland will be sufficiently illustrated by the 
following extract, which will serve both as a specimen and an explanation 
of its peculiarities. Slichtenhorst, the writer, lived in the 16th century. 


Geene spraek van Nederland, en koemt de Dnitsse moeder-tael naerder dan de 
Geldersse, als de welke 't eenemoel monnelijk is, en de woorden volkomen wtbrengt : 
wtgezonderd daar de ingezeetenen aen 't Sticht van Utrecht of Holland belendeo, die 
een hotter tael hebben dan de binnen -landers. Want daar men hier golt,holt, zolt, 
zeght, gebruijken de anderen gout, houl, zout, breekende de woorden op zijn Frans, 
die de letter /, vooral in woorden van t Latijn herkomstigh, ofte smelten ofte 't eene- 
mael verzwijghen,gelijk in hault,altus, £00^, assault en anderemeer is te speuren. — 
Slichtenhorst, overde Geldersche Taal. Geldersche Volks-Almanak, 1835, p. 69* 

• Orer de Hollandsche en Vlaemsche Schryfwyzen van het Nederduitsch, Antwerpen, 
1824, pp. 66. 
f See % 17, page 99. 



(Dialect of Gelderland.) 
No dialect of the Netherlands comes nearer to the German mother-tongue than 
that of Gelderland, which is singularly strong, and pronounces the words fully, 
except where the inhabitants border the provinces of Utrecht or Holland, who have 
a bldnter dialect than those of the interior. For where we here (in Gelderland) say, 
golt gold, holt wood, zo\t\*cdt, the others use gout, hout, zout, pronouncing the 
words according to the French, who, particularly in words derived from the Latin, 
either melt (soften) or entirely omit the letter I, as in hault altus high, assault, and 
more that may be found. 

Non vox, sed votum; 
Non musica chordula, sed cor; 
Non clamor, sed amor, 
Clangit in aure Dei. 
Niet de stemmen klaer en soet, 
Maar de suchten van 't gemoet ; 
Niet muzijk van 't snaeren-spel, 
Maar het hart oprecht en wel ; 
Niet 't geroep, maar liefde en min 
Klinkt tot Godes ooren in. 
Sluijter, 1660, Geldersch* Volkt-Almanak, 1835, p. J 24. 

46. The peculiarities of the Overijssel Dialect, with many useful 
documents, and a Dictionary of the chief words, are given by the Rev. 
J. H. Halbertsma in Overijsselche Almanak voar Oudheid en Letteren, 
1836, published by J. de Lange, at Deventer. Want of room prevent* 
quotations from this very interesting work. 


1. The Goths were of Asiatic origin, and it is supposed that they 
formed a part of the second wave of European population. Many cen- 
turies before our era the Goths must have been in Europe, though 
Pytheas,f the famous navigator born at Marseilles, is the first who 

* That great pains have been taken- to give an accurate and succinct account of the Goths 
and their literature, will be evident, when it is known that, besides many alterations, this 
short and still imperfect abstract has been transcribed four times. A large volume might 
easily have been written; the difficulty 'has been in attempting to give a clear epitome. 
Those who wish for further information may consult, " Historia Gothorum, Vandalorum, et 
Lanffobardorum ab Httg. Grotto, partim versa, partim in ordinem digesta. Pnemissa sunt 
•jusdem prolegomena, ubi Regum Gothorum ordo et chronologia cum elogUs. Accedunt 
nomina appellativa, et verba Gothica, Vandalica, Longobardica, cum explicatione. Amstel- 
odami, 1655, in gr. 8vo." This is an invaluable work. See also the works cited in the fol- 
lowing abstract There is an article which deserves attention in Schiller's Thesaurus, voL 
iii. p. 395, sub voce Gothe. 

f Strabo I. 23. 


mentions them by name. Strabo* assures us, that Pytheas, about 325 
before Christ, undertook a voyage to explore the amber coasts in the 
Baltic. He sailed to Thule, probably Tellemark on the west borders of 
Norway, then turned southward and passed the cape of Jutland, and 
proceeded eastward along the coasts of the Guttones and Teutones. If 
credit be given to this account of Pytheas, the Goths, at this early period, 
had extended far over Europe, and had arrived on the coast of the Baltic. 
We know, upon the better authority of Tacitus,t who wrote with great 
precision towards the end of the first century in the christian era, that in 
his time the Goths were near the mouth of the Vistula. 

2. According to the opinion of many Scandinavian antiquaries, the 
Goths who overran the Roman empire, came from Scandinavia or 
Sweden ;% but Tacitus§ speaks of no Goths in Scandinavia, and only 
of Suiones, which is the same name that the Swen-skar (Swedes J apply 
to themselves at the present day. It is therefore more probable, as some 
learned Swedes|| acknowledge, that when the Goths wandered towards the 
west and south of Europe, some of them, in early times, crossed the Baltic 
and established themselves in the south of Sweden and the island of Goth- 
land. If We know from Tacitus, just cited, that the Goths were in Pome- 

• Strabo, the Greek geographer, who died about a.d. 25, is the chief writer recording 
particulars and giving quotations from the lost works of Pytheas. Strabo I. 63 ; II. 1 14. — 
Pliny also mentions Pytneas, Nat Hist xxxvii. 2 ; iv. 13. 

f Annal. II. 62 ; De Mor. Oer. 43. 

X They support their assertion by the traditions of Jornandes. Cassiodorus, the learned 
minister of Theodoric, the Gothic king of Italy in the 6th century, was the first who attempted 
to write a history of the Goths. This history consisted of twelve books, compiled from old 
chronicles and songs. The work of Cassiodorus is lost, and all that remains is an imperfect 
abridgment by Jornandes, bishop of Ravenna, who states that the Goths were from Scan- 
dinavia, or the present Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. (Jornandes de Getarum sive Gotho- 
rum Origine, et rebus gestis, ad Castalium, cap. 3, 4, 13, &c., Leyden, 1595, 8vo. ; Gibbon's 
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, cap. 10.) They traced the genealogies of their 
hereditary princes up to the race of Odin, called jEsir, [sesir pi. of the Icel. ks an Asiatic ; 
vir Asiaticus, — Jornandes, 3, &c. ; Yngiinga Saga. Wheatoris Hist. p. 1 10.] or Asiatic Odin, and 
his followers are supposed to have come from the banks of the Tanais or Don. At the 
present day we find in Sweden, East, West, and South Gothland, and the island near the 
east coast of Sweden is still called Gothland. From the south of Sweden the Goths crossed 
the Baltic, and settled on the coast of Prussia, about the mouth of the Vistula. We are in- 
formed by some fragments of Pytheas, that he, being in search of the amber coasts, sailed 
about 6,000 stadia along the coasts of the Guttones and Teutones, through the gulph of Men- 
tonomon [Kattegat, Belt, &c.] to Baltia, the Baltic. (Plin. Hist. Nat. xxxvii. 2; iv. 13 ; 
Wachter's Gloss. Ger. Pre/. § XLV.) About the time of the Antonines, a.d. 180, [Ptolemy 
II.] from some unknown cause or other, the Goths, in vast hordes, leaving the mouth of the 
Vistula, and other parts, followed the course of this river, and migrated to the northern 
coast of the Black Sea : hence they made inroads into the Roman empire. In this way 
Gibbon, following Jornandes, brings the Goths in contact with the Romans. — See Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire, chap. 10. 

§ Tacitus de Mor. Ger. 44, 45. See the judicious dissertation of Mr. Grdberg de Hemso, 
written in Italian and entitled " Su la Falsity dell 1 Origine Scandinava data di Popoli detti 
Barbari chi distrussero l'lmpero di Roma," Pisa, 1815. 

|| A. W. de Schlegel sur l'Origine des Hindous.— Transactions of the Royal Society of 
Literature, vol. II. part ii. p. 408. 

% In the preface to" Historisch Antiquarische Mitheilungen? published by the Copenhagen 
Royal Society of Northern Antiquities, it is said, that " The Goths were found not only in 
Scandinavia, but Germany ; they are, therefore, properly designated by Gotho- Germans 
(Gotho- Germanen). The old northern Sagas acknowledge that Odin and his Asas first 
occupied and peopled Saxony, Westphalia, and different other German provinces, before 
they founded their government in Denmark and Sweden." — Pre/, p. iii. 1805. 

* Q 


ralia and Prussia, near the Vistula, about a.d. 80, and in the time of the 
Antonines, a.d. 180. The Vandals and Burgundians are considered as 
belonging to this race. After conquering different smaller nations in the 
east of Germany and the present Poland, the Goths, sword in hand, opened 
themselves a way to the Lower Danube. They took possession of all the 
northern coasts of the Black Sea, and made inroads into the neighbouring 
countries, particularly into Dacia, where they settled, and divided them- 
selves into the East and West Goths.* The Visi-Gothi, Visigoths, Vese- 
gothae, or Wisigothi, West-Goths, had their name from their western sit- 
uation ; but they are now more generally called Moeso-Gotbs, from their 
residence in Moesia. The East-Goths were denominated, from their 
eastern locality, the Ostro, or Austro-Gothi. 

3. The Goths having conquered and occupied the country on the north 
of the Black Sea, where, according to Herodotus, the Scythians had 
dwelt, were often called Scythians by Greek and Roman writers, to the 
great confusion of history. 

4. The West-Goths must have been numerous on the west of the Black 
Sea, and have made inroads into the Roman empire, as we find them so 
powerful in Tbracia in the time of Decius, a.d. 250, that they took and 
sacked Pbilippolis.f Even before this period, about a.d. 180, these 
Goths had so far increased as to occupy Dacia, the present Transylvania, 
Moldavia, Wallachia, and Bessarabia. 

5. The Gets, a Thracian race, who had previously inhabited Dacia, 
were, with the Romans still remaining in the country, amalgamised with 
their conquerors, the West-Goths. As the East-Goths had been con- 
founded with the Scythians, their predecessors, so there are some who 
suppose that the West-Goths and the Getae were the same nation, 
because they found these Goths occupying the same territory, formerly 
inhabited by the Getas. Jornandes, by birth a Goth, probably with the 
view of exalting his nation by attributing to them all that was done by the 
Getae, makes the Goths and the Getae to be the same people. Had he 
only been guided by the languages of these nations, he would have seen 
that the Getae must have a different origin to the Goths. J 

6. When the West-Goths settled in Dacia, they not only found rem- 
nants of Roman civilisation, but Christianity established.^ The mild but 
powerful influence of the christian religion soon prevailed over their cruel 
heathen rites; for as early as the Council of Nice, in a.d. 325, the 

• Zahn's Ulphilas, p. 2; Adelung's ^Elteste Geschichete der Deutschen,p. 202. 

f Ammianus, 31, 5; Aurelius Victor, 29. 

\ Herodotus, Strabo, and Menander who was a Getian by birth, and many others, declare 
that the Getsn were of Thracian origin. Stephanus of Byzantium says expressly, " r«na, ^ 
X«pa Tfav rrruii>. E<rn 8« QpaKiKov tdvos Getia, the country of the Geta. It is a Thracian 
nation. — Sub voce TETIA, p. 207 ; Virg. /En. iii. 35 ; Ovid. Trist. v. 7 ; Epist. Pont. lib. iv. 
Ep. xiii. 17. Strabo declares that the Getae and Thracians spoke the same language, and 
that the Thracian and the Gothic or Old-German are quite distinct languages. See Zahn, 
p. 4, note a. In Adelung's Geschichte der Deutschen there is a lonjr list of Thracian words, 
not one of which has the least resemblance to German, p. 284—290. 

§ Sozomcn's EccL Hist. lib. ii. 6. 


christian Golbs had their bishop, Theophilus, whose signature appears 
in the records of this celebrated council. The Ostro or Eastern Goths, 
having no such advantages, remained for a long time heathens. In the 
latter part of the 4th century, the whole of the Goths were governed by 
Ermanneric, one of their greatest conquerors, who subdued the western 
nations, and extended his empire from the river Don, through Sarmatia to 
the Vistula, and even to the Baltic. 

7. The Visigoths or West-Goths being greatly oppressed by the Huns 
from the north of China or Tartary, induced Ulphilas,* their bishop, to 
implore the protection of the Roman emperor, Valens, in a.d. 376. He 
pleaded their cause successfully, and the province of Moesia was assigned 
to them ; their innumerable tribes were then permitted to pass over the 
Danube.f Tt was from the residence which Valens gave them in Moesia, 
now Servia and Bulgaria, south of the Danube, that the Visigoths obtained 
the name of M oeso-Goths. Considering themselves oppressed in Moesia, 
the Goths revolted, gained several victories over the Romans, and at last 
under Alaric desolated the Illyrian provinces, and in a.d. 409 took and 
pillaged Rome. In 412 they established themselves in the south of 
France, and crossing the Pyrenees, fixed the seat of their empire in 
Spain, where they reigned nearly three hundred years. They were first 
weakened by the Francs, and finally subdued by the Saracens. 

8. The Ostro or East-Goths, though they applied to Valens, were not 
permitted to enter Moesia, and were therefore subjugated by the Huns ; 
but after liberating themselves, they embraced Christianity, and were 
received into Pannonia in a.d. 456, following the Visi or West-Goths 
into Moesia. The emperor Theodoric the Great, the hero of Ibis nation, 
conquered Italy, and in a.d. 493 became the founder of a new monarchy 
at Ravenna. The Gothic government continued in Italy till the year 554, 
when it was terminated by Belisarius and Narsus under Justinian, emperor 
of the east. Cassiodorus,J the minister of Theodoric, wrote a history of 
the Goths, which was abridged by bis secretary Jornandes. 

• This name has great variety in its orthography : we find Ulphilas, Urphilas, Urphilus,. 
Gilfulas, Gudillas, Galfilas, Gulfilas, Ulphias, Ulpias, Gulfias, Hulfias, Wulfila, &c. 
It is written DnVq^IN Aulpilas by R. Abraham in his work entitled 0^12371 ^tobtP" 
It is inflected nam. Ulphilas ; g. Ulphilas, exactly as iEneas, iEneae, &c. after the Greek form 
OifXtptXas (Socrates' Hist. Ecclei. II. 41 ; IV. 33; Theodoret. IV. 33; Epist. 104; Phdost.ll. 5; 
Sozomen Hist. Eceles. VI. 37.) Some of the most eminent German scholars have recently 
adopted a new orthography, or as they affirm, reverted to the old Teutonic spelling, and 
write it Ulfila from Wulfila a little wolf, formed from Moes. wulfs a tcolf,(Mt. vii. 15,) in 
the same manner as magula piierulus, (Jn. vi. 9,) from magus puer, and the diminutive fiskila 
piscicuhu, from the root fisk piscis. (Grimms Deut. Gramm. Vol. I. p. 57, 58. 2nd Edition, 
1822 : and p. 666. 2nd Edition of Vol iii. 1831). This, according to the Moeso- Gothic idiom 
appears quite correct as it regards the termination ; but if a close adherence to the Moeso- 
Gothic word be followed, it ou^ht to be as precise in the commencement as in the termi- 
nation, and to be written Wulfila, not Ulfila. Rather than adopt the new mode, which 
appears incorrect in this particular, the old spelling is here retained, and the word is 
written Ulphilas OhKxfuKas, as received from the Greek ecclesiastical historians. Canzler, in 
his Deutsche Vor und Zunnamen, thinks that Ulfila, Hulfias, &c. has some affinity with A.-S. 
ulph: Plat, hulp: Dut. hulp: Ger. hulfe: Old-Get. hilfa: Dan. hjaelp: Snxd. hjelp: /eel. 
hialp — all denoting help, aid, assistance. Then, with the addition of the diminutive ila, we 
have Hulpila, or Ulfila, a little help, infantine aid. 
f Jornandes, 25, 26. J See § 2, note (♦). 


9. Ulphilas,* born of Cappadocian parents about a.d. 318,t was made 
bishop of the West or Moeso-Goths about a.d. 360, and died in a.d. 388. 
He was so eminent in his talents, learning, and prudence, that he bad the 
greatest influence amongst the Goths, and thence originated the proverb 
u Whatever is done by Ulphilas is well done." They received with im- 
plicit confidence the doctrines of the gospel which he enforced by a 
blameless life. That be might lead them to the fountain of his doctrine, 
he translated the Bible from the Greek into the language of the Moeso- 
Goths, between a.d. 360 and 380. Those who are best acquainted with 
the subject! declare that the language of this ancient translation ought 
not to be called Moeso-Gothic, as this name leads to the erroneous suppo- 
sition that this dialect was formed in Moesia. The language of Ulphilas's 
version is, in fact, the pure German of the period in which it was written, 
and which the West-Goths brought with them into Moesia. The term 
Moeso-Gothic is still retained in this work, as it at once shows that the 
words to which Moes. or Moeso-Gothic is applied are taken from the 
version of Ulphilas, while however the Moeso-Gothic is considered as 
the earliest German dialect now in existence. 

10. Several fragments of Ulphilas's celebrated translation have been 
discovered. The most famous is The Codex Argenteus, or Silver Book, 
so called from being transmitted to us in letters of a silver hue. The 
words appear to be formed on vellum by metallic characters heated, and 
then impressed on silver foil, which is attached to the vellum by some 
glutinous substance, somewhat in the manner that bookbinders now letter 
and ornament the backs of books.§ This document, containing fragments 
of the four gospels, is supposed to be of the 5th century, and made in 
Italy. || It was preserved for many centuries, in the monastery of Werden 
on the river Rhur, in Westphalia. In the 17th century it was transmitted 
for safety to Prague ; but Count Konigsmark, taking this city, the Codex 
Argenteus came into the possession of the Swedes, who deposited it in the 
library at Stockholm. Vossius, in 1655, when visiting Sweden, became 
possessed of it, and brought it to Holland ; but Puffendorf, as he travelled 
through Holland in 1662, found it in the custody of Vossius, and purchased 
it for Count de la Gardie, who, after having it bound in silver, presented 
it to the Royal Library at Upsal, where it is still preserved. 

1 1 . This mutilated copy of the Four Gospels was first printed from a beautiful fac- 
simile manuscript made by Derrer, but now lost, and published with a Glossary by 
Junius and Marshall, in 2 vols. 4to. at Dort, 1665. There are two columns in each 
page, Gothic on the left column, and Anglo-Saxon on the right, both in their ori- 
ginal characters, the types for which were cast at Dort. The same book, apparently 

• See § 7, note (*). 

f Thcodoret, iv. 37; Sozomen, vi. 37 ; Socrates, iv. 33. Gabelentz, and Loebe's Uffilas, 
vol. i. p. 360, and Addenda, 4to. 1836. 

I See Grimm's Deutsche Grammatik, 1st edit 1819, pref. xlv. xlvi. 

§ Ihre's Ulphilas Illustratus, edited by B&sching, Berlin, 1773; Meerman's Origines Typo- 
graphical, Hag. Comit. 2 vols. 4to. 1765, vol. i. p. 2, cap. 2. 

|| In Italia scriptus fuit — Ulphila? partium ineditarum in Ambrosianis Palimpsestis ab 
Angelo Maio repertarum Specimen, 4to. pp. 1 -36. Mediolani, 1819, Pref. p. iv. 12. 


published with new titles, and a reprint of the first sheet in Vol. II. or Glossary, 
appeared again at Amsterdam in 1684. Stiernhelm sent forth an edition in Gothic, 
Icelandic, Swedish, German, and Latin, 4to. Stockholm, 1671. A new one was 
prepared by Dr. Eric Benzelius, and published by Lye, 4to. Oxford, 1750, with a 
Latin translation, and notes below the Gothic : a short Gothic grammar is prefixed 
by Lye. A learned Swede, Ihre, a native of Upsal, and afterwards professor, in 1753 
favoured the literati with bis remarks upon the editions of Junius, Stiernhelm, and 
Lye. He had constant access to the Codex, and his criticisms and remarks upon the 
editors' deviations from it are very valuable. All Professor Ihre's treatises on the 
Gothic version, and other tracts connected with the subject, were published under 
the following title : — J. ab Ihre scripta versionem Ulphilanam et linguam Moeso- 
Gothicam illustrantia, edita ab Anton. Frid. Busching, Berolini, 4to. 1773. The 
Codex was again prepared and printed in Roman characters, after the corrected text 
of Ihre, with a literal interlineal Latin translation, and a more free Latin version in 
the margin, with a Grammar and Glossary by F. K. Fulda. The Glossary revised 
and the text corrected by W. F. H. Reinwald, published by J. C. Zahn, Weissen- 
fels and Leipzig, 4 to. 1805. One short specimen will be sufficient. 


Mk. iv. 3, 4. — Hauseith. sai. urrann sa saiands du saian fraiwa seinamma. 
4. J ah warth K'hthanei saiso. sum raihtis gadraus faur wig. jah quemun fuglos, 
jah fretun thata. — Zahn 8 Edition, p. 45. 

Title-deed at Naples. 

12. This document was discovered in modern times, and is now 
preserved in the archives of the church of St Annunciata at Naples. 
It is defective, and written in very corrupt Latin, bearing no date, but 
appearing to have been written in the beginning of the 6th century, soon 
after the arrival of the Goths in Italy. According to this title-deed, the 
clergymen of the church of St. Anastasia, sell some land, and ratify the 
sale in several Latin attestations, with four in Gothic. These four sub- 
scriptions are, as regards the language, of no importance, for they contain 
no new Gothic words ; but they are highly valuable as affording an incon- 
testable proof that the language and writing of the Codex Argenteus are 
genuine Gothic. Some have questioned whether this Codex be Gothic, 
but it is in the same language and the same character as these attestations, 
and they are written, at the period of Gothic influence in Italy, in the 
Gothic language and character by Gothic priests, having Gothic names; 
therefore the Codex Argenteus must also be Gothic. 

The title-deed preserved at Naples was minutely copied by Professor 
Massmann. As all the published copies are very defective, he has pro- 
mised shortly to give to the world a faithful facsimile.* 

One attestation will be a sufficient specimen of the language. 

Ik winjaifrithas diakon handu meinai ufmelida jah (andnemum) skilliggans. I. 
Ego Winefridus Diaconus tnanu mea sub scrip si et accepimus solidos 60 

* See Zahn's Gothic Gospels, p. 77 ; Massmann's St John, pref. p. ix. : a facsimile is 
given by Sierakowsky, 1810, also in Marinis tab. 118. 


jah faurthis thairb kawtsjon mith diakon(a) (ala) myda miganimTna jab mith- 
et antea per cautioner*, cum THacono nostro et con- 

gahlaibaim unsaraim andnemom skilliggans. RK. wairth thize saiwe. 
minis tris nottris accepimus soiidos 120 pretium korum paludum. 

Title-deed at Arezzo. 

13. This is a contract written on Egyptian papyrus. A deacon, Gott- 
lieb, sells to another deacon, Alamud, an estate with some buildings. This 
document is written in barbarous Latin, and only contains one Gothic 
attestation. It is contemporary with the Neapolitan document, and of 
equal importance : the original MS. is unfortunately lost, but the following 
is copied from Zahn.* 

Ik guthilub" dkn* tho frabauhta boka firam mis gawaurhta thus dkn* 
Ego Gottlieb Diaconus hac vendidi librum a me feci tibi Diacone 

alamoda fidwor unkjana hugsis kaballarja jah killiggans* RLG* andnahm jah 
Alamod quatuor uncias fundi Caballaria et soiidos 133 accepi et 

14. Knittel, Archdeacon of Wolfenbuttel, in the Dutchy of Brunswick, 
found a palimpsestt manuscript of the 8th century, containing part of the 
11th and following chapters, as far as the 13th verse of the xvth chapter 
of St Paul's Epistle to the Romans, in Gothic and Latin. 

This document is denominated Codex Carolinus, from Charles, Duke of Bruns- 
wick, who enabled Knittel to give his work to the world. He published rt in 
twelve plates, 4to. 1761. J Republished by Ihre in Roman characters, with Latin 
version, notes, index, &c. pp. 90, Upsal, 1763. Again, by Manning, in the Ap- 
pendix to his edition of Lye's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 2 vols, folio, 1772. And 
by Biisching, Berlin, 4to. 1773. 

15. Angelo Mai, while keeper of the Ambrosian Library at Milan, 
discovered some fragments of Gothic in palimpsest manuscripts, and, 
with Count Castiglione, published the following extracts : — 

Esdras ii. 28 — 42 : Nehem.v. 13—18 ; vi. 14—19 ; vii. 1— 3: Mt.xxv.38— 46 ; 
xxv i. 1— 3;65— 75; xxvii. 1: Philip, ii. 22— 30 ; iii. 1—16: Titus i. 1— 16;ii.l: 

• A more circumstantial description of both these documents is given in Zahn's preface, 
p. 77, 78, and in the following works : — Versuch einer Erlauterung der Gothischen Sprachu- 
Derreste in Neapel and Arezo als eine Einladungsschrift und Beilage zum Ulphilas, von 
J. C. Zahn, Braunschweig, 1804. Antonius Franciscus Gorius was the first who, in the year 
1731, published the document of Arezzo in the following work: J. B. Doni Inscriptions 
antiquae nunc primum editae notisque illustrate, &c. ab A. F. Gorio, Florent 1731, folio. 
Professor H. F. Massmann observes, that, notwithstanding the most minute investigation, 
he has not been able to discover the Gothic document of Arezzo. (Preface to the Gothic 
Commentary on St John, p. x.) It is, however, copied in No. 117 of Gaetano MarinVs 
Papiri Diplomatici, &c. Romse, 1805, folio, from the original attributed to a.d. 551, and 
again published in Codice diplomatico Toscano dal antiquario Brunetti, 11, p. 209 — 213, 
Firenze, 1833, 4to. 

f Rescript, from toAjv again f and \pato to wipe or cleanse. For an interesting account of 
the discoveries made in palimpsest MSS. see a paper by the venerable Archdeacon Nares in 
the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, Vol. 1. part i. p. 122. 

t Friedrich Adolph Ebert, late librarian of the King of Saxony, has declared, after having 
collated it in the most minute manner, that this edition is the most correct copy of the MS. 
For want of sale many copies were used as waste paper, and the copper-plates were sold for 
old copper : it is therefore become very scarce. See Allgemeines bibliographisches Lexicon 
von F. A. Ebert, vol. ii. p. 992, Leipzig, F. A. Broekhaus, 1830, 4to. 


Philem. L 11 — 23 ; — A page from a Homfly — A fragment of a Gothic Calendar. 
He concludes his small volume with a Glossary and two plates. The Gothic frag- 
ments are accompanied with a Latin version, and in the parts taken from the Scrip- 
tures the Greek text is given. This work was published with the following title : 
— Ulphilae partium ineditarum in Ambrosianis Palimpsestis ab Angelo Maio re- 
pertarum specimen conjunctis curis ejusdem Maii et Caroli Octavii Castillionsei 
editum. Mediolani, 4to. 1819, pp. I — 36, Pref/xxiv.* 

16. Count Castiglione again proved his zeal for Gothic literature by 
publishing — 

Ulphilae Gothica versio, epistolae Divi Pauli ad Corinthios secundae quam ex 
Ambrosianse Bibliothecse palimpsestis depromptam cum interpretatione adnotatio- 
nibus, glossario edidit Carol us Octavius Castillionaeus, Mediolani, 4 to. 1829. 

17. Count Castiglione, rather than increase suspense by delay, most 
generously determined to satisfy at once the anxious wishes of the learned 
world, by publishing the text of the following work without preface or 
glossary : — 

Gothics versionis epistolarum Divi Pauli ad Romanos, ad Corinthios primae, 
ad Ephesios, quae supers unt ex Ambrosianse Bibliothecse palimpsestis deprompta 
cum adnotationibus edidit Carol us Octavius Castillionaeus, Mediolani, Regiis typis, 
1834, 4to. p. 64. 

18. A commentary on parts of the Gospel according to St. John, 
written in Moeso-Gothic, has been published in Germany by Dr. H. 
Massmann, from a MS. in the Vatican. 

It is a 4to. vol. of 182 pages, to which is prefixed a dedication and an account of 
the manuscript, in 17 pages. Then follow 34 pages of two columns in a page of the 
Commentary in Moeso-Gothic, printed in facsimile types. Immediately afterwards 
is given in 15 pages the same Moeso-Gothic, text in Roman type, in one column, and 
a literal Latin version in the other, with notes at the foot of the page. Then succeed 
an account of the proposed emendations of the MS., a short notice of the life of 
Ulphilas, and a complete Glossary of all the Moes. words not only in the text of the 
Commentary, but those found in Castiglione's extracts from St Pauls Epistle to the 
Romans, first of Corinthians, and the Ephesians mentioned in the last paragraph. 
At the end is a copper-plate containing several facsimiles of MSS.f The full title 
of the work is, Skeirein's Aiwaggeljons thairh Johannen : Auslegung des Evan- 
gelii Johannis in gothischer Sprache. A us romiscben und maylandischen Hand- 
schriften nebst lateinischer Uebersetzung, belegenden Anmerkungen, geschicht- 
licher Untersuchung, gothisch-lateinischem Worterbuche und Schriftproben. Im 
Auftrage seiner Koniglichen Hoheit des Kronprinzen Maximilian von Bayern 
erlesen, erlautert und zum ersten Male herausgegeben von H. F. Massmann, Doctor 
der Philosophic, Professor der alteren deutschen Sprache, etc. 4to. Miinchen, 1834. 

• Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, Vol. I. part i. p. 129. 

f All that is discovered of Ulphilas's translation of the Scriptures has been published 
with this title : UlfiUu, veteris et novi testamenti versionis Gothics fragmenta quae snpersunt 
— cum glossario et grammatiea, edid. H. C. de Gabelentz et Dr. J. Loebe, 2 torn. 4to. maj. 
Altenburgi, Schnuphase. Londini apud Black et Armstrong, 1836. The first part of vol. II, 
containing the Glossary with explanations in German, was published in 1843, Lipsiae apud 
F. A. Brockhaus. This is a very important work, by far the best edition of Ulphilas. The 
1st vol. contains a corrected text of the Moeso-Gothic, printed in Roman type; below is a 
Latin translation, and under this translation are very useful notes, written in Latin. At the 
end of this 1st vol. are two plates: the first plate contains a facsimile of the Codex Argen- 
teus, and the second a facsimile from the Codex Ambrosianus, and Codex Caroiinus. 


The Gothic begins thus: Latin version. 

saei frathjai aiththau si est intelligens aut 
sokjai Guth. requirens Deum. 

Allai usvandidedum. Omnes declinaverunt. 
samana unbrukjai vaurthun, simul inutiles facti sunt, 

jah ju uf dauthaus ac jam sub mortis 

atdrusun stauai. inciderunt judicium. — p. 37. 

19. With the extinction of the Gothic dynasties, this pure and rich 
German tongue, though vestiges still remain, ceased to be a prevailing 
dialect. Like the Scandinavian branches, the Gothic retained a distinct 
form for the passive voice. The Scandinavians, having little interruption 
from other nations, would most likely retain their grammatical forms much 
longer than the southern German tribes, who (from the 4th century, when 
the Moeso-Gothic Gospels were written, to the 8th, when we find the 
next earliest specimen of German) must have lost many of the old forms, 
and with them probably the passive voice. 


1. There are various opinions about the derivation of the word 
Alemanni. It was a name given to the Suabians,* who appear to have 
come from the shores of the Baltic to the southern part of Germany. This 
locality of the Suabians is, in some measure, confirmed by the ancient 
name of the Baltic, Mare Suevicum, Suavian, or Suabian Sea. In the 
beginning of the 3rd century, the Suabians assembled in great numbers 
on the borders of the Roman empire, between the Danube, Rhine, and 
Main,t and united with other tribes. To denote this coalition or union 
of various nations, they were called Alemanni various men, all men.% 

* Schwaben (Suavi) according to Schmitthenner, Schwabe, m. pi. Schwaben, in Old High* 
Ger. Suab, pi. Suaba, and signifies the wise, the intelligent, a person full of understanding and 
discernment, from the Old High-Ger. sueban to perceive, understand, know, discern, comprehend. 

f Walafridus Strabo de Vita B. Galli apud Goldastum, torn. I, rer Alemann. p. 143 : 
Igitur quia mixti Alemannis Suevi partem Germania> ultra Danubium, partem Retie inter 
Alpes et Histriam, partemque Gallise circa Antrim obsederunt. — Jornandes de rebus Geticis, 
cap. lv. : Theodemir Gothorum rex cmenso Danubio, Suevis improvisus a tergo apparuit 
Nam regio ilia Suevorum ab oriente Baiobaros habet, ab occidente Francos, a meridie Bur- 
gundiones, a septentrione Thuringos. Quibus Suevis tunc juncti Alemanni etiam aderant, 
ipsique alpes erectas omnino regentes. 

I Ger. allerley various, different : mann man. Schmitthenner says from the Old-Ger. alio- 
man each, in the plural alamanna many, a nation, community. — Vou Schmid in his Suavian 
Dictionary, sub Alb, alp, informs us that aim, almand, or almang, denoted not only a common, 
a pasture, but a mountain ; hence the people dwelling on the mountains in Austria, Tyrol, &c. 


Thus increased io power, they soon ventured to make formidable inroads 
into the Roman territory, and not only entered the plains of Lombardy, 
but advanced almost in sight of Rome. They were repelled, and, in 
a new attack, vanquished by Aurelian.* The term Alemanni was used 
by foreigners as synonymous with Germans,t and, while in English they 
are called Germans, in French and Spanish they are to this day denomi- 
nated Alemanns. This great confederacy terminated in a.d. 496, by 
a bloody victory of the Francic king, Clovis, (Chlodovacus,) at Tolbiac, 
near Cologne on the Rhine, the present Zullich or Zulpich. 

2. The peculiarities of the Suabian or Alemanni c dialect are these : 

The first vowel a very much prevails, and the final u of verbs is omitted : thus they 
say, saga for sagen to say ; fraga for fragen to ask. They change the Ger. o into 
an, and use braut for brot bread; gvauss for gross great. For the Ger. $t, they put 
sckt (sbt) ; they use du bischt, kannscht, for du bist than art ; canst. They 
form diminutives in li, te, as herzli for Ger, herzchen a Utile heart. In the inflec* 
tions of sollen shall, wollen will, the / is generally omitted ; as, du sottascht di 
doch schema, for du solltest dich doch scuauien I lion sJwuldst be ashamed. The 
oldest Suabian and Upper German dialect contained very few rough hissing sounds. 
In old documents, and till the time of Emperor Maximilian I. the sch is rarely 
found. The hissing sounds begin on the borders of Italy and France, diminish 
in the middle of Germany, and nearly disappear in North or Low-Germany. 

3. The Suabians of the present day speak in a lively and quick 

4. The Alemamiic or Suabian dialect prevails in the north of Switzer- 
land, in Alsace, Baden, Wurtemberg, Bavaria, and the western part of 
the Austrian States. 

5. Some of the authors who are generally said to have written in 
Alemannic, and some of the early compositions in this dialect, 

An exhortation to Christians, a.d. 720 (x. 2).— Kero, a.d. 800 (x. 7).— Rha- 
banus Maurus, a.d. 850 (x. 11).— Otfrid, a.d. 860 (x. 12).— Notker, a.d. 1020 
(x. 16).— Nibehmgen Lied, a.d. 1150 (x. 24).— Waller von der Vogelweide, 
a.d. 1190 (x. 25). — Chunrad von Kirchberg, a.d. 1195 (x. 26).— Gotfrit von 
Nifen, a.d. 1235 (x. 29).— Sch*aben-Spiegel, a.d. 1250 (x. 31), &c. 

were called Alemanni. Oi 91 AXafuwH cfyc XPV Ao-utw Kouafyory taccrffcu, av&pi IraAiarp, 
nw to Tcpfuanica it ro cucpifits avaypatya+ievtp ^wrfXiBts 4ur& iydpvwoi teat fuya&cr tccu 
tovto Bvyarai iurrois if bruwfxia. Alemanni, si Asinio Quadrato tides, viro Italo et Ger- 
manicarum rerum cxacto Scriptori, communes sunt variis e nationibus collecti, id ipsum 
apud eos consignificante vocabulo. — Ayathias, lib. i. I list. p. 7. 

* Gibbon, ch. xi. 

f Nota, quod partes viciniores Italicis, sicut sunt Bavaria, Suevia, diets ftterint, ab Italis 
primo Alemannia, et homines dicebantur Alemanni, nota secundum Orosium et Solinum, 

3uod tunc temporis Germania et Alemania habebantur pro uno et eodem. Nam Ungaria 
icebatur Pannonia, et ab Ungaria usque ad Rhenum cucebatur Germania, vel Alemania, 
et ultra Rhenum Gallia. — Auctor Hist. Landgrav. Thwr. c. vi. ; Struvii Corpus Hist. Ger. § 1 : 
de Ger. orig. Sfc. p. 10, n. 22.— See II. § 2, and note (f). 



1. The Francs,* or Freemen, were a confederacy of high-spirited and 
independent German tribes, dwelling between the Rhine and Elbe. 
They were composed of the Tencteri, Catti, Sali, Bructeri, Chamavi, 
Chauci, &c. who occupied the modern Prussian provinces on the Rhine, 
Zwey-Briicken or Deux-Ponts, part of Hesse, the south of Saxony, and 
the northern part of Bavaria. The Francs lying to the north-east were 
called Salian Francs from the river Sala, and those on the Rhine were, 
from their situation, denominated Ripuarian Francs. 

2. This confederation was known, under the denomination of Francs, 
-about a.d. 240. t According to Schilter,$ the Francs were first men- 
tioned by Eumenius, a Latin orator, born at Autun in France, at the 
beginning of the 4th century. They had been harassed by the Romans ; 
and having felt the importance of union for self-defence, they, when 
united, soon discovered not only an ability to resist their enemies, but 
in turn to invade some of the Roman territories. In the beginning of the 
5th century they took possession of the west bank of the Rhine, and began 
to make incursions into Gaul. 

3. About a.d. 420, their power extended from the Rhine nearly over 
the whole of Gaul, and they founded the Merovingian dynasty, under 
Pharamond their king, who, according to their custom, was elected by 
the chiefs of the nation, constituting the Francic confederacy. The 
Merovingian line continued for 323 years through a succession of twenty- 
two kings, from a.d. 428 to 75 1 . One of the Merovingian kings, Clodwig, 
Chlothovecus, Clovis, Ludewig, or Lewis, subdued the Alemanni in 
a.d. 496; and, immediately after this conquest, he and many of his 
subjects made a public profession of the Christian faith by being baptized 
at Rheims. 

4. After the Merovingian succeeded the Carlovingian family, which 
supplied eleven kings, who held the reins of the Francic government for 
236 years; then succeeded in France the Capetian line, which needs not 
be further noticed, as it would lead to a history of France beyond the 
object of this notice. 

5. Pepin, the first king of the Carlovingian race, seized the Francic 
crown in a.d. 751, and divided the kingdom between his two sons, 
Charlemagne and Carloman. After the death of his brother, Charlemagne 
became sole possessor of the kingdom in 768. As some short historical 

• Frank, according to Schmitthenner, signifies originally, preceding, bold, upright, free ; 
hence, der Franke the Franc. ; Old Ger. franho ; let. frackr m. francut, liber, generonu, 
elatusy tumidus. Frackar m. pi. Franconei, Franci; fracki m. virtuosus, potent. 

f Gibbon, cb. x. Turner's Hist of Anglo-Saxons, bk. 2, ch. iii. 

X philter's, Gloss, to Tbes. roL iii. p. 316. 


remarks* will be made when specimens of the language are introduced, 
it will only be necessary to observe here, that Charlemagne, after showing 
himself one of the greatest men that ever reigned over a most extensive 
empire, died in a.d. 814. 

6. It is difficult to name with minuteness and precision all the writers 
and the compositions in the Francic dialect ; but the following are gene- 
rally considered as written in this idiom : — 

A translation of Isidore, a.d. 800 (x. 8).. — Hildibraht and Hadubrant, a.d. 730 
(x. 3). — Ludwigslied, a.d. 883 (x. 14). — A Translation of Boethius, a.d. 950 (x. 
18).— Willeram's Paraphrase, a.d. 1070 (x. 20).— The Praise of St. Anno, a.d. 
1075 (x.21),&c. 


1. The translation of the Scriptures by Bishop Ulphilas, about a.d. 360, 
affords the earliest specimen of German. Almost four centuries elapsed 
between the writings of Ulphilas, and the composition of the following 
exhortation. When the Francs and Alemanni were converted to Chris- 
tianity, their instructors not only wrote prayers, exhortations, sermons, 
hymns, and commentaries on the Scriptures, but also composed glossaries ; 
thus preserving specimens of the German language in the 7th and 8th 

2. An exhortation to Christians (Exhortatio ad plebem Christianam) 
is taken from a MS. of the early part of the 8th century, originally pre- 
served in the bishoprick of Freisingen in Bavaria, and Fulde in Hesse, 
but now in Munich and Kassel. It was published in Hottinger y s His- 
toria Ecclesiastica, vol. viii. p. 1220 ; in 5. /. Docerfs Miscellaneen, 
vol. i. p. 4 — 8; and in WackernageVs Altdeutsches Lesebuch, 8vo. 
Basel, 1835. 


Hlosgt ir, chindo liupostun, rihtida thera galaupa the ir in herzin kahucclicho 
hap&n sculut, ir den christanun namun intfangan eigut, thaz ist chundida iuuerera 
christinheiti, fona demo truhtine in man gaplasan, fona sin selpes jungiron kasezzit. 
— WackernageVs Altdeut. Les.p. 6. 


Lauschet ihr, Kinder liebsten, der zucht des Glaubens, den ihr im Herzen 
behiitlich haben sollet, (wenn) ihr den Christennamen empfangen habt, das ist 
Kunde eurer Christenheit, von dem Herrn eingeblasen, von seinen eigenen Jiin- 
gern gesetzt. 

• Sec X. § 9, 10. 



Listen ye, children dear, to the instruction of the belief, which yon shall preserve 
in yonr hearts, (when) you hare received ihe Christian name, that is, the knowledge 
of your Christianity, inspired by the Lord, (and) established by his own disciples. 

3. The heroic Song, relating the combat between Hildibraht and 
Hadubrant. The language of this song is Francic, with a great inter- 
mixture of the Low-German dialect. Bouterweck considers it just what 
one would expect from the attempt of a Low-Saxon to write Francic. 
Like the Wessobrunu Prayer, it is alliterative,* and ascribed to the 8th 
century. It was first published by Eckard, in Commentariis de rebus 
Francorum, vol. i. p. 864, from theFulda manuscript, now kept at Kassel, 
by Grimm, at Kassel, 1812, and in his Altdenlsche W alder, vol. ii. p. 97. 
A lithographic specimen of the fragment preserved at Gottingeu was given 
by Professor Grimm in 1830. An edition appeared in 1833, by Lachmann. 
An explanation of the difficult passages by W. Mohr, in 12mo. pp. 16, 
Marburg, 1836. 

Old German, Literal Modern German. Literal English. 

Ik gihorta dhal seggen, Ich horle dus sageu, I heard it said 

dhat sib itrhellun 

enon muoiin 
Hiltibrahtjoh //adubrant 

nnlar Aerjun ivem. 

iro *aro rib tun, 

yarutun *e iro ^ndbaraun, 

yurtun sih svert ana, 
Aelidos, ubar Aringil, 

do sie tl dero Ailtju ritun. 
Hiltibraht giinahalta : 

er was Aeroro man, 
yerahesyi-otoro : 

er/r&gen gistuont 
yohem wortum 

hver sin^/ater wari 
yireo in/olche, 

dass sicii heruusforderten 


Hildebrand und Hadubrand 

unter einauder. 

Sohn und Vater, wie 

sie ihren Kauipfplatz be- 

thaten sie ihre Kriegshem- 

den an 
giirteien sicb ib* Scbwert 

die Helden zum Rio gen 

. da sie zum Kampf ril ten. 
Hprach Hildebrand : 
er war ein hehrer Mann 
Geistes weise : 
er fragen that 
mit wenigen Worten 
wer sein Vater ware 
im Manner Volke, 

that Hiltibraht and Hadu- 
with one voice 
one another. 
Son and father, when 
the (combat) place they 

their coat of war they put 

girded their sword on, 

the heroes for the fight, 

when they to combat rode. 
Hiltibraht spoke : 
he was a stately man, 
of a prudent {wise) mind: 
he did ask 
with few words 
who his father was 
among the race of men, 

eddo hvelihhes cnuosles oder welches Stammes du or of what family {he was) 
du sis. seyst. thou art 

Wackernagel, p. 14. 

• The alliteration in the example is denoted by italic letters. 


4. The following Latin hymns ore ascribed to St. Ambrose, who was 
Bishop of Milan from A.D. 374 to 397. The German translations, made 
by an unknown hand, are thought to be of the 8th century. They are 
found in WackernageFs Altdeutches Lesebuch, 870. Basel, 1835. 

The Original Latin* Old German Translation. 

Deus qui coeli lumen en cot dfi der himiles leoht pist 

satorque lucis, qui polum saio job leohtes dCk der bimil 

paterno fultum brachio faterlichemu arspriuztan arme 

praclarA pandis dextera. durubeitareru spreitis zesauftn. 

Aurora Stellas jam tegit tagarod sterna giu decbit 

robrum sustoUens gurgitem, rotan ftfpurrenti uu&k 

humectis namque flatibos fuhtein kauuisso plastim 

terrain baptizans roribus. erda taufant&r tauum. 
Wackemagel, p. 7. 


The Original Latin. Old German Translation. 

Te Deum laudomus. tbib cot lop&m&s 

to dominum confitemur. tbib trubtnan gebem&s 

te sternum patrem tbib Guuigan later 

omnis terra veneratur. &okiuuelih erda uuirdit (£re"t). 

Tibi omnes angeli, tibi coali tbir alle* engila tbir himila 

et universe potestaies, inti alio kiuualtido 

tibi cherubim et seraphim tbir cherubim inti seraphim 

incessabili voce proclamant unbilibanlicberu stimmo forhar&nt. 

Sanctus sanctus sanctus uulh&r uuih&r uuib&r 

doniimis deus sabaoth* trubtin cot hfcrro 

pleni sunt cceli et terra folliu sint himila inti erda 

majestate gloriae tu& thera meginchrefti tiurida tbinera. 
Wackernagel, p. 11. 

5. A hymn to the honour of St. Peter, by an anonymous author of the 
8th century, published from a MS. of Freisingen, in Docen's Miscellaneen, 
2 vols. Munich, 1809: Hoffmann's Fundgruben, 8vo. 1 voL Breslau, 1830. 

Vnsar trohtin hat farsalt sancte petre ginualt, 

daz er mac ginerian ze imo dingenten man. 

Kyrie eleyson. Christe eleyson. 

Er bapet ouh mit vuortum himilricbes portun, 

dar in mach er skerian, den er uuili nerian. 

Kirie eleison. Cbriste (eleison). 

Fundgruben, p. 1. 


Unser Herr hat verliehen St. Peter gewalt, 
das er kann erhalten (den) zu ihm bittenden mann. 

KvpU t\£T)0QV f XpUTTC l\l7)<FOV, 

Er hat auch mit worten (des) himmelreiches pforten, 
dahin kann er bringen den er will erhalten. 
Kvptc iXerjaov, Xpiart iXtrjaov. 

• For a specimen of the Te Deum, in German of the 12th century, see $ 22. 

J &* uiGB^aau* — «XA«>«m nurcz, i*>n 770. X. 6, 7. 

litxkai ntixsa. 
O^r Lord ash znen Sc Peter pwr, 
teas be nay pr*acrr*r, Out saas &*2 pray* to ia. 
Lord bar* merer, Cfcn»s fear* merer. 
He a£)K» keep*, with »oris the portals of inarm * AJ Bgdau 
wherein he mar take, «kn be «iH preserve. 
Lord bare merer. Christ bare merer. 

6. The WjAiCBfcX** Pbatek,so called from the MS. being first dis- 
covered in the monastery of Wessobnmn, in Bararia. The MS. is of the 
latter part of the %tb century ; it was published by P r of e sso r J. Grimms 
at Kassel, 1*12, by Mavmanm at Berlin, 1924, and in WaekenageT* 
AltdeoUcbe* Leseboch, %ro. Basel, 1885. The alHlfiation is denoted 
by italic letters. 

Old German. Literal Modem Germ**. LUer*l English. 

I)mt (pa/rt$in ib mit/iro~ Das horte kb bey Men- This I beard from men 

htm scben 

Jlrimzzh wrist*, mit Fiinritz meisteni, of most curiosity, 

a*terom was daai Erde nicht war that (the) earth was not 

nob Ifhimil, noch Aufhimmel, nor hearen, 

nob p*atn nohbeinig nocb Banm einiger nor any tree 

nob per*g ni was ; noch Berg nicht war ; nor mountain was ; 

ni ..... . nicht not 

noh fufma ni tcein noch Sonne nicht schien nor sun did shine 

nob mktio ni liuhta noch Mond nicht leuchtete nor moon gare light 

noh der mareoseo. noch der Meersee. nor the main {sea). 

do dar nitciht ni was Als da Nichts nicht war when there was no wight 

enteo ul trenteo, Ende noch Wende end nor wend {turn), 

cnti do was der *ino und da war der eine and then was the one 

almahtlco cot, &c. allmachtige Gott, &c. Almighty God, &c. 
Wackernagel, p. 17. 

7. Kkro, a monk in the abbey of St Gallon in Switzerland, made 
a German translation of the Rules of St. Benedict, about a.d. 800, under 
the title, Interpretatio Regular Sancti Benedicti Thetisca, Schilter*8 Thes. 
at the end of vol. i. p. 25, and a part of it in Graff's Althochdeutscher 

De Taciturnilate, chap. VI. 
Tuamoeft. daz qhuad vvizzago qhuad ih kehalte weka mine daz nalles 
Faciatnus quod ait Prophet* : Dixi, custodial* vias me as, ut no* 
miMituo in zungun mineru sazta munde minemu kehaltida ertumbeta indi 
delinqam in lingua mea : Posui ori meo custodial* : Obmului et 
kodooinuatit pirn indi suuiketa fona cuateem hiar keaugit uuizzago ibu fona 
hurniliatus sum, et silui d bonis; hie ostendit prophet*, si & 
cuateem sprahhom ofto duruh suuigalii sculi suuigeen huueo meer 
bonis eloquiis inter dum propter taciturnitatem debet taceri. Quanto magi* 
fona vbilcom vvortum duruh vvizzi dera sunta sculi pilinnan. 
(1 malis verbis propter poenam peccati debet cessari P 

Graff, p. xlviii. 



Tbnen wir das, was der Weissager sagt : ich habe gesagt, ich werde bewachen, 
die Wege mein, dass ich nicbts missethue mit meiner Zunge ; ich setzte dem 
Munde mein eine Wache, ich bin verstummt, und gedemiithiget und schweige von 
den Guten. Heir zeigt der Weissager, wenn von guten Reden oft wegen der 
Verschwiegenheit soil geschwiegen werden, wie viel mehr von iibeln Worten wegen 
der Strafe der Siinde soil geschwiegen werden. 


Let us do what the sayer ( Prophet) saith : I have said I will keep my ways, 
that I nothing misdo with my tongue : I have set a watch over my mouth, I was 
dumb, and humbled, and silent (even) from good; here the wise -say er shows, if 
from good speeches often for taciturnity we should be silent, how much more from 
evil words should we cease for punishment of the sin. 

8. Isidore, born at Carthage, was archbishop of Seville, from 600 
to 636. Amongst other works, he wrote a treatise, De Nativitate Domini, 
of which a Franc is supposed to have made a translation. The MS. is 
preserved at Paris. It was published by Jo. Phil. Palthen, at Greifswald, 
1706, and again in Schilter^s Thes. at the end of vol. i. Ulm, 1728 : it 
was also inserted by Rostgaard in the Danish Bibliotheca, No. 2, Copen- 
hagen, 1788. 

The following specimen of Isidore is from Graffs Althochdeut&chen 
Sprachschatz, vol. i. p. xlv. Berlin, 1834,* most carefully collated by this 
indefatigable scholar with the original MS. at Paris. It is to be found 
also in Schilter's Thes. p. 4 of vol. i., Isidore , ch. iv. 1. 

Hear quhidit umbi dhea Bauhnunga. dhero dhrio heideo gotes. 
Araugit ist in dhes aldin uuizssodes boohhum. dhazs fater endi sunu endi heilac 
geist got sii. Oh dhes sindun unchilaubun iudeo liudi. dhazs sunu endi heilac 
gheist got sii. bi dhiu huuanda sie chihordon gotes stimna hluda in sina berge 
quhedhenda. Chihori dhu israhel druhtin got dhin. ist eino got. 


Hier wird gesprochen von der bedeutung der Dreieinigkeit Gottes. 
Sichtbar ist in den alten bundes buchern, dass Vater und Sohn und heiliger Geist 
Gott seyn. O der siindigen (thorichten) Juden leute, unglaubig dass Sohn und 
heiliger Geist Gott seyn, darum weil sie horten Gottes stiinme laut auf dem berge 
Sinai sprechend : Hore du Israel der Herr dein Gott ist einge Gott. 


Here is spoken about the signification of the Trinity of God. 
It is visible, in the books of the Old Testament, that the Father and Son and 
Holy Ghost is God. O the sinful Jewish people, disbelieving that the Son and 
the Holy Ghost is God, because they heard Gods voice loud on mount Sinai, 
saying, Hear thou, Israel, the Lord thy God is one God. 

• In the preface to this laborious and learned work, from p. xxxiii, to lxxiii, there is a very 
valuable account of old Ger. MSS. Some specimens are given of unpublished glossaries and 
fragments of a translation of Boetiut de consolatione philosophise, supposed to be Notker*s 
work (in cod. 5, gall. 825) of Mart Capella de Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae, (in cod. 5, 
gall. 872,) and of Aristotle's Organon (in cod. 5, gall. 818). The glossaries are from the 7th 
to the 9th century. To give a true idea of the quality and state of the MSS. Graff has very 
properly given them with all their faults, &c. exactly as he found them. 

128 HIGH-GERMAN— CHARLES'S OATH, A.D. 842. X. 9, 10. 

9. Charlemagne,* who reigned from 768—814, united the German 
tribes, the Francs, Alemanni, Bavarians, Tkuringians, Saxons, Longo- 
bards, Burgundians, &c. into one mighty empire, and governed all the 
nations from the Eider in the north of Germany, to the Ebro in Spain — 
from the Baltic sea to the Tiber in Italy. Arts and sciences declined 
more and more after the time of Gregory the Great, in 604, who himself 
discouraged scientific pursuits so much, that at the time of Charlemagne 
there was scarcely a trace of science or literature on the continent Charle- 
magne arose, and obtained the aid of the most learned men of bis time for 
the improvement of his mighty empire. A few of these eminent men may 
be named. Alkuin, an Anglo-Saxon monk, born about 732, educated at 
York, was well versed in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, theology, rhetoric, 
poetry, and mathematics, and was also distinguished for his piety. He 
died, abbot of Tours, in 804. Theodulph died 821, bishop of Orleans. 
Eginhard, born in Odenwalde, South Germauy, wrote the History of 
Charlemagne, and died in 839. Schools were also established in different 
parts of the empire. By these means science and literature were sup- 
ported in the 9th and following centuries. Charlemagne enjoined the 
clergy to preach in German, and to translate homilies into that language. 
He himself attempted to form a German Grammar, and ordered a col- 
lection of the national songs to be made, which unfortunately are lost, but 
we may form some judgment of them from the Hildibraht, a remarkable 
fragment of early German. 

10. The successors of Charlemagne inherited his empire, but not his 
talents. The second son of Charlemagne, Ludwig or Lewis the pious, in 
the year 843, divided the empire among his three sons: — 1. Lewis bad 
Germany, which comprised Suabia, East Franconia, Bavaria, Thuringia, 
Saxony. Germany, from this early period to the present day, has pre- 
served its language, its customs, and independence. 2. To Charles, Gallia 
was assigned. 3. Lothar received for his portion, Dauphine, Alsace, 
and Burgundy. 

At first the Francs, in Gallia under Charles, spoke German, but they 
soon mixed it with the language of the subdued Gauls. The oaths which 
Charles and Lewis and their subjects took near Strasburg in 842, to 
protect their empire against Lothar, their eldest brother, are preserved. 
The grandson of Charlemagne, Abbot Nidhart, who died 853, in bis 
history of the disputes of the sons, has preserved the form of the oath in 
German and French. It is a curious specimen of both languages at this 
early period.f 

Charles's Oath in Francic, or Old German. 

In godes minna ind in thes christianes folches ind wiser bedhero gehaltnissi, fon 
thesemo dage frammordes,s6 fram so inir got geuuizci indi uaahd furgibit, so haldih 

• Eginharti de Vita Carolimagni commentariis, cum annotationibus Ger. Nicolai Heerkens, 
Groningise, 12mo. 1755. Histoire de Charlemagne par Gaillard, 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1819. 

f Roquefort gloss, de la langue romane, torn. i. disc. prel. p. xx. Wackernagel's Altdeutsches 
Lesebuch, 8vo. Basel, 1835, p. 26. 

X. 10. HIGH-GERMAN — LEWISES OATH, A.D. 842. 129 

tesan minan bruodher soso man mit rebtu sinan bruodher seal, in thiu thaz er mig 
so soma duo, indi mit Ludherem in nohheiniu thing ne gegangu, th& minan uuillon 
imo ce scadhen werdh&n. 


In Gottes Minne und in (wegen) des christlichen Volkes und unser beider Er- 
naltung von diesem Tage fortan, so fern so mir Gott Weisheit und Macht giebt, 
so balte icb diesen meinen Bruder, so wie man mit Recbt seinen Bruder soil, und 
dass er mir auch so thun und mit Ludherem (will ich) in keine Sache nicht gehen, 
mit meinem Willen ihm zu Schaden werden. 


In God's love and for the christian folk and our common preservation, from this 
day henceforth, so far as God gives me wisdom and power, so hold I (shall I pre- 
serve) this my brother, so as one (man) by right his brother should (preserve) 
and that he to me also so may do, and with Lothar I (will) not enter into any 
thing, with my will, to be an injury to him. 

The Oath of Lewis, in the Romanic, or French. 

Pro deo amur et pro christian poblo et nostro commun salvament, dist di in 
avant, in quant deus savir et podir me dunat, si salvafai eo cist meon fradre Karlo 
et in adjudha et in cadhuna cosa, si cum om per dreit son fradra salvar dist, in o 
quid il mi altresi fazet, et ab Ludher nul plaid nunquam prindrai, qui meon vol 
cist meon fradre Karle iti damno sit. 


For God's love and for the christian people and our common preservation from 
this day and henceforth, in so far as God gives me wisdom and power, so shall I assist 
this my brother Charles, and in assistance and in any cause so as one (man) by 
right his brother ought to assist in such a manner as he may do to me ; and with 
Lothar I will not enter into any treaty (placitum) which to me, or to this my 
brother Charles, can be an injury. 

Oath of Charles s army, in Romanic or Old French. 

Si Lodhuvigs sagrament quae son fradre Karlo jurat eonservat, et Karlus meos 
sendra de suo part non lo stanit, si io returnar non lint pois, ne io ne neuls cui eo 
returnar int pois, in nulla: ajudha contra Lodhuwig nun li iver. 


If Lewis keeps the oath which to his brother Charles he swore, and Charles my 
Seignior (Lord) on his part does not keep it, if I cannot prevent him, neither I, 
nor any one whom I can prevent, shall give him any assistance against Lewis. 
Oath of Lewis's army, in Prancic or Old German. 

Oba Karl then eid, then er sinemo bruodher Ludhuuuige gesuor geleistit, indi 
Ludhuuuig min h&rro then er imo gesuor forbrihehit, ob ih inan es iruuenden ne 
mag, noh ih noh thero nohhein, then ih es iruuenden mag, uuidhar Karle imo ce 
follusti ne uuirefhu. 


Wenn Karl den Eid, den er seinem Bruder Ludwig schwur, leistet (halt) und 

Ludwig, mein Herr (den Eid), den er ihm schwur, bricht, wenn ich ihn davon 

abwenden ( abb al ten), nicht kann, (so) werden weder ich, noch deren einer, den ich 

davon abwenden (abhalten) kann ihm wider Karl zu Hulfe nicht seyn (beistehn). 

* s 

180 HIGH-GERMAN — OTFRID, A.D. 850. X. 11, 12. 


U Charles keeps the oath, which he swore (to) his brother Lewis, and Lewis mj 
Lord breaks the (oath) which he swore (to) him, in case I cannot pre vent him, 
(then) neither 1, nor any one whom I can prevent, shall give him any assistance 
against Charles. 

11. Rhabanus Maurus, bora at Mayence in 776, became a celebrated 
teacher at Fulda. His attention was attracted to the German language, 
and, in a council at Mayence, a.d. 848, he succeeded in passing a canon 
that in future the clergy should preach in Romanic {French) or Theotisc 
(German). He died, Archbishop of Mayence, Feb. 4th, 856. Rhabanus 
Maurus compiled Glosste Latino barbaric* de partibus human* corporis 
Goldast script, rervm Alemannic. vol. i. p. 66 — 69. — Glossarium Latino 
Theodiscum in totd Biblia V. et N. Test. Goldast. id. 

12. Otfrid belonged to the Alemanni or Suabians, and was educated 
at Fulda under Rhabanus Maurus. He was a Benedictine monk at 
Weissenburg in Alsace, a learned theologian, philosopher, orator, and 
poet, who flourished between 840 and 870. Otfrid wrote in rhyme 
a poetical paraphrase of the Gospels in Alemannic, his native language, 
to banish the profane songs of the common people. In this work there 
is a disregard of chronological order, for the poet seems to have written 
down the circumstances as they came into his mind. The MS. was first 
discovered by Beatus Rhenanus in the monastery of Freisingen, near 
Munich ; there are two other MSS., one at Heidelburg, and the other 
at Vienna. It was first published by Flaccius (Illericus), at Basle, 1571, 
in Schiller's Thes. vol. i. with Scherz's annotations ; also at Bonn in 4to. 
Bonner BruchstUche vom Ot/ried 9 durch H. Hoffmann von Fallersleben, 
1821. Again in 4to. by E. G. Graff, Konigsberg, 1831, under the tide 
of Krist. 

Otfrid's Krist. 
Sehet these fogala. thie hiar fli agent 6bana. 

zi akare sie ni gangent. ioh ouh uuiht ni spinnent 
Thoh ni bristit in thes. zi uuaru thoh ginuages. 

ni sie sih ginerien. ioh sc6no giuuerien. 
Biginnet ana scouuon. thie fronisgon bluomon. 

thar liuti after uuege gent, thie in themo akare stent. 
Salomon ther richo. ni uuatta sih gilicho. 

thaz sagen ih id in ala uuar. so ein thero bluomono thar. 

Krist by Graff, ii. 22, 9 : p. 165, 9. 


Sehet diese vogel, die hier fliegen oben. 

Zum acker sie nicht gehen, und auch nichts nicht spinnen, 

Doch nicht fehlt ihnen etwas, fiirwahr zum geniigen, 

Nicht sie sich emahren, und schon gewahren. 

Beginnet anzuschauen, die herrlichen blumen 

(Wo leute nach wege gehen) di in dera acker stehen : 

Salomon der reiche, nicht kleidete (wattete) sich gleich massig 

Das sage ich euch in aller wahrheit, so wie eine der blumen dar. 

X. 13, 14. HIGH-GEBMAN — LUDWIGSLIED, A.D. 883. 131 


See these fowls, which here fly above. 

To the field they go not (i. e. they till not), and also nothing spin, 

Yet want not any thing, they truly have enough, 

They do not nourish themselves, nor make fine. 

Begin to look on the splendid flowers 

(After which people go) standing in the field : 

Solomon, the rich, did not dress (wodded) himself like 

(That say I to you, in all truth) one of the flowers there. 

13. Muspilli, a fragment of an old High-German alliterative Poem on 
the end of the world, from a MS. of the middle of the 9th century, in 
the Royal Library at Munich, published by J. A. Schmeller, Munich, 

• • . Dar ni mac denne mak andremo 
helfan* uora demo muspille* denne* daz 
preita uuasal allaz uar prinnif enti ungu- 
ent! luft iz allaz arfurpit ; uuar ist denne 
diu marha dar man dar heo* mit sinen ma 
gon piehc ; 

Thus arranged and corrected by Schmelter. 
Dar ni mac denne mak andremo helfan vora demo Muspille. 

Denne daz preita wasal allaz varprinnit, 

enti viur enti luft iz allaz arfurpit, 

war ist denne diu marha, dar man dar eo mit sinen magon piehc ? 


: . . Da mag Kein Mage dem anderen 
helfen vor dem Muspille wenn die 
hreite Erdflache ganz verhrennet, und Feuer 
und Luft ist ganz verworfen ; wo ist dann 
die marke, darum man hier mit seinen magen strit P 


. . . Then may no kindred assist the other 
for the Muspille. When the 
broad surface of the earth all is burning, and fire 
and air are all cast away ; where is then 
the mark about which one has been quarrelling here with his relatives ? 

14. Ludwigslied, a German heroic song by an unknown author, in 
praise of the East-Francic King Lewis III. in the year a.d. 883. The 
MS. was originally at St Amand, near Tournay, but it is now lost. It 
was published first in Schiller's The*., then by Docen, Munich, 1813, and 
in 1835 in WackernageT* Altdeutscbes Lesebuch, 8vo. Basel, p. 46. 


Sang uuas gesungen. Thar vaht thegeno gelih, 

Uuig uuas bigunnen : Nichein so so Hluduutg : 

Bluot skein in uuangon, Snel indi kuoni, 

Spilod under vrankon. Thaz uuas imo gekunni. 

132 HIGH-GERMAN— NOTKER, 1020. X, 15—17. 


Sang war gesungen, Da focht Degen (heroes) gleich 

Kampf war begonnen, Keiner so wie Ludwig, 

Blut schien in Wangen Schnell nnd kiihn, 

Kampfender Franken. Das war ihm angeboren. 

Schiller, Thes. vol. ii. p. 17. 


Song was sung, There fought like a hero 

Fight was begun : Not one so as Lewis, 

Blood shone in the cheeks Quick and bold, 

Of fighting Francs. Which was in him inborn. 

15. Saxon Emperors. During the reign of the Saxon emperors, from 
919 till 1024, literature and science made some progress. The Ottoes 
valued and loved the sciences, and patronised Gerbert, the most learned 
man of their time. Gerbert became pope under the name Silvester II. 
and died 1003. 

16. Notker wrote in the period of the Saxon emperors. The only 
important monument in High-German literature of this age, is a translation 
and commentary on the Psalms by this learned monk, Notker of St. Gallen. 
He was called Labeo, from his broad lips. His Alemannic translation is 
free and natural ; and, as it respects power and strength of expression, it 
equals the best modern translation. Notker died in 1022. His work 
was published in Schilter's Thes. vol. i. 

Psalm i. 
1. Beatus vir qui nan abiit in consilio impiorum, 
Der man ist salig, der in dero argon rat ne gegieng. 

So Adam teta, do er dero chenun rates folgetauuider Gate, Sicut adam 
fecit, cum mulieris consilium sequeretur adversus Deum. 
JSt in via peccatorum non stetit. 
Noh an dero sundigon uuege ne stuont. 

So er teta. Er cham dar ana, er cham an den breiten uneg ter ze hello 
gat, unde stuont dar ana, uuanda er hangta sinero geluste. Hengendo 
stuont er. Sicut idem fecit. Processit ed, processitadviam latam qui ad 
Infernum ducit, et stetit ibi, namque pendebat d concupiscentid sud. 
Pendulus stetit. 
Et in cathedra pestilentia non stetit. 
Noh an demo suhtstuole ne saz. 

Ih meino daz er richeson ne uuolta, uuanda diu suht sturetsie nah alle. 
So sie adamen teta, do er Got uuolta unerden. Pestis chit latine pecora 
sternens (fieo niderslahinde) so pestis sih kebreitet, so ist iz pestilentia, 
i.e. late peruagata pestis ( uuito uuallonde sterbo ) . lntelligo, quodguber' 
nare, (pro tribunali) nollet. Namque htec pestis corripuit fere omnes, 
sicut Adamo fecit, quum vellet Deus fieri. Pestis dicitur Latine, quasi 
pecora sternens. Quando pestis se dilatat, dicitur Pestilentia, i. e. late 
pervagata pestis. 

17. After the extinction of the Saxon emperors, the line of Saltan 
Francs governed in Germany from a.d. 1024 to 1125. The authors of 
this period generally wrote in Latin. Adam, called Bremensis, born 

X. 16, 19, HIGH-GERMAN— BOETHIUS, 1024. 133 

at Meissen, Canon at Bremen, wrote in Latin a History of the Church 
which gives an account of Hamburg and Bremen, from the time of 
Charlemagne to Henry IV. It is of great value for the history of North 

18. German literature had very few monuments in the time of the 
Salian Francs : the language is very stiff and mixed with Latin. The 
few specimens of German, in this period, are translations, such as the 
version of Boethius and Aristotle, by an unknown monk of St Gallen, 
and the paraphrase of Canticum Canticorum by Willeram. E. G. Graff, 
in his Althochdeutschen Sprachschatz, vol. i. No. I. pref. p. xxxvi. 4to. 
Berlin, 1834, mentions a St, Gallen MS. of the 10th and 11th century, 
containing an old High-German translation of Boethius Cons. Philos., 
and gives a specimen of this translation. The following extract is in- 
teresting, from the additions which the monk makes to the Latin text of 
Boethius,* showing the astronomical knowledge of his time. 

CJuir uuizen. daz tia erda daz uuazer umbe gat. undo der f ierdo teil nahor 6benan 
erbarot 1st. an demo sizzent tie mennisken. Ter himel l&ret unsih. tiz iz ter fierdo 
teil ist AUe die astronomiam chunnen. diebechennent tiz sequinoctialis zona den 
himel rehto in zuei teilet. unde fone iro ze dien uzerosten polis iouueder halb e*ben 
filo ist ih meino ze demo septentrionali. unde ze demo australi. So ist tiu erda 
sinuuelbiu. unde ist uns unchunt. ube si. undenan erbarot si. 6benan dar si erbarot 
ist. tar sizzent tie liute ab aethiopico oceano. usque ad scithicum ocean um. Tie 
ferrost sizzent ad austrum. die sizzent in aethiopicis insulis. tien ist tiu sunna 6be 
h6ubete. so si gat uzer ariete in uerno tempore, unde so si beginnet kan in libram 
in autumno. — Graffs Sprachschatz, pref, p. xxxvi. 


We know that the water goes round the earth, and the fourth part above is bare ; 
on it sit the men. The heaven learns (teaches) us that it is the fourth part. All, 
who know astronomy, confess that the equinoctial zone divides the heaven right in 
two, and that from it to the uttermost pole of each half is an equal distance, 1 mean 
to the north, and to the south. So is the earth round, and it is to us unknown, if it 
be bare underneath; above, where it is bare, there sit the people from the Ethiopian 
ocean to the Scythian ocean. The farthest sitting to the south, they sit in Ethiopian 
islands ; to those is the sun over head, when he goes out of Aries in the spring, and 
when he begins to go into Libra in autumn. 

19. Parable of the Sower, in old High-German, taken from MS. 
fragments of Homilies in the Imperial Library at Vienna, written at the 
beginning of the 11th century, and printed in Lambecsii Commentariis, 
&c. 2nd edit. 1. 11, p. 550 : Schilter, vol. i. p. 76, at the end. 

Lk. 8. — Unser Herroder almahtige Got der sprichet in desmi Euangelio, suenne 
der acchirman sait sinen samen, so fellit sumelichis pi demo uuege, unde uuirdit 
firtretin, oder is essant die uogile. 

* Boethius de conaolatione philosophise, 12mo. Logd. Batarorum, 1656, p. 42, Prosa 7. — 
King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Translation, with an excellent English Version by Cardale, 
ch. xiiii. 1, p. 95. 



X. 20,21. 

20. Willeram was educated at Fulda. He died 1085, abbot of the 
monastery Ebersberg in Bavaria, and probably composed bis Paraphrase 
between 1070 and 1084. MSS. are preserved at Vienna, Breslaw, 
Stuttgard, Einsiedeln, published with this title, Willerami Abbatis in 
Canticum Canticorum paraphrasis, Latina et veteri lingua Francica, ed. 
P. Morula, Leyden, 1598, and by F. Vogelin, Worms, 1631, and in 
Schiller's Thes. Also by Hoffman, Breslaw, 1827. 

Sage mir uuine rain, uua du dine scaf uueidenes. uua du ruouues umbe mitten dag. 
Umbe uuaz biten ih des ? Daz ih niet irre ne beginne gen. unter den corteron dinero 
gesellon. Kunde mir o sponse. den ih mit alien chreften minno. uuer die uerae fidei 
doctores sin. die dine scaf uuisen ad pascua uitse. unte die solich sin. daz du in iro 
herzen dir hereberga machest. unte sie beskirmes ab omni feruore temptationis. — 
Schilter s Thes. vol. i. p. 6, tit fine. 


Sage mir, mein Geliebter, wo du deine Schafe weidest, wo du ruhest um Mittag. 
Warum warte ich dessen P dass ich nicht irre noch fehl gehe unter den Hu'rden deiner 
Gesellen. Verkiinde mir, o Gespons, den ich aus alien Kraften liebe, wer die verse 
fidei doctores sind, die deine Schafe weisen ad pascua vitse, und die solche sind, dass 
du in ihren Herzen Herberge machest und sie beschirmstab omni ferv ore temptationis. 


Say to me, my beloved, where thou pasturest thy sheep, where thou restest at 
midday. For what ask 1 this P That 1 may not err, nor begin to go among the 
number of thy companions. Inform me, O bridegroom, whom 1 love with all might, 
who are the teachers of true faith, who show thy sheep to the pastures of life, and 
who are such that you make dwellings in their hearts, and shelter them from all heat 
of temptation. 

21. St. Anno. The praise of the archbishop of Cologne, St. Anno, 
who died 1075, concludes this period. The writer is unknown, but this 
poem was probably composed, soon after St. Anno's death, before the end of 
the 1 1th century. It is in rhyme, and consists of forty-nine stanzas, written, 
as Herzog says, in the Low-Rhinish or Francic dialect (Nieder Rhinisch). 
Meusel calls it Alemannic. Fragments of this poem were first published 
by Martin Opitz, 1639, who discovered them at Breslaw. The MS. is 
lost. It was printed by Schilter and others, and in 1816 by Goldmann. 
All the latter editions depend on the first incorrect publication. 


Mit bluomin cierint sich diu lant, 
mit loube dekkit sich der wait; 
daz wilt habit den sinin ganc, 
scone ist der vogil sane : 
ein iwelich ding die e noch havit, 
diemi got van erist virgab : 
newaere die zuei gescephte, 
di her gescuoph die bezziste, 
die virk&rten sich in die dobeheit : 
dannin huobin sich diu leith. 

Wackernagel, p. 117. 


Mit Blumen zieren sich die Lande, 

Mit Laube decket sich der Wald, 

Das Wild hat seinen Gang 

Schon ist der Vogelsang ; 

Ein jeglich Ding das Gesetz noch hat, 

Das ihm Gott zuerst gab. 

Nur die zwei Geschopfe, 

Die er schuf die besten, 

Die verkehrten sich in die Tollheit, 

Davon erhub sich das Leid. 



The flow'rs adorn the fields, Save the two latest born, 

Green leaves bedeck the groves, Whom noblest, best, he framed ; 

The beasts their courses run, They spurn his high command, 

Soft rings the sweet bird's song: And turn to folly's course, 

All things obey the laws From hence began the pain.* 
That God creating gave, 

22. Te Deum of the 12/A century. \ 

Prof. Graff observes that the MS. is of the 12th century. It was 
originally the property of the monastery of St. Maria at Windberg, and 
contains many very rare words and expressions. The following extract 
is from the MS. in the Royal Library at Munich. It is inserted in the 
Diutiska of Prof. C. G. Graff, vol. iii. No. III. p. 459. 

Daz lobesanch dere saligen bischoue den si sungen 

Ymnus beatorum episcoporum Ambrosii et Augustini quern cantaverunt 

deme herren wehsellichen unter in fure die becherde des uileheiteren lerares 

domino vicissim inter se pro conversions preclari doc torts 

unde uateres. Dih got wir loben Dih herren wir ueriehen dih ewigen 
et patris Augustini. Te deum laudamus te dominum confitemur. Te teternum 

uater elliu diu erde erwirdit. Dir alle engile dir die himile unde alle 
pat rem omnis terra veneratur. Tibi omnes angeli tibi cadi et universe 

gualte Dir die guizzeneuolle. unde die minnefiurige mit untuallicher stimme 

po testates. Tibi cherubim et seraphim incessabili voce 

furruoffent. Heiliger heiliger heiliger herro got dere here. Voile sint himile 
proclamant. Sane t us, sanctus, sanctus dominus dens sabaoth. Pleni sunt cali 
unde erde dere magenchrefte eren diner. 

et terra maiestatis gloria tu<e. 


23. German national poetry and prose compositions, from the 12M 
to the iith century. The Hohenstauffen or Suabian race of German 
emperors were great admirers and promoters of literature. Frederic I., 
Henry VI., Frederic II. and Conrad IV. were themselves poets, as well as 
the patrons of Minnesingers. A few of the chief Minnesingers and other 
authors will now be mentioned. 

24. The Nibelungen Lied, or Song of the Nibelungen, is one of the 
most ancient and perfect Suabian epic poems. Pelegrin, bishop of Passau, 
who died in 991, is supposed to have collected the story of the Nibelungen, 
and to have written it in Latin by the aid of his scribe Conrad. The 
present poem is probably founded upon the Latin, and apparently written 
by Henry of Ofterdingen, about the middle of the 12th century. The 
following specimen and the English version are from the interesting 

* This flowing and spirited translation, with some others that follow, is taken from 
Lays of the Minnesingers, 8vo. Longman, London, 1825, a valuable little work, which is 
fall of interesting information respecting the Minnesingers, and contains many beautiful 
specimens of their poetry. 

f See § 4, for a specimen of the Te Deum in German of the 8th century. 

* Minne love Sanger singer. 


HIGH-6EBJTA3I — MIXNESI5GERS, RISPACH, A.D. 1207. X. 25 — 27. 

work, " Zay* o/"/A^ Minnesingers" p. 114 : the substance of the extract 
will be found in the edition of van der Hagen, 8ro. Berlin, 1807, p. 47, 
Terse 1145. 

SO*G 07 the kibelcngbn. 
8am der liehte mane 
Vor der sternen sua, 
Der flcbm so luterliche 
Ab' den wolchen gat, 
Dem stunt si mi geliche 
Vor maneger fTowen gut. 
Des wait da wol gehohet 
Den zieren belden der mut. 


And as the beaming moon 
Rides high the stars among, 
And mores with lustre mild 
The mirk j clouds along ; 
So, midst her maiden throng, 
Up rose that matchless fair ; 
And higher sweH'd the soul 
Of many a hero there. 

25. Walter van der Vogelweide, of Thurgau in Switzerland, flourished 
from 1190 to 1227. 


Twas summer — through the opening grass 
The joyous flowers up sprang, 
The birds in all their duTrent tribes 
Loud in the woodlands sang. 

Minnesingers, p. 206. 

26. Grave Chunrad van Kilchberg or Kirchberg, of Suabia, wrote in 
the latter part of the 12th century. 


Do der sumer komen was, 
Und die bloomen dor das gras 
Wtmneklich eotsprungen, 
Und die vogel songen, &c. 


Meige ist komen in du lant, 

Der uns ie von sorgen bant : 

Kinder, kinder, sint gemant ! 

Wir sun schouwen wunne manigvalde ; 

Uf der liehten heide breit 

Da bat er uns fur gespreit 

Manig bluemelin gemeit, 

Erst bezeiget in dem gruenen walde ; 

Da bort man die nahtegal, 

Uf dem bluenden rise, 

Singen lobelicben scbal, &c. 


May, sweet May, again is come, 
May that frees the land from gloom - r 
Children, children, up and see 
All her stores of jollity ! 
On the laughing hedgerow's side 
She hath spread her treasures wide ; 
She is in the greenwood shade, 
Where the nightingale hath made 
Every branch and every tree 
Ring with her sweet melody. 

Minnesingers, p. 141. 

27. Henry Rispach, commonly styled Der tugendhafte Schreiber the 
virtuous Clerk, lived about 1207. 


Es ist in den wait gesungen 
Das icb ir genaden klage 
Du min herze hat betwungen 
Und noh twinget alle tage. 

Mi ist sam der nahtegal, 
Du so vil vergebne singet, 
Und ir doh ze leste bringet 
Nibt wan schaden ir suezer scbal. 


The woodlands with my songs resound*, 

As still 1 seek to gain 
The favours of that lady fair 

Who causeth all my pain. 

My fate is like the nightingale's 
That singeth all night long, 

While still the woodlands mournfully 
But echo back her song. 

Minnesingers, p. 144. 



28. Wirnt von Grafenberg wrote a poem styled, Wigalois, about 
1212. MSB. are preserved at Cologne, Leyden, Bremen, and Hamburg. 
A very valuable edition was published in 8vo. by Benecke, Berlin, 

Artus Hofhaltung. 
Ez was hie vor, so man seit, 
Ein Kunech der ie nach Eren streit ; 
Des Name when was erkank 
Britanie hiez sin Lant ; 
Selbe hiez cor Artus. 
Ze Karidol da het er Hus. 
Mit solhen Freuden stunt ez do, 
Daz uns daz nu machet fro. 

Court of King Arthur, 
Heretofore there was, as men say, 
A king who always for honour fought, 
Whose name was widely known. 
Britain was called his land, 
He himself was called Arthur. 
At Karidol there had he a house, 
With such delights it stood there 
That it now gives us pleasure. 

Herzog, p. 79. 

29. Gotfrit von Nifen, a Suabian nobleman, wrote about the year 
1235. The following specimen is taken from Benecke's Additions to 
Bodmefs Versuche tiber die alte schudbische Poesie, Z&rich, 1748* 


Nu woluf ! griissen 
Wir den siissen, 
Der uns bussen 
Wil des winters pin ; 
Der uns wil bringen 
Vogelin singen, 
Bliimen springen, 
TJnd der sunnen schin. 
Da man sach e 
Den kalten sne, 
Da siht man gras, 
Von touwe nas, 
Bruevent das 
Blumen unde der kle. 


Up, up, let us greet 

The season so sweet, 

For winter is gone ; 
And the flowers are springing, 
And little birds singing, 
Their soft notes ringing, 

And bright is the sun ! 

Where all was drest 

In a snowy vest. 
There grass is growing, 
With dew-drops glowing, 

And flowers are seen 

On beds so green. 

Minnesingers, p. 166, 

30. A notice of the following didactic poems in the old High-German 
dialect cannot be omitted. 1. Der Eonig Tyrol von Schotten und sein 
sohn Fridebrant, King Tyrol of Scotland and his son FridebranU 
2. Der Winsbeke an sinen sun, Winsbeke to his son. 3. Du(i) Wins- 
bekin an ir Tohter, Winsbekin to her daughter. These three are by 
unknown authors, but they most likely belong to the beginning of the 
13th century. They are printed in Schilter, vol. ii. ; and in Manesse's 
Collection. 4. Frigedanks Bescheidenheit, Sentiments and Sentences* 
Whether Frigedank be the real or fictitious name of the author, is very 
doubtful. The poem was written before 1230. Published by Sebastian 
Brand, Strasburg, 1508, 4 to., and lately by W. Grimm. These didactic 
poems, particularly the latter, are distinguished by elevated and philo- 
sophical views of life. 

* T 



Sun ellu wisheit ist ein wiht, Son all wisdom is nothing, 

Du berze sin ertrahten kan, (Thy heait can do without it) 

Hat er ze Gote minne niht, If to God it has no love, * »' 

Vnd siht in niht mit vorhten an. And do not look to him in fear. 

Schilter'* Thes. vol. ii. p. 20, in fine. 


Gote dienen ane Wank God serving without irresolution 

Deist aller Wisheit Anvank. That is of all wisdom the beginning. 

Der hat sich selben betrogen He has deceived himself 

Und zimbert uf den Regenbogen. Who builds upon the rainbow. 

31. Schwaben-Spiegel, or Suabian Mirror y the Alemannic provincial 
law, probably compiled in the 13th century. Published in Schiller's 
Thes. vol. ii. 

Introduction to the Law*. 
Herre Got himelischer Vater, durch din mOte gute geschufte du den men- 
schen mit drivaltiger wirdikeit. 

2. Diu erst ist daz er nach dir gebildet ist. 

3. Daz ist auch ain alz groz uuirdikeit, der dir allez menschen kunne ymmer 
sunderlichen danken sol, uuan dez haben uuir groz reht, Vil lieber herre himelis- 
cher Vater sit du unz zu diner hohen gothait also uuirdiclich geedelt hast 

4. Diu ander uuirdikeit ist da du Herr almachtiger Schopfer den menschen zu 
geschaffen hast, daz du alle die uuelt die sunnen und den maun die sterne und diu 
vier elemente, fiur, uuazzer, luft, erde, die vogel in den luften, die vische in dem 
uuage, diu tier in dem uualde, die uuurme in der erde, golt, silber, edelgestain und 
der edeln uuurtze suzzer smak, der plum en liehtiu varuue, der baume frucht kora 
und alle creatur, daz haust du herre allez dem menschen ze nutze und ze dienst 
geschaffen durch die triuuue und durch die minne die du zu dem menschen hetest. 

5. Diu dritt uuirdikait ist da du Herr den menschen mit geedelt hast, daz ist 
diu daz der mensche die uuirde und ere und freude und uuunn die du selb bist 
ymmer mit dir euuiclich niezzen sol. 


Lord God, heavenly father, by thy kind goodness, createst thou man with 
threefold dignity. 

2. The first is, that he after thee is formed. 

3. That is such a great dignity, for which all mankind always particularly shall 
thank thee, for which we have great right (obligation), much beloved Lord, heavenly 
father, since thou to thy high Godhead hast so honourably ennobled us. 

4. The second dignity to which thou, Lord, almighty Creator, hast formed man, 
is that thou, all the world, the sun and moon, the stars, and the four elements, fire, 
water, air, earth, the fowls in the air, the fish in the waves, the animals in the wood, 
the worms on the earth, gold, silver, and precious stones, and the sweet flavour 
of costly spices, the shining colour of flowers, the fruit of the trees, corn, and all 
creatures, hast, the Lord, created for the use and service of man, by the favour 
and love which thou hadst to man. 

5. The third dignity with which thou, Lord, hast ennobled man is this, that 
man shall enjoy the dignity and honour and pleasure and delight which thou thy- 
self art (hast) always and eternally with thee. 

X. 32—38. HIGH-GERMAN — PARABLE OF THE SOWER, 1462. 139 

32. The Edelstein, or the Gem, a collection of fables by Boner, 
a Dominican monk whose name is often mentioned in documents from 
1324 — 1349. An excellent edition of the Edelstein, with a Glossary, is 
given by Prof. G. F. Beneke, of Gottingen, published at Berlin, 1816, 

Von einem Hund und einem Esel. Of a Dog and an Ass. 

( Von unbedachter Narrekeit.) ( Unthinking folly.) 

Wei rechter Tore desbegert, He (is) a complete fool, who ask* 

Des sin Nature in nicht gewert, What his nature does not grant, 

Der mag des wol entgelten. He may for it well suffer. 

Dar zu sol man in schelten, Besides that we shall blame him, 

Der sich des Dinges nimet an, Who undertakes a thing, 

Das sin Geslechte nie gewan. Which his species never acquired. 

Was du Nature hat gegeben, What nature has given 

Dem mag der Mensch kum wider stre- Mau may hardly oppose. 

ben. Herzog, p. 144. 

33. The following specimens show, from the year 1400, the gradual 
formation of the modern German. As best indicating the change in the. 
language, the extracts are chiefly given from the same passage of the 

34. The Gospels (Evangelien uber al daz Jar) from a MS. at 
Munich of the 13th century. 

Lk. viii. 3. — (Do einmichel Menig chom zu Jesu, und von den Steten eilten zu 
im, do sprach er ei Bispel : ) Der Ackerman gi aus seen sinen Samen. — 4. Und do 
er ge seet, do viel ein Sam pi dem Weg und ward vertreten und gazzen in di Vogel. 

35. The Epistles and Gospels in High-German (Hoch-Teutsch), 
" Lectiones, Epistolce et Evangelia per annum? a.d. 1431, from a MS. 
at Munich. 

Lk. viii. 3. — (Do ain michel menig cham zue iesu vnd von den stetten eilten zv 
im do sprach er ain peichspill) der Akcherman gie aus saen seinen samen. — 4. Vnd 
do er gesaett, do viell ain sam peij dem weg vnd ward vertreten und azzn in auch 
die vogel. 

36. Gospels for every day of the year (Evangelien aufalle Tage des 
Jahres), from a MS. at Munich, about 1450. Domin. Sexage&ima. 

Lk. viii. 3. — Do ein michl menig chom zu jhm vnd vo de stetn eylten zu jm do 
sprach er ein peyspill d* ackerman gye aus sand sein same, — 4. vnd do er gesat do 
viel ein same pey de weg vnd wart vertretten vnd gassn jn auch die vogl. 

37. Ain Postil uber dij Evangelij, from a MS. at Munich, about 1460. 
Lk. viii. 3. — (Vnd da das volck nu chom zu im da hueb er auf und sagt in ain 

peyspil vnd sprach) Es gie ain man aus zu ainen zeitn vnd sat, 4. vnd da er nu 
ward seen da viel ain sam zu dem weg vnd der ward vertreten vnd dartzu komen 
die vogel und assn den samen. 

38. Bible in High-German (teutsclie Bibel). One of the earliest 
Bibles, but without date; some say it was printed at Mayence, 1462, 
others at Strasburg, 1466. 

Mk. iv. 3. — Hort secht der Seer gieng aus ze seen. 4. Vnd do er seet : der ein 
viel bey dem Weg, vnd die Vogel des Himels kamen vnd assen jn. 

140 HIGH-GERMAN — PARABLE OF THE SOWER, 1522. X. 39 — 48. 

89. A Plenarium (Sammlung der Episteln und Evangel ien), Augs- 
burg, 1473. 

Mk. iv. 3. — Er get auss der da saen will seinen samen vn sat, 4. Vnd als er 
s&et, das ein felt in den weg. vnd wirt vertratten, vnd die Vogel des hymels die 
assent es auff. 

40. Plenarium, Augsburg, 1474. 

Me. iv. 3. — Der ist aussgangen der da seet zu seen seinen somen,-— 4. Vn als er 
seet da ist einer gefallen an den weg vnnd ist getretten worden, vnnd auch die vogel 
des himels habendt den gegessen. 

41. Bible {teutsch), Augsburg, 1476. 

Mk. iv. — Hort secht d' da seet der ist aussgegange" ze seen. Vnd da er seet. 
der ein viel bey dem weg vn die vogel des hymels kamen vnd assen in. 

42. Bible [teutsch), Augsburg, 1487. 

Mk. iv. — Hort. secht der do seet, der ist aassgegangen ze seen. Vnd do er 
seet. der ein viel hey dem weg. vnd die vogel des hjrmmels kamen vnd assen jn. 

43. Bible, printed by H. Schonsperger, Augsburg, 1490. 

Mk. iv. — Hort sehet. der da saet d' ist anssgegangen ze saen. Vnnd da er 
a&et. der ein viel bey dem weg. vnd die vogel des hymmels kamen vnnd assen jn. 

44. Gospels, Strasburg, Id 17. 

Lk. viii. — Do zuoinal als vil volcks gesamme" kam zu Jesu, vn v5 de steltS zu 
im ylte. Jn der zeit da sagt er in£ ein gleichniss Der da seiet d* ist vssgangen zu 
seen seinen some. Vn als der seet da ist etlichs gefalle" in de weg, vn ist zertretfce" 
worden vn die vogel des himels haben es gessen. 

45. Dr. Keiserssberg's Postil, Strasburg, 1522. 

Am Sonnentag Sexagesimse. Hor£t (sprach der her) nement war, der d' do 
seyet ist vssgange zu seyen seine" some. Vn so er sey t, ist d' ander som gefalle vffde 
weg. (secus via, uit neben den weg. er wer sust I de acker gefalle) vn ist zertrette 
worde vo den wadleren, vn die fogel des himels seind kumen vn habend den vffgessen. 

46. New Testament, Zurich, 1524. 

Mk. iv. 3, 4. — Horend zu, sich es gieng ein sayer vss zu sayen, vn esbegab sich 
in dem er sayet, iiel etlichs an den weg, do komend die vogel vnder dem himel 
vnd frassends vff. 

47. Bible, by Dr. I. Eck, Ingolstadt, 1537. 

Mk. iv. 3. — Horet zu, Sihe, Ainer der da saiet, gieg auss : zu saien :— 4. Vnd 
in dem er saiet fiel etlichs an den weg, da kamen die vogel des lufts vnd frassens auf. 

48. New Testament {Deutssch), Wittenberg, 1522. 

Mk. iv. 3. — Horet zu, Sihe, Es, gieng eyn seeman aus zu seen, — 4. vnd es 
begab sich, ynn dem er seet, fiel ettlichs an den weg, da kamen die vogel vnter dem 
hymel vnd frassens auf. 

X. 49 — 53. HIGH-GERMAN — LUTHER'S BIBLE, 1545. 141 

49. History of the Gospels (Evangelisch Hijstori), by Othmaren 
Nachtgall, Augsburg, 1525. 

Mk. iv. 3. — Es was ainer auagegangen zu seen seynen Somen, — 4. Vnnder dem 
ainer gefallen was auff den Weg, vn, zertretten worden, auch hetten in die Vogel 
des Hymels anfigessen. 

50. Bible, Zurich, 1530. 

Mk. iv. 3. — Horend zu, sihe, es gieng ein Sayer auss ze sayen,— 4. vnd es 
begab sich in dem er sayet, fiel etlicbes an den wag, do kamend die vogel vnder dem 
himel vnd frassends auf. 

51. The present German language* (Hoch-Deutsch) has a greater 
affinity to the Alemannic and Francic than to the Flatt-Deutsch. This 
inclination towards the High-German, or southerly branch of the German 
dialects, arose from the influence of Luther at the Reformation. Luther 
was Professor of Divinity at Wittenberg, where the high dialect prevailed, 
and in which he wrote his translation of the Bible. The New Testament, 
first published in 1523, and the old Testament, from 1523 to 1534, was 
revised, and the whole Bible published, from 1541 to 1545. This revised 
translation soon became generally known, and the numerous students that 
crowded Wittenberg to benefit by the lectures of Luther, and subse- 
quently dispersed into the different provinces, carried with them this 
High-German version, and a predilection for this dialect. Thus High- 
German became generally known, and was adopted as the language of 
the church, the learned, and the press. This tongue spread with the 
Reformation, and as it advanced in extent it increased in perfection, till 
it has become one of the most cultivated and extensive of all the Gothic 
or Teutonic dialects. It not only prevails in the German confederacy, 
but in the north of Switzerland, Alsace, in a great part of Hungary, 
Transylvania, Bohemia, the kingdom of Prussia, in Sleswick, part of 
Jutland, and in Russia as far north as Courland. Amongst the Germans 
are writers of the first order in every branch of literature and science : 
they are most prolific in the production of new works, nor can any easily 
exceed them in freedom of inquiry, in labour, or erudition. 

52. Bible, by Dr. M. Luther, Wittenberg, 1545. 

Me. iv. 3. — Horet zu ! Sihe, es gieng ein Seeman aus zu seen. — 4. Vnd es 
begab sich, in dem er seet, fiel etlichs an den Weg, da kamen die Vogel unter dem 
Himel vnd frassens auff. 

53. Der Layen Biblia, by J. Freydang, Frankfort, 1569. 
Lk. viii. — Es gieng ein Saemann auss seim Hauss, 

Zu saen seinen Samen auss, 
Vnd etlichs fiel an weges gstetn, 
Das wurd gentzlich in staub vertretn, 

Vnd die Vogel vnder dem Himml 
Frassen das auff mit eim gewimbl : 
Auff den Felsen fiel etliches, 
Da es auffgieng verdorret es. 

• For the origin of the Germans and their name, see § II. 1, 2, 3, note (f). 

142 HIGH-GERMAN— REINEKE DE VOS, 1830. X. 54 — 57. 

54. The Froschmauseler, oder der Frosch und Mause wunderbare 
Hofhaltung, The court of the frogs and mice, Magdeburg, 1595, 8vo. is 
one of the most remarkable epic poems* It was written by George Rol- 
lenhagen, wbo was born 1542, at Bernau in Brandenburg, and died 1609, 
when rector of the Latin school of Magdeburg. He attempts to describe 
eternity in the following striking allegory. 


******* * 

Ewig, Ewig, ist lange Zeit. For ever and ever is a long time. 

Wer ein Sandberg uns vorgestelt, Were a heap of sand before our eyes, 

Viel grosser denn die gantze Welt, Exceeding the whole world in size, 

Und ein Vogel all tausend Iahr kern, And abirdev ry thousand years should come, 

Auff einmahl nur ein Komlein nem, To take hut a single grain therefrom, 

Und Gott uns denn erlosen wolt, And God would grant deliverance 

Wenn er das letzte Komlein holt, When the last grain were taken thence, 

So wer Hoffnung das uns elende, We might have hope that our wretched state,. 

Zwar langsam, aberdoch het einende. Tho' long, might yet still terminate. 

Nun bleiben wir in Gottes Zorn But now beneath God's wrath we lie 

Ohn all Honnung ewig verlorn. Lost, without hope, eternally. 

Chap. xiii. MorrelL 

55. Bible, Nuremberg, 1703, 1708, &c. 

Mk. iv. 3. — floret zu, Sihe, es gieng ein Sae-Mann aus zu saen. — 4. Und ea 
begah sich, in dem er saete, fiel etliches an den Weg, da kamen die Vogel unter 
dem Himmel, und frassens auf. 

56. New Testament, translated by J. Maria, Passau, in Bavaria, 1752» 
Mk. iv. 3. Horet : siehe, es gieng ein Sam an n aus zu saen. — 4. Und es hegab 

sich, indem er saete, fiel eiu Theil an den Weg, da kamen die Vogel, und frassen 
es auf. 

57. A High-German translation of Reineke de Vos in the same metre 
as the Low-German of Henry van Alkmar, by Dietrich Wilhelm Soltau, 
Liineburg, 1830. This extract will not only serve as a specimen of 
modern High-German, but as an example of the difference in the 


Es war an einem Mayentag, Und Marks der Haher kamen sogar ; 
Wie Blum* und Laub die Knospen brach ; Denn Nobel wollte Herr'n und Sassen 

Die Krauter sprossten ; froh erklang Ein frohes Gastmahl fey era lassen ; 

Im Hain der Vogel Lohgesang ; Darum er alles her herief, 

Der Tag war schon, und Balsamduft Was ging, was kroch, was flog, was lief, 

Erfiillte weit umher die Luft ; Thier* und Ge vogel, gross und kleio, 

Als Konig Nobel, der m'achtige Leu, Bis auf Reiuhard den Fuchs allein, 

Ein Fest gab, und liess mit Geschrey Der sich so frevelhaft benommen, 

Hoftag verkiinden ii be rail. Dass er nicht durft' nach Hofe kommen. 
Da kamen bin mit grossem Schall Wer Boses thut, der scheu't das Licht ; 

Viel edle Herr'n und stolze Ge sell en ; So ging's auch diesem falschen Wicht ; 

Es war kaum moglich sie zu zahlen. Er hatt' am Hofe schlimmen Geruch, 

Der Kranich Liitke, Matz der Staar Drum er zu kommen Bedenken tmg. 

* See Dutch, VI. 17; and Low-German, V. 26. 


58. A free High-German translation of Henry van Alkmar's Reineke 
de Vos by Goethe. 

Pfingsten, das liebliche Fest, war gekommen ; Es griinten und bliithen 

Feld und Wald ; auf Hiigeln und Hohn, in Biischen und Hecken 

Uebten ein frohliches Lied die neuermunterten Vogel ; 

Jede Wiese sprosste von Blumen in duftenden Griinden, 

Fesdich heiter glanzte der Himmel und farbig die Erd. 

Nobel, der Konig, versammelt den Hof ; und seine Vasallen 

Eilen gerufen berbey mit grossem Geprange ; da kommen 

Viele stolze Gesellen von alien Seiten und En den, 

Liitke, der Kranicb, und Markart der Haher uud alle die Besten. 

Denn der Konig gedenkt mit alien seinen Baronen 

Hof zu halten in Feyer und Pracht ; er lasst sie berufen 

Alle mit einander, so gut die grossen als kleinen. 

Niemand sollte fehlen ! und dennoch fehlte der eine, 

Reinecke Fucbs, der Schelm ! der viel begangenen Frevels 

Halben des Hofs sicb enthielt So scheuet das bose Gewissen 

Licht und Tag, es scbeute der Fucbs die versammleten Herren. 

59. The Modern German of 1835 only differs in orthography from 
the first edition of Luther's Bible of 1545.* 

High-German Provincial Dialects. 

60. The following are a few specimens of the various provincial dialects 
spoken in Upper Germany in 1827. 

61. Swiss provincial dialect in the canton Zurich, 1827. 

Me. iv. 3. — Losatuf, as iscbt en Ackhersma uffs Fald ganga ge saen.— 4. Und da 
er gsat hat, iscbt obbis a d' Strass gfalla, da sind d' Vogel cbo und hands ufgrassa. 

62. Swiss provincial dialect in the canton Uri, 1827. 

Mk. iv. 3. — Hort zu5, ksoscht, a Ma iscbt ussganga go saia; 4. und wie ne sait, 
fait n opis an die Strass, da sind die Vogel cho, und hand's aweg gefrassa. 

63. Suabian provincial dialect near the Alps, 1827. 

Mk. iv. 3. — Losat und luogad, as Ischt a Sayer ussi ganga z* saiid ; — 4. Und wie 
&ar g'sait heat, Iscbt a Doal uf a Weag, g'falla, den henn-da d' Vogel g noh', und 

64. Suabian provincial dialect about Stuttgard, 1827. 

Mk. iv. 3. — Hohret me an: A Bauer ischt zum saa naus ganga ufs Feld. — 
4. Abbes vom ruing* streuta Sohma ischt uf da Weeg g'falla, do sind d v Vogel 
komma, und hends g'fressa. 

65. Suabian provincial dialect about Ulm, 1827. 

Mk. iv. 3. — Hairet zue, seand, es ischt a Saema ausganga z' s^ea.— 4. Und wia 
ser gVtfet haut, do ischt a Thoil an W^ag g'falla, da send d' Vegel komma und hannds 
aufg' fressa. 

66. Als acian dialect about Strasburg, 1827. 

Mk. iv. 3. — Hert, siet der Ackersmann esch iissgange zu'm Saije.— 4. Un wie er 
g'saijit batt, esch eins (ebbs) ouf de Waij g'falle ; da sind d v Vogel komme ounterm 
Himmel, un hans ouffg'frasse. 

• See § 51, 52. 


67. Saltzbcrg dialect, 1827. 

Mk. ir. 3- — Hoscht's : Schau, 6s gang a Simon aus znm Sin-— 1. Und 6s gib 
n, indent i sax, rold a Doal an dem Wog, da kaman d' Vogl and friss'ns an£ 

68. Tyrolese dialect, 1827. 

Mk. ir. 3.— Di hearts a Mil zue; as ischt i Mala Panrze sin anssi gingn.— 
4. und as ischt g'schoch n, wie ear g sin t hat, ischt oin Thafl aim Wog g' fill n, 
und da hinn d' Fogl kemmen, und hib'ns ing'froasen. 

69. Bavarian dialect about Eichstadt, 1827. 

Mk. ir. 3. — Iza schau ! a Bam* is zum sin ganga. — 4. Und do, wi-a gait hit, 
iss epis an Weg hing'falm ; des h&bn d* Vogl wek g'fressn. 

70. Bavarian dialect about Munich, 1827. 

Mk. ir. 3. — Lossts enk sogng ! i Moi is a Baur anfs Sihn' nans ganga. — 
4. Und wia r-a denn do g'saht hot, is e am i Thoai Samma-r-lnn Weg no gfoin ; 
do sinn d' Vogl ronn Himmi ro kemma, und hammatn aufg'frossn. 

71. Bavarian dialect about Nuremberg, 1827. 

Mk. ir. 3. — Hoirt zou segt, es iss a Bauer (a Saemoh) ausganga z'sea. — 
4. Und diu hints es si zoutoign, woi er g sat hint, iss etli's an Weeg g'falln ; da 
senn die Viigel on term Hiinmel kumrna, und hibens ifg'fressn. 

72. Dialect about Frankfort on the Maine, (Sachsenbausen), 1827. 
Mk. ir. 3. — Hihrt zou, Sich, es gung £ Mol a Sihmann gnausser z sihn. — 

4. Unn d6 h6tsech s begawwe, wai Ix gesiht h6t, fail Epas d'rrun In'n Wag; do 
senn (sain) di Vigel unnerm Hemmel kumme, unn h&wwe's ufiggfresse. 

73. Dialect of Wetteravia % or the district enclosed by the Sahn, 
Rhine, and Maine, 1827. 

Mk. ir. 3. — Hirtzou ! Sich, es geng £ mohl £ Sehmann naus, der wullt sihfc, — 
4. Onn wei 8 set*, do feil a Dil uf de Wek; di kohme de Vigel onnerm Himmel 
onn frossens uf. 

74. Hessian dialect about Kassel, 1827. 

Mk. ir. 3. — Hehrt zu, sich, es gink en Sehmann us ze sehen. 4. Un es begab 
sich, wie ha (he) sehte, 6el etliches uf den Wak ; do kamen de Vaggel unner dem 
Himmel und frassens uf. 

75. High-Saxon dialect about Leipsic, 1827. 

Mk. ir. 3. — Hurt zu saht ! s gung a mal a Siamann aus zu sian.— 4. Un da ha 
siate, da feel eeniges an'n Wag; da kamen de Vegel (Veggel) unggern Hiinmel, 
un frassens uf. 

76. High-Saxon dialect about Antbach, 1827. 

Mk. ir. 3. — Hart zu ! sich, es gieng i SoamS aufs Soi aus.— 4. und es iss 
g' seheg'n, indemm ehr sate, fiel Etlichs an den Weeg. Doa kamm die Viegel 
unt'ra Himmel und frassens auf. 



1. Iceland has been supposed to be the remote Thulef of Virgil, 
Pliny, and other classical authors ; but it is more probable, that when 
they mention Thule, they refer to part of South Norway, probably the 
province of Tellemark. It is denominated Thyle % by king Alfred in 
his translation of Boethius, and Thila § in his Orosius. The islands 
called Ferroes were discovered by Scandinavian navigators at an early 
period, and in A. D. 801, Naddod, a Norwegian, was driven by storms on 
the coast of Iceland, which, from the snow, he named Snoeland. Soon 
after, Gardar Smrfarson, a Swede, by circumnavigation, ascertained it 
to be an island, and named it Gardarsholm, or the island of Gardar ; || 
it has, however, become generally known by the descriptive name 

2. Harold Hdrfager, or the fairhaired, subduing all the petty kings 
of Norway, obtained the supreme power about A. d. 868, and continued 
king of Norway till his death in 934. Some of the independent and high- 
spirited nobles spurned the usurped authority of Harald, and when, in 
their deadly feuds, they had slain an adversary, or in some other way 
broken the laws, rather than submit to Harald, they fled to Iceland, 
a land of prodigies, where subterraneous fires burst through the frozen 
soil, and boiling springs shoot up amidst eternal snows; where the 
powerful genius of liberty, and the no less powerful genius of poetry, have 
given most brilliant proofs of the energies of the human mind at the 
remotest confines of animated nature.** Among those who first fled to 
this land of freedom, we have, in 874, a record of Ingolf, the son of 
a Norwegian Jarl, Comes, or Earl, and his brother-in-law Hjdrleif, who 
landed on the promontory on the south-east coast, still called Ingolf- 
shodi. In the next century, Thornvald with his son Erik, surnamed 
Raudi or the red,ft escaped to Iceland. In the space of 50 or 60 years 

* This short sketch is much indebted to the important works published by The Royal 
Society of Northern Antiquaries, Copenhagen, a Society which claims the especial 
attention of Englishmen. While too much praise cannot be given to the Professors Finn 
Magnusen and Rafn, as well as to the late Professor Rask, and the other active members of 
this institution, for their erudite publications, feelings of the highest respect and the warmest 
gratitude must ever be excited, when the author recollects the constant literary communica- 
tions, and the very friendly assistance of Dr. Rafn and Dr. Rask. An account of part of 
Professor Rafh's valuable works will be found in § 17, 18, and 19. 

f The ultima Thule of Virgil, Georg. L 30, and Pliny, iv. 16. 

% Bt 29, 3; Card. p. 166, 1. § Ore. 1, 1 ; Bar. p. 31, 1. 

I| Islands Landnamab6k, sive Liber originum Islandise, I. 1. 1'slendinga Sdgur, I. p. 25, 26. 
8choening, Norges Riges, Historie, vol. ii. p. 101. Wheaton's Hist of Northmen, p. 17. 

% Id. is ice, land land. Dr. Ingram thinks, in Orosius, Bar. 25, 4, Ira-land ought to be Isa- 
land. Inaugural Lect. p. 79, note q. — Isa-land is the reading adopted by Professor Rask. 

•• Malte Brun'* Geog. vol. v. p. 98. 

ft Landn&maMk, L 6—8. Schoening, voL L p. 107. Malte Brum's Geog. vol. v. p. 98. 

l& v^LSutxxTZjjf, — vCiZAjrzxtz sli^m. XL S— 5. 

due iaaa&cawu* parts rf h&uad wet* vxxpL&L 9? rribgses (cnm Xarvar, 
»iu-M farvay&i witk them tkeir fwr*rrt ami & luimTuin recmae of depen- 
<fcta&t» \lm taey mxx * nt ^J rcpoai fcr their hardahijs and toiL is this 
^w *&»**, by th* fall enjoyment rf Sherry sad imirnflrTi' ; hither 
tk**y truutpcrted their lan^roace. the cid DasaL. their rises of hrathrn 
wfx&fy, vA their civil trntitotkagw Hky rtfahfhhrd a great wtwmil 
iwMwbfy, keid annually, where all freeholders had a right to be present. 
Tbt* a&iefttMy bore a great reseamblance to the AncJoSaxoB Witena- 
gfefltot, and was eaSed Aiding.* The president of this nyrtrng was 
elected far fife, and was denominated Lojvyjvm**** or Pnwnlgatnr of 
the law. Iceland eontmned this species of gorennnent, or repoh&e, for 
aixxit three centnriea, that is, till a~d. 1575, when it became subject to 
the king* of Norway. Cloistianity was introdoced into Iceland about the 
end of the 10th century, and was fstahlirfied in 1016. 

9, Iceland, in its pagan state, had a literature, a poetry, and mytho- 
logy, peculiarly its own. The Icelanders preserred their learning and 
history in oral tradition, by means of their Skald* 9 X who were at once 
poets and historians. These Skalds were a sort of trarefling minstrels, 
who composed and recited the praises of kings and heroes in Terse, and 
continually migrated from one northern country to another. They were 
the chronicle™, and often the companions of kings, attended them in their 
conflicts, and thus, from their presence at the scenes they had to record, 
they were able to gire a lively and faithful description. In the Icelandic 
language a list is kept of the 230 chief Skalds or poetical historians from 
liagnar Jjxlbrok to Valdemar IL amongst whom are several crowned 
beads, and celebrated warriors. H 

4. A Saga-man § recalled the memory of past events in prose narratives 
as the Skalds did in verse. The memory of past transactions was thus 
transmitted from age to age by the poets or Skalds, and the Saga-men or 
story -tellers, till the introduction of writing, gave them a fixed and durable 

o. The literature, mythology, and history of the Icelanders, and the 
old Scandinavians in general, in their pagan and early christian state, are 
chiefly preserved in the poetic or elder Edda,1T the prose or younger 
Kdda, and the Sagas, the Njdla, the Heimskringla, the KonHngsskuggsjd, 
and the IjindndinabOk. A short account of these works, and their 
various editions, may be useful.** 

* ping in Icelandic signifies forum, conventus, a court of justice, an assize; and aiding a 
general meeting, tn> attire. 

f I j"KMOga/. (gen. logsogu) recitatio legum, from log law ; saga a telling, speaking ; mafcr 
a man, the man propounding the law. 

I Hkald from Irl. skulld a poet. |J Wheaton's History of Northmen, p. 51 % 

4 Hagu hiatoria, narratio ; ma$r gen. manns, ace, mann man, that is, a story-teller, 
% Hilda a grandmother, quasi prima mater ethnics religionis. 

••A minute account of the Icelandic works which are published may be found in " Lexicon 
Mandtco iMtinoDanicum Uiornonit Haldersonii,curd R. K. Uashii,editum Hami*," 4to. 1814. 


6. SjEMUND Sigfussen, a clergyman, bora in Iceland in 1056, was the 
first compiler of the Poetic Edda. He appears to have written some of 
these poetic effusions from the recital of contemporary Skalds, and to have 
collected others from manuscripts. 

The Icelandic text of the poetic Edda was published in 4to. at Copenhagen in 
1787, with a Latin translation, notes, and glossary. A second volume was not 
printed till 1818, and a third in 1828, by Professor Finn Magnusen. Professor 
Rask and the Rev. Mr. Afzelius, in 1818, published, at Stockholm, the original of 
this Edda, carefully accented, and distinguishing i from j, u- from v, and 6 from o. 

7. Thb Poetic Edda contains the Volu-spd,* which gives an account of the 
creation of the universe, and the gods and men who inhabited it The Gr6u-galdr 
or Groa's Magic Song. The Solarlj&S or Song of the Sun which is almost entirely 
Saemund's own composition, containing ideas of a future life, evidently derived from 
a christian source. Vafprvftnis-tndl, which is a sort of poetic dialogue between 
Odin and a famous giant. 

8. The Grimnis-ma'l, or the Song of Grimner, describing the habitations of the 
deities. The Alvis-mdl, Hyndlu-ljtfS, &c., HymnisqufiSa, or the Song of Hymer, 
&c. Many of these poems can be traced back to the 10th, or even the 9th century. 

9. The Prose or younger Edda was written by the famous Snorre 
Sturleson, who was born of a noble family in 1178, at Hvamm, on the 
west coast of Iceland, and was murdered in 1241. The Ptose Edda was,, 
therefore, more than a century later than the Poetic. 

The first edition of the Prose Edda was published in an abridged form at Copen- 
hagen in 1665, by Resenius, in Icelandic, Danish, and Latin. He appended to this 
edition the Volu-spa and Hava-mal, two poems from the Poetic Edda. A complete 
edition of the original text of the Prose Edda was published at Stockholm in 1818,. 
by Professor Rask. The Prose Edda is a course of poetical lectures, drawn up for 
those young Icelanders who intended to become Skalds or poets. It consists of two 
parts. The first part, properly called the Edda, explains the mythology of the 
Poetic Edda, and forms a complete northern Pantheon in the form of fables. The 
second part is the Skalda or Poetics, which is the art of poetry adopted by the 
Skalds. It contains a dictionary of poetic synonymes, and the whole art of versi- 
fication, alliteration, species of verse, &c. In explaining the mythology, and illus- 
trating the different species of versification, Snorre extracted the most interesting 
parts of the Poetic Edda, and thus contrived in the form of dialogues to give the 
substance of it in a more intelligible form. 

10. Nja'la, or life of the celebrated Icelander, Njall porgeirsson, and his sons. 
It is beautiful in style, and correct in its statements. The Icelandic text was pub- 
lished at Copenhagen, 1772, in 4 to. and a Latin verion in 1809. 

11. Snorre may be justly called the Herodotus of the north, if we 
only consider his great historical work, Heimskringla,\ or Annals of the 
Norwegian kings from Odin.J 

• Volu-spa the oracle or prophecy of vala, gen. volu. 

f Heims-kringla orbis terrarum ; heimr mitndu*, kringla orhU. 

% In this account of the Edda and other Icelandic works, much use has been made of 
Wneaton's Hist of Northmen, where more satisfactory information will be found. In Mallet's 
Northern Antiquities there is an English translation of the Prose Edda, and many useful 
notes, with the Icelandic text, and an English translation of five pieces of Runic poetry,, 
amongst which is Ragnar Lodbrok. 

148 SCANDINAVIAN — SAGAS. XI. 12 — 18. 

It was published by Peringskjold, with a Latin and Swedish translation, in 2 
vols. fol. Stockholm, 1697, and with a Latin and Danish translation by Schoning 
and Thorlacius, in 3 vols. fol. Copenhagen, 1777 — 1783, and continued by the 
younger Thorlacius and Werlauff, in 3 vols. 1813—1826.* 

12. Konungsskuggsja',! or Royal Mirror. This is supposed to be the work 
of Sverre, king of Norway. It is in the form of dialogue, and gives a view of 
human life, with practical rules for different stations. It was published in Icelandic, 
Danish, and Latin, by Half dan Einarsen, in 4 to, 1768, Sord. 

13 . The Landna 'mabok is an account of the most remarkable events connected 
with the first settlement of Iceland, its revolutions, and the introduction of Chris- 
tianity. This history commences in the 9th, and extends to the 12th century. It 
was begun by Are Frodi, and continued by other hands. Are Frodi was born in 
Iceland in 1067; he was the friend and fellow-student of Saxnund. His work is 
remarkable as being the earliest historical composition written in the Old Danish 
or northern tongue, which still remains the living language of Iceiaud. Only a 
few fragments of his works are remaining, which have been published under the 
title of Schedat and Landndmab6k*% 

14. The Sagas are very numerous. These were popular narratives, 
recording the lives of kings, chieftains, and noble families. To aid the 
memory of the Saga-man or Story-teller, he contrived to introduce the 
most striking metrical passages from the poems of the Skalds. 

15. Under the well-directed patronage of The Royal Society of Northern 
Antiquaries at Copenhagen, the following works have appeared. || 

Fornmanna Sogur, vol. i. — xi. ; Oldnordiske Sagaer, vol. i. — xi. ; Scripta His* 
torica Islandorum,vo\. i. — vii. containing — of the historical Sagas, recording events 
out of Iceland — the history of the Norwegian kings from Olaf Tryggvason to 
Magnus Lagabatir, and of the Danish kings {Knyllinga) from Harald Blue* 
tooth to Canute VI., or die period between the middle of the 10th century, and 
the year 1274 ; in Icelandic, Danish, and Latin. 

16. I'slendixga Sogur, vol. i. ii. containing — of the historical Sagas, recording 
events in Iceland itself — Are Frodi s Scheda, Landndmab6k,% and HetfSarviga-, 
Ljosvetninga, Svarfdala-, Vallnaljots-, Vemundar ok Viga-Skutu, and Viga-Glums 
Sagas, in Icelandic. 

17. The following works are edited by the learned Secretary of the Society, 
Professor Rara : — Fareyinga Saga, or the history of the inhabitants of the Farroes ; 
in Icelandic, the Furroe dialect, and Danish, and with a map of the islands. 

18. Fornaldar Sogur Nortirlanda, vol. i. — iii. ; Nordiske Fortids Sagaer, vol. 
i. — iii., being a complete edition of the mytho-historical Sagas, recording events in 

• Rask's A.-S. Gr. by Thorpe, pref. p. iv. note 1. 

f Rask's A.-S. Gr. by Thorpe, pref. p. iv. note 2. Kongr a king ; skuggsia a mirror, 

% Are Frodi's Schedso were published by C. Wormius, Oxford, 1716; by A. Buss9BU8> 
Copenhagen, 1733; but most correctly by the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries at 
Copenhagen in Islendinga Sogur, vol l. 

§ Wheatons Northmen, p. 59, 99. Miiller, Saga bibliothek, L p. 34. Scheda Ara PreMz 
Froda urn /'stand, was published in 4to. pp. 26, Skalholt, 1688 ; Sayan Landnama, in 4to. 
pp. 182, Skalholt, 1688. Again with a Latin version, index, &c under the title Islands Land- 
n&mabok, 4to. pp. 510, Copenhagen, 1774 ; and in Islendinga Sogur, vol. i. See § 16. 

|| See Annual Report for 1834. 

^[ See § 13 for the particulars of this work. 


the north, assignable to the period anterior to the colonization of Iceland, or the 
era of authentic history ; in Icelandic and Danish. 

19. Kra'kum a'l, rive Epicedium Ragnaris Lodbroci,* or Ode on the heroic 
deeds and death of the Danish king, Ragnar Lodbrok, in England ; in Icelelandic, 
Danish, Latin, and French. This Krakumal is by some called LcfcbrokarkvfiSu, 
or the Death-song of Ragnar Lodbrok, who is said to have reigned in Denmark and 
Sweden in the latter part of the 8th century, f Ragnar invaded Northumbria, and 
was opposed by Ella, king of Deira. This fact ascertains the date of the event, as 
Ella usurped the Northumbrian crown in 862, and perished in 867. Ragnar was 
taken prisoner, and Ella ordered him to be cast into a dungeon, where he might 
perish by venomous snakes.]; This song is sometimes quoted as the composition 
of Ragnar. § It is probable that the first twenty-three verses constituted the war- 
song of Ragnar and his followers. The remaining six strophes may have been 
composed after the king's death by his queen Aslaga, or Kraka, or by some of the 
contemporary or later skalds. || This song celebrates the fifty-one depredations of 
Ragnar in various countries. The death of Ragnar is not only important in an 
historical point of view, causing his sons Halfden, Ingwar, and Ubbo to undertake 
an invasion which destroyed the Octarchy of England, and, for a time, dethroned 
Alfred ; but if the song were composed by him or in his time, it will serve as a 
very early specimen of the Scandinavian language. U 

20. From the Old Danish (Danska tUnga) or Scandinavian (Norrana), 
spriug those languages and dialects which are spoken from the coasts of 
Greenland to those of Finland, from the Frozen Ocean to the Eider.** 
This Old Danish was, in its purest state, carried into Iceland by the first 
Norwegian refugees in the 9th century. Hence the Icelandic is the same 
language as the Old Danish, and the Icelanders, from their insular and 
high northern locality, have retained the Old Danish in such purity and 
with such slight variations, that it may still be considered the living 
language of Iceland. There is so little difference between the present 
writings and the most ancient records, that modern Icelandic scholars can 
read the oldest documents with the greatest facility. 

• It was first printed in 4to. at Copenhagen, 1636, in the work of Olaus Wormhis, in his 
Runir sen Daniea literatura antiquissima, YuJgo Gothica dicta. It was afterwards printed six 
times more by different persons in various forms before it appeared in the original, with an 
English translation, entitled "Five pieces of Runic Poetry translated from the Icelandic lan- 
guage," London, 8ro. 1763. These pieces were translated by Dr. Thomas Percy, bishop of 
Dromore, and inserted at the end of the 2nd vol. of his translation of Mallet's Northern Anti- 
quities. The fifteenth time of its appearance was in 12mo. with the title of Lodbrokar-Quida ; 
or, the Death-song of Lodbroc, with a free English translation, an Islando- Latino glossary, and 
explanatory notes, by James Johnstone, printed [at Copenhagen, by Aug. Ferd. Steen] 1782. 
The twenty-seventh form in which this celebrated song has appeared is the most splendid 
and complete. This is by far the best edition ; followed by a Latin and French translation, 
and a complete critical apparatus, with a minute account of every edition, and a facsimile 
of the first page of a manuscript found in the Royal Museum, Copenhagen, 1821. The title 
of this work is " Krakumal, sive Epitvdium Reanaris Lodbroci Regis Danue."— Vide Fornaldar 
Sogur Nor&rlandi, i. p. 305 ; Nordiske Fortids Sagaer, i. p. 282. 

f Wheaton's Hist of Northmen, p. 150. 

\ Turner's Hist of A.-S. bk. iv. ch. iii. Langb. 277. 

§ Asby, Wormius, Bartholin, Stephanius, &c.j Turner, bk. iv. ch. iii note 37. 

|| Wheaton's Hist of Northmen, p. 153. 

% See the specimen, § 25. 

** Rask's Gr. of the Anglo-Saxon tongue, translated into English by Thorpe, p. 42. 



Specimens of Old Danish and its dialects, from the earliest age to 

the present time. 

21. A specimen of Old Danish composed by Starkad the Old, whose 
verses are supposed to be the most ancient of all the specimens of the 
Danska TUnga that are still extant, but the precise age of which is not 
ascertained,* though it was long before a.d. 645. 


pann hefi ek manna Ham har jeg blandt Maend 

mennskra fundit af Menneske-Herkomst, 

hring heyjanda blandt Stridsmaend fundet 

hrammastan at afli. stserkest af Kraefter. 


Him have I among men among warriors, found 

of the human race,f the strongest of body. 

22. A specimen of Old Danish, composed at so remote a period in 
heathen times, that it is impossible now to ascertain its age. It is from 
the Poetic Edda. 

The first verse of the Volu-sp&.% 


Hlj6J?s bif? ek allar 

helgar kindir, 
meiri ok minni 
mogu HeiinJ?allar ; 
vildo'at ek Valfojmr 
vel framteljak, 
fornspjoll fira, 
J>au ek fremst of-nam. 


Lytter til min Tale, 
alle hellige Vassener, 
storre og mindre 
af Heimdals Slaegt ; 
jeg vil fortselle 
Valfaders Bedrifter 
Maends gamle Sagn, 
de forste jeg laerte. 
Finn Magnusen, p. 


Silentium rogo omnia 
Sacra entia ; 
Majores et minores 
Posteros Heimdalli. 


Velim coelestis patris 
Facinora enarrare, 
Antiquos hominum sermones, 
Quos primos recordor. 

23. A specimen of Old Danish, composed probably during the former 
part of the 7th century, being the beginning of the Bjarka-mdl hinfornu, 
so called after Bodvar Bjarke, one of king Rolf Krake's warriors, a song 
sung before a battle.^ 

* Halfdani Einari Hist Lit Islandiae, p. 49. This specimen is from the Snorra Edda 
atand Skatdu, edited by Rask, p. 311, 312. 

f i.e. not of the Aser race. 

\ From the Edda Samundar hm$ Fr6$a ex recensione E. C. Rask, Holmic, 1818, p. 1. 
See the edition of the same, at the expense of the Arna-Magnsdan Commissioners, by Prof. 
Finn Magnusen, as also his modern Danish version of it, under the title of Den eldre Edda, 
vol. L p. 31. 

§ Published by Professor Ram in the Fomaldar Sbgur Nortirlanda, vol i. p. 110. See his 
modern Danish version in the Norditke Fortids Sagaer, vol i. p. 103. This ancient song was 
sung at dawn of the day of the great battle of Stiklestad, a.d. 1030, in which king Olaf fell ; 
vide Fommanna Sbgur, vol. v. p. 59, 60, and the Latin version by S. Egilsson in the Scripta 
hittorica hlandorum, vol. v. p. 64. 

XL 24. 




Dagr er uppkominn, 
dynja hana fjaftrar, 
mal er vilmogum 
at vinna erfifti ; 
vaki ok ae vaki 
allir hinir aeztu 
Adels ofsinnar. 

Har hinn harftgreipi, 
Hr61fr skj6tandi, 
settg6ftir menu, 
{?eir er ekki flyja ! 
vekjat y$r at vini 
ne at vifs runum, 
heldr vek ek ytfr at horttum 
Hildar leiki. 


Dies exortus est, 
pennae galli strepunt, 
tempus est, ut servi 

opus incipiant ; 
vigilent, semper vigilent 

amicorum capita, 
prastantissimi qiiique 

Adilsis comites. 


Solen er oprunden, 
ryste Hanens Fjaedre, 
Tid er nu for Drenge 
til Daad at gange ; 
vaager, stedse vaager, 
Venner kjaere, 
alle I ypperste 
Adils Hofsinder. 

Har bin baardfore, 
Rolf den Skytte, 
aetgode Maend, som 
Flugt ei kjende ! 
eder jeg vaekker ei til Viin, 
ikke til Kvinders Tale, 
men jeg eder til Hildes 
haarde Leg nu vaekker. 

Har, manu fortis, 
Rolvus jaculator, 
genere praestantes viri, 
qui non fugiunt ! 
Ad vina vos non excito, 
neque ad puellarum colloquia, 
sed excito vos ad durum 
Bellonae ludum. 

24. A specimen of old Danish of about the year 770, cut in Runic 
characters in a flat rock at Runamo, in the parish of Hoby in Bleking, 
now a province of Sweden, but formerly of Denmark, as interpreted by 
Professor Finn Magnusen.* 


Hiiltekinn riki nam, Hildikinn riki nam, 

Garjnr in hi6, Garfcr inn hj6, 

Uli eitgaf .... O'li eitfgaf . . . . 

vigi 0'J?in runar ! vfgi O'ftinn runar ! 

Hringr fai Hringr fai 

* The Danish king Valdemar the First, sent, probably at the suggestion of the historian 
Saxo Grammaticus, some individuals skilled in Runes to Bleking, between the years 1157 
and 1182, with the view of having this inscription deciphered. His emissaries, however, 
failed to accomplish the object of their mission. Subsequently, and especially during the last 
century or two, the attempt from time to time was renewed under the auspices of some of the 
most learned men of the day, but their endeavours led to no more satisfactory results. It was 
reserved for the great Archaeologist and Runologist Finn Magntuen, after a personal inspection 
of the inscription on the spot, to interpret in its entire state in May 1834, and to determine 
the form of verse (the ancient Fornyr&aUtg) in which it was written. Professor Magnusen's 
remarks upon this subject are inserted in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Northern 
Antiquaries, Nordisk Tidukrifljor Oldkyndightd, vol. ii. p. 276— 304; and in Historisch-Anti- 
quarische Mittheilungen, herausgegeben von der Koniglichen Gesellschaft fur Nordische Al- 
terthumskunde, Kopenhagen, 1 835, pp. 109—1 17. In p. 1 1 1 of the latter work, it is recorded 
that Professor Finn Magnusen for more than ten months tried in vain to decipher the 
inscription. On the 22nd of May, 1834, by attempting to read from right to left, he 
immediately succeeded in deciphering the first three words, and in less than two hours he 
explained the whole inscription. 



XL 25. 

fail a mold ! . . . . 
Alfar, aatagoS 
Opin ok Frei 
ok A'saknn 
fan (fan) 
nandum varum, 
unni Haraldi 
serin sigr ! 


Hildekind modtog Riget, 
Gard indhug (Ranerne), 
Ole aflagde Ed ... . 
Odin vie Ranerne ! 
Gid Ring faae 
Fald paa Mold! 
Alfer Elskovsguder 
Ole (forlade) ! 
Odin og Freij 
og A sen Slaegt 
odelsegge (odelaegge) 
vore Fjender, 
unde Harald 
fuldstaendig Seier ! 

faD a mold! 
Al&r, A'stagott 
OTa fjai (hati) 
0%nn, og Frey 
og A'sakyn 
fan, fan 
fjandum voram, 
rami Haraldi 
serinn sigr! 


Hildekimi received the kingdom, 

Gard hewed oat (these characters), 

Ole took the oath .... 

Odin consecrate these Rimes ! 

May Ring get 

a fall on the mould ; 

Elves, gods of lore, 

Ole hate ! 

Odin and Frey 

and the Aser-race 

destroy (destroy) 

our enemies, 

grant to Harald 

a great victory ! 

25. A specimen of old Danish from Krakumal, or the Death-song of 
Ragnar Lodbrok,* probably composed between a.d. 862 and 867. 



Hjuggu ver meS hjorvi ! 
htfro* kom hrift 4 skjoldu, 
nar f?:ll niftr til jarftar 
& NorSimbralandi ; 
varat am eina 6tta 
oldum )>orf at fryja 
Hildar leik, {?ar er hvassir 
hjalmstom bitu skjomar ; 
boftmana s& ek bresta, 
bra ]>vi fira lifi. 

Krdkumdl Str. 14. 


Percussimus nos cum gladio 
Dura venit procella in scuta, 
cadaver cecidit deorsum ad terram 
in Northumbria terra. 
Non erat, tempore matutino, 
viris opus, ciere. 
Ad Bellonae ludum ibi anhelant, 
galeae fulcrum mordebant fulgores, 
peltas lunatas vidi ego confractas, 
invertit ideo virorum vita. 

Svunge vi med Svaerdet ! 
stormede Regn mod Skjolde, 
Lig i Nordhumberland da 
laae paa Jorden stroede ; 
man ei nodtes den Morgen 
Maend til Strid at egge, 
der hvor skarpe Kaarder 
skare Hjelmens Flade ; 
Kampmaaner saae jeg kloVes, 
Kaemperne misted Livet. 

Rafn, p. 13. 


We hewed with swords ! 

Hard came the storm on our shields, 

dead they fell down on the earth, 

in Northumberland. 

None, on that morning, 

needed men to incite. 

For Bellona's sharp sport, 

the glittering sword split the steel-capt skull, 

the moon-round shield saw I broken, 

and thus mens lives were lost. 

• See § 19. 

XL 26 — 28. SCANDINAVIAN— OLD DANISH, FROM A.D. 900—1150. 153 

26. A specimen of Old Danish of the 10th century, being the Runic 
inscriptions at Jellinge in Jutland, on the tumulus of King Gorm the Old, 
and his consort Thyre, as interpreted by Professor Finn Magnusen. 


Gurmrkimugrger)?ikubl)rasieftpurvi Gormr konungr gerSi kumbl J?essi 

kunu sina Danmarkar-but. eftir jTyri konu sina Danmarkarb6t. 

Haraldr kunugr baj? giorva kubl )>6si Haraldr konungr ba# gjorva kumbl 

eft gurm fabur sin ok eft piurvi mu]mr J>essi eftir Gorm fe&ur sinn og eftir pyri, 

sina; sa Haraldr ies van Danmork ala m6$ur sina; sa Haraldr, er (es) vann 

6k Nurvieg ok t6k kristno. 


Kong Gorm gjorde denne Hoi efter 
sin Kone Thyre Danmarks-Bod. 

Kong Harald bad (bod) gjore denne 
Hoi efter Gorm, sin Fader og efter Thyre 
sin Moder; den Harald som vandt al 
Danmark og Norge, og antog Christen- 

Danmork alia og Norveg ok tok kristni. 


King Gorm raised this barrow after 
(in memory of) his queen Thyre Dan- 
marksbod ( the improver of Denmark ) . 

King Harald bade make this barrow 
for his father Gorm and his mother 
Thyre, the same Harald who conquered 
all Denmark and Norway, and embraced 
Antiquariske Annaler, vol. iv. p. 110 — 112. 

27. A specimen of Old Danish or Icelandic of the former part of the 
11th century, from Ottar Svarte's ode on king St. Olaf. 


Komtu i land ok lendir, 
ladvorSr! ASalraSi, 
J>in naut rekka reynir 
riki efldr at sliku ; 
harSr var fundr, sa er fseruft 
friftland a vit nfSja 
rV8 aettstudill a$an 
£4tmundar }>ar grundu. 


Landbeskytter ! du atter 
Adelraad til sit Rige 
forte, sligt dig Folkets 
maegtige Fyrste skijlder; 
haardt var Slaget, da Edmunds 
Arving du indsatte 
i det fredede Rige, 
for behersket af Slegten. 

Durus erat conflictus, quo 
nepotem Jatmundi pacato 
reddidisti regno ; huic terra 
avita proles imperaverat antea.* 


Terrae custos, valens potentia ! 
Venisti in terram, et Adalradum 
in regnum restituisti ; tua ope 
est usus hac in re vironim amicus. 

28. A specimen of Old Danish or Icelandic, written before 1150, 
according to the opinion of Professor Rafh.f 


Maftr er nefhdr Grimr kamban, hann Ajn M'avur hr nevndar Grujmur Kam- 
bygfti fyrstr Faereyjar & dogum Haralds ban, ban fowr fistur at biggja Forjar, meni 

hins harfagra ; \k flyttu fyrir hans ofriki 
fjoldi manna, settust sumir i Faereyjum, 
ok bygftu J?ar, en sumir leituftu til an- 
narra eyttilanda. 

Haraldur hin harfagri var i Dovun ; tS 
flujddi firi Owdomi hansara mengur Ma- 
vur ; 8uromir settu se uj Forjun og bigdu 
har, men summir lajtavu til annur Ojq- 

• Fornmanna Sogur, vol. iv. p. 50, and vol. xi. p. 185; Oldnordiske Sagaer, vol. iv. p. 47, 
and vol. xi. p. 164 ; Scripta historica Ialandorum, vol. iv. p. 49. 

f See Faereyinga Saga, p. 1. Improperly, by a pleonasm, called Ferroe Islands, — Islands 
being unnecessary, as Ferroe is_ derived from faer or faar, c. a sheep, ovis; 6, c. an island, 

insula, pi. oer islands, insula?; Faeroerne or Faar oer avium insula, in Danish commonly 
called the Faeroer. 

154 SCANDINAVIAN — OLD DANISH, FROM A.D. 1200 — 1290. XI. 29, 80. 


A man named Grim Kamban culti- Grim Kamban hed en Mand ; han be- 

vated first tbe Faer islands in the time byggede forst Faeroerne i Harald Haarfa- 

of Harold the fair-haired; then (when) gers Dage. Der vare den Gang mange, 

many fled from his tyranny, some som flyede for Kongens Her-skesyge, af 

settled on the Faer islands, and built hvilke nogle nedsatte sig paa Faeroerne, 

houses, and some sought for other un- og toge sig der Bopael, men nogle sogte 

cultivated lands. til andre ode Lande. 

29. A specimen of Icelandic, written about a.d. 1200, from Snorre'g 


Almattigr guft skapafti i upphafi himin ok jord ok alia \k luti er ]?eim fylgja, ok 
siftarst menn tva, er aettir eru fra komnar, Adam ok Evo, ok fjolgaftist ]?eirra 
kynsl6^, ok dreifSist um heim allan. En er fram lrSu stundir, ]?a ujafnaftist mann- 
folkrS, voru sumir goftir ok r^tt-truaftir, en miklu fleiri snerust \k eptir girndun* 
heimsins, ok uraektu gufts botfortf. — Snorra-Edda, Rask, Stockholm, 1818, p. 1. 


Den alraaegtige Gud skabte i Begyndelsen Himlen og Jorden og alle de Ting 
som dertil bore, og tilsidst to Mennesker, fra hvem Slaegter nedstamme, Adam og 
Eva, og deres Stamme formerede sig, og udbredtes over hele Verden. Men da Ti- 
derne lede frem, blev M enneskeslaegten ulig, nogle vare gode og rettroende, men 
langt flere vendte sig efter Verdens Begjerligheder, og forsomte Guds Bud. 


The Almighty God created, in the beginning, heaven and earth, and all the things 
which thereto belong, and at last, men from whom families sprung forth, Adam and 
Eve, and their race increased themselves and spread over all the world. But as 
time passed (led) on, the race of men became different (unlike), some were good 
and right believing, but far more turned themselves to (after) the desires (lusts) 
of the world, and neglected God's commandment. 

30. A specimen of Old Danish or Icelandic, as written towards the 
close of the 13th century, but dating from an earlier period, the year 
a.d. 1117, being an extract from the ancient Icelandic Law-book, entitled 
the Gragas (The Gray-goose).* 


Ef utlendir menn verj?a vegnir a landi Si exteri, Dani, Sveii, vel Norvegi e 

ber, danskir ej?r sonskir e\x norronir, or tribus illorum regum imperiis, quae lin- 

Jjeirra konga veldi III. er var tunga er, gua nostra utuntur, oriundi his in terris 

\bx eigo fraendr Jjeirra ]>aer sakir, ef ]?eir interfecti fuerint, caesi propinqui si ad* 

eru ut her, en af ollum tungum 6}>rum fuerint actionem csedis suscipere liceat. 

enn af danskri tungo, \k a engi ma)>r her Sedalia quam Danica lingua utentium 

vigsok at sokja af fraendsemis sokum, nemo propinquitatis nomine, caedis cau« 

nema fa]?ir e]?r sonr ejnr br6}>ir, oc \v\ at sam hie agendi jure gaudeat, nisi pater, 

eino]>eir, ef ^eirh6fJ?oheraJ?rviJ?kennzt. filius vel frater, iique tantummodo, si 

hie antea nod fuerint 

* See Hinforna V6gb6k rslendinga sem nefnist Gr&gas. Codex juris Islandorum antiquis- 
simus qui nominator Gragas, Hafhise, 1829, at the expense of the Arna-Magnsean Commis- 
sioners, Part II. p. 71, 72. 

XL 31 — 85. SCANDINAVIAN — OLD DANISH, FROM A.D. 1397 — 1589. 155 

31. Old Danish before the Calmar Union in a.d. 1397. 


Settaer war ret thaenne .... tvem win- 
trum oc faem ukum, sfdaen Ro war wnnin 
til Cristend6ms af Waldemar kunungi, 
oc laght til Sjalanzs biscopsd6m(s) af 
Waldemare kunungi oc Alexandaer paue. 


Settr var rettr J>essi tveim vetrum oc 
fimm vikum, sftfan R6 var unnin til 
Cristind6ms af Valdimar konungi, oc 
logS til Sjalanz biskupsd6ms af Val- 
dimari konungi oc Alexandri paua. 

Rash 8 Anglo-Saxon Gr. Pref. p. xxii. 


Set was this law, two winters and five weeks; since peace was bestowed on Chris- 
tianity by Waldemar the king, and a law made for Sjalans bishoprick by Walde- 
mar the king, and Alexander the pope. 

32. Banish in 1433. 


. Wii Erick meth guths nathe Danmarks, 
Suerghes, Norghes-koning gore witerlikt 
alle the, thette breff see eller hore, at wi 
af vor serdelis Nadhe for Hr Erick- 
Nielssons wor elschelike tro mans oc 
radhs bon sculd sva oc for troscap oc 
wfllich tieniste unne oc giue hanum . . . 
friihet oc firelsse med suadane wapen • . • 
som her vnder nedhen vtmaledh sta . . . 

Datum 1433. 
Bosk's Anglo-Saxon Gr. Pref. 


We Erick, by God's grace, king of 
Denmark, Sweden, Norway, make known 
to all, who see or hear this letter, that 
we by our peculiar grace for Mr. Erick 
Nielsons, our beloved faithful man and 
counsellor, praying, and for fidelity and 
willing services, have conferred and given 
him . . . liberty and franchisement with 
such coat of arms as here under beneath 
painted stand. 

Given 1433. 
p. xxi. 

33. Old Danish, from a MS. of Homilies, or meditations, belonging to 
the Royal Swedish Historiographer of Hallenberg. It is without date, 
but appears to be about a.d. 1450. 


Ther aeffther drogh Nichodemus then 
annen spiger pa vinstrae handh, oc faek 
han sammeledes Iohannes. Sidhen foor 
Nichodemus nether, oc foor op at ien 
liden stige, och togh spigene af fbdaernse, 
maedaen iosep hiolt pa ligommaet. 


Hereafter drew Nichodemus the other 
nail from the left hand, and gave it in the 
same manner to John. Afterwards 
Nichodemus went nearer, and went upon 
the small steps, and drew the nails from 
the feet, while Joseph held the corpse. 
Rask's Anglo-Saxon Gr. Pref. p. xviii. 

34. A few examples of Danish are given from the Scriptures, to faci- 
litate the comparison, and thus shew the connexion of this tongue with 
those of Teutonic origin. The first example is from the Danish Epistles 
and Gospels, Leipsic, 1518, fol. 

Mk. iv. 3, 6. — En raand gick wd ath saa sin Saed. Som ha saade da fait somt aff 
korned hoss vegn. Oc det bleff traad bort oc sompt der aff ode fuglene i veered. 

35. Bible, Copenhagen, 1589, fol. 

Mk. iv. 3, 4. — Horer til ! See, der gick en Saemand ud ad saa. Oc det skede, 
i det hand saade, at noget fait hoss Veyen : Da komme Fulene under Himmelon 
oc ode det. 

156 SCANDINAVIAN— OLD DANISH, FROM A.D. 1647 — 1775. XI. 36 — 39. 

36. Bible, 1647, 8vo. 

Mk. iv. 3, 4. — Horer til ; See, der gik en Saedemand ud at saae. Og det skede 
i det hand saaede, at noget faldt hos Vejen ; og der komme Himmelens Fugle og 
aaede det op. 

37. New Testament, Copenhagen, 1717, 8vo. 

Mk. iv. 3, 4. — Horer (til) : see, en Saedemand gik lit at saae. Og det skede, i 
det hand saade, at noget faldt hos Veyen, og Himmelens Fugle kom og aad det op. 

38. New Testament, London, 1827, 8vo. 

Mk. iv. 3, 4. — Horer til ; see, en Saedemand gik nd at saae. Og det skede, i det 
han saaede, at noget faldt ved Veien, og Himmelens Fugle kom, og aad det op. 

39. As a specimen of the present Danish, a better cannot be selected 
than the following Naval Song, which is to the Danes what "Rule 
Britannia " is to the English. It was written by Johannes Evald, a poet 
who flourished in the latter part of the last century. (Born 1743, died 


King Christian stood by the lofty mast 

In mist and smoke. 
His sword was hammering so fast, 
Through Gothic helm and brain it passed. 
Then sank each hostile hulk and mast 

In mist and smoke. 
Fly, shouted they, fly, he who can ! 
Who braves of Denmark's Christian 

The stroke P 
Niels Juel gave heed to the tempest's roar ; 

Now is the hour ! 
He hoisted his blood-red flag once more, 
And smote the foe of the Dane full sore.f 
And shouted loud through the tempests 

Now is the hour ! 
Fly, shouted they, for shelter fly ! 
Of Denmark's Juel who can defy 

The power ? 
North Sea ! a glimpse of Wessel rent 

Thy murky sky ! 
Then champions to thine arms were sent; 
Terror and death glared where he went ; 
From the waves was heard a wail, that rent 

Thy murky sky ! 
From Denmark thunders Tordenskiol'; 
Let each to heaven commend his soul, 

And fly! 

Kong Christian stod ved hoien Mast 

I Rog og Damp. 
Hans Vaerge hamrede saa fast, 
At Gothens Hielm og Hierne brast. 
Da sank hver fiendtligt Speil og Mast 

I Rog og Damp. 
Flye, skreg de, flye, hvad flygte kan ! 
Hvo staaer for Danmarks Christian 

I Kamp ? 
Niels Juel gav Agt paa Stormens Brag ; 

Nu er det Tid ! 
Han heisede det rode Flag, 
Og slog paa Fienden Slag i Slag. 
Da skreg de hoitblant Stormens Brag: 

Nu er det Tid ! 
Flye, skreg de, hver, some veed et Skiul 
Hvo kan bestaae for Danmarks Juel 

I strid ? 
O Nordhav, Glimt, af Vessel brdd 

Din morke Skye : 
Da tyede Kaemper til dit Skidd ; 
Thi med ham lynte Sknck og Dod ; 
Fra Vallen hortes Vraal, som brod 

Din Skye: 
Fra Danmark lyner Tordenskiold ; 
Hver give sig i Himlens Void, 

Og flye ! 

* For this piece and the translation, I am indebted to my friend, H. W. Longfellow, Esq, 
M.A. Professor of Belles Lettres in Harvard University, Cambridge, America, Nov. 1835. 
f " And smote upon the foe full sore," 


Du Danskes Vei til Roes og Magt, Path of the Dane to fame and might, 

Sortladne Hav ! Dark-rolling wave ! 

Mod tag din Ven, som uforsagt Receive thy friend, who scorning flight 

Tor mode Faren med Foragt, Goes to meet danger with despite, 

Saa stolt, som du, mod Stormens Magt, Proudly as thou meetest the tempest's 

Sortladne Hav ! Dark-rolling wave ! 

Og rask igiennem Larm og Spil, And amid pleasures and alarms 

Og Kamp og Seier foer mig til And war and victory, be thine arms 

Min Grav ! My grave ! 

40. The Icelandic, here called Norrmni. For facility of comparison, 
a few extracts are given from the Icelandic Scriptures. Nacb : Thetta 
er hid nye Testament Jesu Christi, &c. utlogd a Norraeni, &c. or The 
New Testament in the Norrmnn, northern, Old Danish, or Icelandic 
tongue, 12mo. 1539. 

Mk. iv. 3, 4. — Og i sine predikan, tha sagdi han til thra. Hey re thier, siaet ! 
ein sadseedare gieck vt at saa. Thad vard tha han sadi, at sumt fiell vtan hia vegi- 
num, og tha komu fuglar loptzins og atu thad vpp. 

41. Biblia thad er, 611 Heilog Rituing vtlogd a Norrenu, med for* 
malum Mart Lutheri, Prentad a Holum, af lone Ionas Syne, fol. 1584, 
or The Bible, in Norse or Icelandic, after the version of Luther. Bible, 
Stockholm, 1584, fol. 

Mk. iv. 3, 4. — Og i sine Predikan, tha sagde han til thra, Heyre thier. Sia : 
Eirn saadssedare gieck ut at sa. Og thad vard tha han sade, at sumt fiell utan hia 
veigenum, og thar komu fuglar Lopisins og aatu thad vpp. 

42. Stiernhelm's Gospels of Ulphilas, in Moes., IceL, Swed., Ger., and 
Latin, 4to. Stockholm, 1671.* 

Mk. iv. 3, 4. — Heyred til. Sia, eirn Sadmadur gieck ut ad saa. Og thad vard 
i thui han saade, ad sumt fiell utann hia Veigenum ; og tha komu Fuglar under 
Himnenum, og aatu thad upp. 

43. Old Swedish can scarcely be distinguished from Danish ; and Nor- 
wegian has been, from the earliest times on record, and is now, identical 
with Danish ; but as more modern Swedish differs a little from the Danish, 
a few specimens may be desirable. 

44. A specimen of Swedish from a document issued by king Magnus 
Smek in 1354. 


Wi magnus, med guds nadh Sverikis We Magnus, by the grace of God, king 

konung, norghis oc skane, wiliom at of Sweden, Norway, and Scania, will that 

thet seal allom mannom witerlikt wara, it shall be known to all men that we by 

at wi aff wara serdelis nadh hafwm vnt our peculiar grace have conceded to 

bergxmannomen a noreberge thaennae Bergxman (miner) of Noreberge the 

raet oc stadhga, som haer septer fblger : right and power as hereafter follows : 

floret hafwm wi stat oc skipat, at tohT first have we constituted and ordained, 

skulu wara the som fore bergheno sculu that twelve shall be the sum, &c. 

standa oc thera raaet waeria oc fulfol- 

ghia i allom lutom, &c. 

* See Gothic, § 11. 

158 SCANDINAVIAN — SWEDISH, FROM A.D. 1541 — 1882. XL 45 — 49. 

45. Swedish Bible, Upsal, 1541, fol. 

Mk. iv. 3, 4. — Horer til. Sij, en Sadhesman gick vth til at saa. Och hende 
sigh widh ban sadde, foil somt widh waghen, och foghlanar vnder himmelen komo, 
och ato thet vp. 

46. The Swedish, from the Gospels of Ulphilas, Stockholm* 1671. 
Mk. iv. 3, 4. — Horer til ; sy en Sadesman gik uth, til at sai. Och hende sigh wid 

han sadde, foil somt wid Wagen, og Foglarna under Himmelen komo, och ato 
thet up. 

47. Bible, 8vo. London, 1828. 

Mk. iv. 3, 4. — Horer til: Si, en Sadesman gick ut, til at sa. Och hande sig, 
wid han sadde, foil somt wid wagen, och foglarne under himmelen kommo, och ato 
thet up. 

48. One of the most eminent of modern Swedish poets is Bishop Tegnfov 
He took the story of Frithiof from one of the old Sagas, and under the title 
of Frithiofs Saga, he has written in flowing verse a most interesting story 
of royal affection. The following extract is from the Exile of Frithiof in 
the original Swedish, in the Norwegian or Danish translation, and with 
a poetical version of the Rev. W. Strong, London, 1833. 


Nu sol gar opp Nu Sol gaaer op The orb of day, 

bak fj aliens topp, Bag Fjeldets Top ; Now tints the spray ; 

och vinden ljuder Landvinden lyder, From piping heights, 

fran land och bjuder Hver Vove byder The breeze invites 

hvar vag till dans Den op til Dands Each beam and wave, 

i morgonglans. I Morgenglands. To dance and lave. 

Pa boljans toppar Paa Bolgetoppe O'er the gay group, 

Ellida hoppar Assted de hoppe Ellida's poop 

i frojd astad, Saa fro og glad, Bounds light along ; 

men Frithiof qvad. Men Frithjof qvad. To Frithiofs wilder song. 

Tegner, cant xiv. p. 113. Foss, p. 135. Strang, p. 187. 

49. A fine passage from The Reconciliation, cannot be omitted : it is 
a description of Balder the good. 

Frid var hans harski, harlek var bans blanka svard, 
och oskuld satt som dufva pa hans silfverhjelm. 
From lefde han och larde, dog han och forlat, 
och under fjerran palmer star hans graf i ljus. 
Hans Vara, sags det, vandrar ifran dal till dal, 
forsmalter harda hjertan, lagger hand i hand, 
och bygger fridens rike pa fdrsonad jord. — Tegner, p. 164. 


Fred var hans Haerraab, Kjerlighed hans blanke Svserd, 
Og Uskyld sad som Due paa hans Solverhjelm. 
Fromt leved han og laerte, dode og tilgav, 
Og under fjerne Palmer staaer hans Grav i Lys. 
Hans la?re, siges der, gaaer vidt fra Dal til Dal, 
Samsmelter haarde Hjerter, laegger Haand i Haand, 
Og bygger Fredens Rige paa forsonet Jord. — Foss, p. 194. 
• See § 42, and Gothic, § 11. 



His war-cry, peace, good-will : love was his two-edged sword ; 

Crest of his silver helm, sat dove-like innocence ; 

Grace mark'd his life, his word : his death-sigh breath 'd ' Forgive.' 

In light 'neath distant palms, far pilgrims seek his tomb. 

Tis said his tidings walk, peace-shod from dale to dale, 

Melting the flinty heart, cementing man to man, 

Building of living stones, a temple to this God. — Strong, p. 303. 

Dialect of Dalecarlia.* 

50. The principal dialect t of Sweden is the Dalecarlian. The Dalcarls 
are spoken of as the Swedish Highlanders. Inhabiting that secluded region 
which stretches westward from the Silian Lake to the Alps of Norway, they 
have preserved comparatively unchanged the manners, customs, and lan- 
guage of their Gothic forefathers. 

" Here," says Serenius,{ " are the only remains in Sweden of the ancient Gothic 
stock, whereof the aspiration of the letters / and w bears witness upon their tongues, 
an infallible characteristic of the Moeso-Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, and Icelandic." In 
another place, speaking of the guttural or aspirated /, he says : " Germans and Danes 
cannot pronounce it, no more than the aspirated w; for which reason this was a 
fatal letter three hundred years ago in these nations, when Engelbrect, a born Dal- 
carl, set it up for a shibboleth, and whoever could not say Hivid hest i Korngulff, 
was taken for a foreigner, because he could not aspirate the w, nor utter the guttural 
/." § It is even asserted, that with their ancient customs and language the Dalcarls 
have preserved the use of the old Runic alphabet, although from feelings of religious 
superstition it was prohibited by Olaf Shatkonung at the beginning of the 1 1th 
century, and discontinued in all other parts of Sweden. This is mentioned on the 
authority of Nasman, who wrote in the first half of the last century. || 

51. The Dalecarlian dialect is spoken in its greatest purity in Elfdalen, 
Mora, and Orsa, parishes of East Dalecarlia. 

In West Dalecarlia it is mingled with the dialects of the Norwegian mountains, 
and bears the name oiMahlungs SkinnarmdL The peculiarities of this jargon are 
these : — 1. Prefixing the letter v to all monosyllables which begin with a vowel, as 
vom for om if; vord for ord a word, &c. 2. The transposition of syllables, as 
jasel for selja to sell; lata for tala to speak, &c. Thus they say — 

Kan du lata tae korba, so kimi du lavi ? 

Kan du tala tae baka, so miki du vila ? 

Canst thou speak backwards, as much as thou wilt P 

* Professor Longfellow, of Harvard University, Cambridge, America, who has recently 
returned from Sweden, was so obliging as to draw up this notice of the Dalecarlian dialect, 
October, 1835. 

f Balbi and Malte Brun make two great divisions in the Swedish. I. Swedish proper, 
spoken in the north and east; and II. Modem Gothic, used in Gothland to the south. — 
I. Swedish proper, subdivided into 1. The dialect of Upland, 2. Norland, 3, Eastern 
Dalecarlian, and 4, the dialect of Finland. II. Modern Gothic, divided into 1. West 
Gothic, 2. East Gothic, 3. Werneland, 4. Smoland, and 5. Runae in Livonia. — Balbis Atlas, 
Table xiii. ; Malte Brun, bk. xcvi. voL vi. p. 109. 

J J. Serenius' English and Swedish Dictionary, 4to. Nykoping, 1757, Pref. p. iii. 

§ Ibid. p. ii. 

|| Nasman (R. E.) Historiola Linguae Dalekarlicae, 4to. Upsalic, 1733, p. 30. 


1 m 52. The inhabitants of the town of Sanaa, on the borders of the Nor- 

' wegian Alps in East Dalecarlia, speak a mixed dialect of Dalecarlian and 

{ Norwegian ; and it is said, that they understood the language spoken by 

; certain Dutchmen, who were in the habit of risiting those mountains for 

the purpose of taking falcons, then used in hunting.* We are also told 
of a Dalecarlian boy who was taken by a Swedish ambassador to England, 
and who easily understood the language of the peasants of the northern 

# 53. The three branches of the Dalecarlian dialect, as spoken in Elf- 

f dalen, Mora, and Orsa, differ from each other not only in the change of 

letters and the inflexion of words, but also in accent and pronunciation. 
Between those of Elfdalen and Mora the difference is not, bowerer, rery 
great That of Orsa stands more apart, as may be seen by the following 
versions of the Lord's Prayer. 

54. Dialect of Elfdalen. 

Fad uoer, so ir i himbluma. 

Hielit ir daett nam. Tilkum daett rikL 

Ski daenn uilja, so i himblum si 4 jordi. 

Uott dagli brod giaef oss i dag. 

Og firilat oss uoraer skulldaer. 

Soss uir firilatnm diom so i oss nod slriUdug. 

Laed int uoss i nan jaelok fraestilsae 

Aut4 los oss fird uondu. Amen. 

55. Dialect of Mora. 

Fad user so ir i himmelim. 

Haellit ae daett nam. Tilkum dett rikiae. 

Ske daenn uilli so i himmelim so & jordi. 

Uott dagli brod giaef huass i dag. 

Firilat huass huaraer skulldur. 

8os huir firilatum diom s4 ae huass n& skilldau 

Led int huass i nan uondan fraestilsae. 

Int' at fraels huass fra illu. Amen. 

56. Dialect of Orsa. 

Falla orn, sa ir i himblim. 
Haelgat uaeri daett nam. Tilkaemi daett rikia. 
Ski daeina uilju, sa i himblum sa a jordi. 
Ort dagliga brod gia hdkss i dag. 
A farlat huass oner skulldaer, 
Skai sa ui faerlatum daem huass skilldugaer ira\ 
A inled huoss int 1 fraestilse. 
Maeld fraels huass fra uandu. Amen. 

57. For several centuries, and especially since the Danish became 
a fixed and regular tongue, Norwegian has been identical with Danish. 

• Ntanan, p. 12. f Ibid. p. 17. 

XI. 58. 



This common dialect has perhaps been as much settled and polished by 
Norwegians as by natives of Denmark.* As there is this identity in the 
Danish and Norwegian, the copious examples of the Banska tunga pre- 
viously given, will serve also for the Norwegian, and will render further 
remarks unnecessary. 

Ferroe Dialect. 

58* A specimen of early Ferroe taken from Professor Rain's Faereyinga 
Saga, Pref. p. iv. Thrand was one of the first inhabitants of Ferroe. 
Many religious verses are ascribed to him, and are still preserved by oral 
tradition among the inhabitants of the Ferroes. The following Creed, 
written down by a native Ferroe clergyman, Pastor Schroter, now 
Emeritus, who translated the Gospel of St Matthew, f will serve as an 
example of this dialect. 


Gjivnir eru Ajnglar gowir [af Gudi] 

Aj gengji e ajna udi, 

Ferun mnjnun filgja 

Fim Guds Ajnglar ; 

Bije e firi mar Bon, 

Bera tajr ta [Bon] firi Kriste. 

Singje e Salmana sjej, 

Sar Gud til SUuna mujna ! 


Gengji e aj ajna ut, 
fujra mar filgja, 
fim Guds Ajnglar, 
beri e Bon firi mar, 
B6n firi Krist, 
singji e Salma sjej, 
sjiji Gud til Luta mujn ! 


Go 1 not alone out, 
Four me follow, 
Five God's angels, 
I pray a prayer for me, 
A prayer for Christ. 
I sing seven Psalms, 
God will see for my lot ! 


Good angels are given by God, 
I go not alone, 
My steps follow 
Five angels of God ; 
Pray I for me a prayer, 
They bear it to Christ 
Sing I seven Psalms, 
Sees God for my soul ! 


Gangat ek einn ut, 
fj6rir mer fylgja, 
fimm gufts einglar ; 
ber ek baen fyrir mer, 
been fyrir Kristi, 
syng ek salma sjo, 
sjai girS hluta minn ! 

Written about a.d. 1150. 


Ene jeg ei gaaer ud, 

fire mig folge, 

fern Guds Engle, 

Bon for mig jeg frembaerer 

Bon for Christus. 

syv Salmer jeg synger, 

Sorge Gud for mit Bedste ! 

• See § 43, and Rask's A.-S. Or. by Mr. Thorpe, p. xvi. 

f Evangelium St MattheiiMa & Faeroisk o Dansk, Randers, 1823—8. 



1. The Germanic languages, comprehending not only the Low and 
High-German, but also the Scandinavian, have a striking similarity, and 
are evidently of cognate origin. The short history of each language, 
accompanied with extracts, and a detail of their most evident peculiarities^ 
have occupied so much space, and engaged the attention so long, that it 
may be desirable to advert again to their similarity. They appear as 
dialects of one extensive language, branches of one vigorous stock, or 
streams from the same copious fountain. A recollection of this will, in 
some degree, restore to order the confusion of Babel, and therefore very 
much facilitate the acquisition of languages.* An appeal to the Germanic 
languages will be a sufficient proof, not only of their similarity, but of their 
identity. This likeness and close relationship will be clearly manifest by 
a few examples from their grammatical inflections and vocabularies. 

2. In the following examples, the v in the Dutch visch has exactly 
the same sound as the English/; hence fish has the same name in all the 
Germanic languages. 

Eng. J.-S. 








a fish fisc 








a fish's fisc-es 

visch -est fisk-es 

fisch-es fisk-is 




to a fish fisc-e 








a fish fisc 








fishes fisc-as 








fishes' fisc-a 








to fishes fisc-um 








fishes fisc-as 




fisk-ans fisk-e 



3. The identity of the Germanic languages will be still more evident if 
a few examples be taken from what has been generally called the irregular 
parts of these languages. It may be useful to remark, that the Moes. A.-S. 
and Eng. \> or th, in Dut. Dan. and Swed. is changed into d. The Dan. 
jeg and mig are pronounced yih and mih : the Swed. jag and mig are 
sounded yih and mih. 

* Classification and association are of the utmost importance in learning languages. The 
greater part of European tongues in the south and west are those of Germanic, and those 
of Roman origin. The Germanic class embraces the modern English, German, Dutch, Danish, 
Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, &c. ; the Roman or Latin comprises the Spanish, Italian, 
Portuguese, French, &c. To this subject has been drawn the attention of an old friend, the 
Rev. W. Pulling, M.A., A.S.L. Rector of Dymchurch, Kent He was induced to deliver in 
the University of Cambridge " A course of Lectures on the French, Italian, Spanish, and 
Portuguese languages, and their chief dialects, Cambridge, 1834." These interesting and 
valuable Lectures deserve attention, and it is greatly to be wished that Mr. Pulling may 
receive sufficient encouragement to carry into effect' his intention of publishing a volume 
containing short grammars of the languages of Roman origin, to be followed by another 
volume comprising grammars of the Germanic tongues. 

f The Dutch, &c. now generally use prepositions instead of the old terminations : thus, 
Dut. van een visch ofaJUh, instead of visches. 


Eng. I am, be : A.-S. ic eom, beo : Plat, ick bin, em : Dut. ik bin, em : Frs. ik 
ben : Moes. ik im : Ger. icb bin : Icel. ek er, em : Dan. jeg er : Swed. jag ar. — 
Eng. I was : A.-S. ic waes : Frs. ik was : Plat, ick was : Dut. ik was : Moes. ik 
was : Ger. ich war : Icel. er var : Dan. jeg var : Swed. jag vas. — JEn^. come, p. 
came, pp. come : A.-S. cume, p. com, pp. cumen :• .FW. kem, p. kom, pp. kemen*: 
Pfo*. kom, p. kwam, pp. gekomen : Dut. kome, p. kwam, pp. gekomen: itfoe*. 
quima, p. quam, pp. quuman(s) : Ger. komme, p. kam, pp. (ge)kommen: Icel. 
kem, p* kom, pp. kominn : Dan., kommer, p. kam, pp. kummen : Swed. kommer, 
p.. kom, pp. kommen. — Eng. thou : A.-S. ]?u : 2*V*. thu : Plat, thu : Flem. da : 
Jtfoes. thu : Ger. du : ic*/. pu : Da*, du : Swed. du. — .Etty. who : A.-S. hwa : Fr*. 
hwa : Plat, huie : Dut. wie: Jlfo**. hwa(s) : Ger. wer : /ce/. hwa(r) : Dan. hwo : 
Stcwo*. ho. — Eng. good, better, best : A.-S. g6d (bet), betra, betst : Frs. g6d, bet- 
tre, (betere), beste : Dut. goed, beter, best : Moes. goths (god(s) or bats), batiza, . 
batist(s) : Ger. gut, besser, beste: Icel. g6d(r) bettri, bestir: Dan. god, bedre, 
beste : Swed. god, battre, bast 

4. If these examples do not convince the reader that these languages 
are mere dialectic variations of one ancient tongue, perhaps the following 
declension of the pronoun of the first person may produce full conviction.. 




























to me 




































to us. 


















5. In the most irregular parts of the Germanic languages, even at the* 
present day, there is a complete correspondence, which shows that there 
must have been a time when the nations of Germanic origin were all 
united in one tribe. Some branches of this great Gothic family have not 
had any close intercourse or alliance for many centuries ; the present simi- 
larity of their languages must then have arisen from a close anterior 
connexion. The period of this connexion it is not easy to specify ; but it 
must have been very early and intimate, as the similarity is most evident 
in the words which designate what was most necessary, in the rudest state 
of society, and in those verbs generally called irregular,* and which are 
.even now most in use. This early connexion it is very important to observe, 
and it is the part of scientific etymology to show it in the clearest light 

• Ten Kate's Anleiding tot de Kennisse van de Nederduitscbe Sprake, vol. ii. p. 12, § XJ., 



1. Words are the creation of mind. As the true philosopher looks 
with humble adoration, from the variety and perfection of God's risible 
creation to the power and goodness of the Creator, so the philosophic 
etymologist is constantly led, from the various forms and applications of 
words, to contemplate the intellectual powers in which man most resembles 
his Creator. The true and judicious etymologist is anxious to obtain the 
right meaning and application of words, and thus a good etymologist is 
most likely to become the best metaphysician. He is not satisfied with 
the common and external signification of words received from popular use, 
but he examines their structure, their radical, that is, their real and 
internal meaning, and thus endeavours to discover the reason of the 
application of the term. When the understanding is thus called into 
exercise in the formation of words, precision is not only given to ex* 
pression, but the higher faculty of reason lends its powerful aid to the 
memory, and greatly facilitates the acquisition of a language. The ety- 
mology of a word being understood, and thus the sanction of reason 
obtained, neither that word nor any of its family can scarcely ever escape 
from the memory. The use of etymology will, however, be best proved by 
a few plain examples, showing the real meaning of some common words. 

Acorn, A.-S. aeceren, secern, from sbc, ac an oak ; cern or corn corn, the corn or 
fruit of the oak. — Childhood, A.-S. cildhad, from cild a child, h£d a condition, 
state, a child's condition. — Kingdom, A.-S. cyngd6m, cyningd6m, from cyning, 
cyng a king; 66m power, jurisdiction, a kings jurisdiction, or dominion.— Island, 
A.*S. ealand, from ea water, land land ; water-land, land surrounded with water* 
— Sheriff, or shirereeve, A.-S. scu>gerefa, from scir a share, division, shire, county j 
gerefa a reeve, governor, a governor of a shire. — Neighbour, A.-S. neah-bur, from 
neah near ; bur a bower, dwelling, one who has a dwelling near. — Righteous, 
A.-S. rihtwis, from riht right, just ; wis wise, right wise, honest, virtuous.-— Foster*, 
child, A.-S. fostercild, from foster food, nourishment; cild a child, a child thai 
receives food from a person who is not its parent, fyc. 

2. Tn looking at the first formation of words in the origin of language, 
it may be observed, that a knowledge of things appears to be conveyed to 
the mind through the medium of the five senses, especially by the sight. 
An idea or image of a visible object is formed in the mind by means of 
the eye ; and the word which, when written or spoken, conveys this image 

* Etymology is thus defined :— Optime Cicero irufiokoyiay, Latine vertit veriloquium ; 
eumque mcrito defendit Marti nius : certe verbotim non potuit melius Cicero. Nam certum 
est, quod irvnav sit verum : et £rv/ioAo7os, qui ro bvpov Aryei. Scaliger tamen Etymologiam. 
sic definit, tanquam esset a Koyos ratio. Etymologia, inquit, est rocis ratio, id est vis, qua 
vox a voce generatur, — Wac hter's Glos. Germ. ProUgom, VII. 


to the mind, is called a noun. If it be most probable tbat the general 
appearance of a material thing would be impressed on the mind before 
any particular part or action of the thing, then nouns* must be the primi- 
tive words in language. Every noun or thing which has an existence, 
must have either an action or state of being, and the word which expresses 
that action or state of being is denominated a verb. If, after the general 
outline of an object was formed in the mind, the attention were fixed upon 
its action or state of being, then verbs were formed subsequently to nouns. 
Thus all things material were first designated by the noun, while the 
subsequent motions of these objects were indicated by the verb in its 
simplest form.f 

3. This reasoning is corroborated by the structure not only of the 
Germanic languages but of the Shemitic. 

A few examples may be first cited from the Hebrew, where the roots of words 
have been generally supposed to exist only in the verb, from which nouns were always 
said to be formed. The following verbs, however, evidently spring from nouns* 
From fcN ath a stooping, nM n&the to incline, bow down ,— bh* al power, strength, 
nbtf ale to exercise power in injuring, to curse; — JN an labour, pM anSn to be 
faint with labour, to complain ; — F)M ap heat, anger, nBH ape to operate as heat, to 
bake ;— -)N ar a river, what flows, m« are to be flowing off, to crop, -nN artfr 
to flow or take from, to curse; — tt?N as fire, WWH asfcs to be fired, angry, or 
grieved ;— HN at a sign, thou, the substance of a thing, TWA ate to come, come 
near, to approach; — 13 bgd what is separate, a branch, desert, TT2 be'de'd to be 
alone ; — \2 bSn a son, HDD b£ne to build, to build up, to continue, as a son 
builds up or continues the family or line of his father; — T id a hand, r?T ide 
to put forth, to extend; — \V oj a tree, nSB oje to be as a tree, to make firm or 

4. In Greek some verbs appear also to be formed from nouns, 

SoXoc agitation of the sea, the sea, craXtvv I sea, I act as the sea, 1 shake, or agi- 
tate : — ayytXog a messenger, angel, ayyeXkv I act as a messenger, I bring infor- 

• Kimkhi expressly declares pttJTTO M^ b^Qn ine verbproceeds from the now*. See 
Professor Lee's Heb. Gram. 8vo. London, 2nd edit 1832, Lect VI. Art 144, 146 ; and Lect X. 
Art 1 82, § 2, note, for some interesting facta on this subject " In Barman, verbs are nothing 
more than nouns conjugated with the pronouns." — Id. Lect VI. Art 144, § 1, note (•). See 
also my Compendious Gram, of the Anglo-Saxon Language, 8vo. London, 1826, ch. VTL p. 57. 

Locke says, " I doubt not, if we could trace words to their sources, we should find, in all 
languages, the names that stand for things that fall not under our senses, to have had their 
first rise from sensible objects. — On Human Understanding, bk. 3, ch. I. 

Notiones verbonim propria) omnes sunt corporee, sire ad res pertinentes, que sensus nos- 
tras feriunt — Van Lennep, p. 7. Nee alias esse (verborum significationes) nisi corporeas^ 
sive eas, quibus res, senswus, externa expositor, designantur. — Id. Anal. p. 41. Mr. Richardson 
in Gents. Mag. April, 1836, p. 373. 

The Germanic literati differ in opinion on this subject Many eminent etymologists de- 
clare that the roots of all words were originally verbs. Professor J. Grimm, though of the 
same opinion, uses a more cautious expression, and says verbs appear to be the foundation 
of all words. (Deutsche Gram. IL 5.) It is true that many words originate from verbs; but 
it is errneous to attempt to trace all words to verbs as their root Professor Grimm, on the 
supposition that all roots were verbs, has quoted a great number of verbs as lost which pro- 
bably never existed : this great investigator, adds Schmitthenner, is certainly ted astray by a 
false supposition. (Schmitthenners EtymoL Darmstadt, 8vo. 1833, p. 20—23.) In § 17 he 
says, " the root is neither a noun nor a verb, but what precedes both," &c. 

f Sir Graves C. Haughton's " Inquiry into the nature of Language," prefixed to his ela- 
borate and very learned Dictionary if Bengali and Sanskrit, 4to. London, 1833, p, 4. 


mation, I tell : — ayutv, -woe a combat, battle, ayvvia a conflict of mind, distress, 
agony, aywviau I am in agony, am distressed ;— aedXoc., dOXoc <* combat, cuBXem, 
adXevu) I fight, combat : — aipa, -aroq, the effusion of blood, &ipag, -a&>c blood 
streaming from a wound, hipatrtrt* I stain with blood: — atx/u? a spear, aiyjiafa 
I fight with a spear, brandish : — cuc/xij the point, top, maturity, cur/iafu I grow up 
to maturity, ripen, fyc. 

5. The root or origin of a verb in Welsh is, as the learned Dr. Davies 
remarked, for the most part, a noun, as dysc doctrina ; dyscais docui ; : 
car amicus, carav amo, vel amabo. This substantive, adds the same 
writer, is generally identical with the third person singular of the future 
indicative, (as in Hebrew the third of the preterite is the root,) or with 
the second of the imperative, whieh forms are generally the same.* 

6. The Germanic languages afford many examples of verbs evidently 
derived from nouns. 

From A.-S. dael : Plat Dut. deel : Frs. del : Moes. dails : Ger. theil: Old Ger- 
deil : Icel. deil : Dan. deel : Swed. del a part, pars ; we have the following verbs in 
A.-S. dael-an : Plat, del-en : Dut. deel-en : Frs. del-a : Moes. dail-jan : Old Gor* 
deil -an : Icel. deil-a : Dan. deel-e : and Swed. del-a to give a part, to separate, 
divide. — From A.-S. meolc, mile : Plat. Dut. melk : Ger. milch : Old Ger. miluh, 
milich : Icel. mi61k : Dan. malk: and Swed. mjolk mile, lac, we have the fol- 
lowing verbs in A.-S. meolc-ean : Plat. Dut. melk -en : Ger. melk-en : Old Gen 
melk-an : Icel. miolk-a : Dan. malk-e : and Swed. mjolk-a to afford or give milk, 
to milk, to draw milk ; mulgere. — From A.-S. rec : PlaL Dut. rook : Frs. rec, rek ;. 
Ger. rauch : Icel. reykr : Dan. rog: and Swed. rok smoke, exhalatio ; we have the 
following verbs in A.-S. rec -an : Plat. Dut. rook-en : Frs. rek-a to smoke, dwell in, 
inhabit : Ger. rauch-en : Icel. reyk-ia : Dan. rog-e : and Swed. rok-a to give a* 
smoke, to smoke, to reek ; fumare, exhalare. 

7. Both nouns and verbs are formed into adjectives. 

Some nouns are used as adjectives without any alteration ; but adjectives in A.-Sl 
are generally formed by annexing to the noun or verb, -en, -ig, -isc, from an, unnan, 
ican or ecan to give, add, eke ; also, -beer bearing, producing ; — cund born, a kind, 
sort ; -ece eternal ; -ende ; -faest fast, firm ; -full/t*//, plenty ; -lie like ; -sum 
some, part, &c. — As la$ n. evil, mischief; laS adj. evil, pernicious ; gold gold, 
-en add, add or join something, as golden J?raed golden thread ; bl6d blood, blcSdig 
bloody ; wit mind, wit, witig witty ; folc folk, folcisc like the people, plebeian i 
aeppelbser apple-bearing; leohtbaer light-bearing; eor&cund earthly; godcund 
divine; efenece coetemal; cennan to bear, cennende bearing ; drincan to drink, 
drincende drinking ; faran, feran to go, ferende going ; ae law ; & fast fast in the 
law, firm, religious; tungful/w// of tongue, talkative; eorft earth, eorftlic earth- 
like, earthly; lafu love, luflic lovelike, lovely; lang long, langsum longsome, 
lasting ; wyn pleasure, wynsum some pleasure, pleasant. 

8. Adverbs are often formed by frequently using nouns in certain 

Thus hwilum awhile, now, d. of hwil time, space ; ponces of gratitude, £once 
with gratitude, gratefully, thankfully, g. and d. of J?onc favour, &c. 

9. The remarks in paragraphs 3 and 4 can only refer to words in 
their first formation. In a subsequent stage of language, many nouns 
have evidently had their origin from verbs, adjectives, &c. 

• See Dr. Davies' Antiquae Lingua) Dritannicae Rudimenta, and Dr. Prichard's Celtic 
Nations, p. 178. 


Thus huntaft a hunting, chase, from huntian to hunt ; fiscoft a fishing, from fiscian 
to fish ; gelicnes likeness, from gelic like ; hrednes readiness, from hrsed ready ; 
hv&dMcnys readiness, from hraedlic ready, quick; blawung a blowing, fromblawan 
to blow; hal healthy, sound ; halig holy, haligan to consecrate; haligdom a sanc- 
tuary ; halignes holiness ; halgung, gehalgung a hallowing, consecration, fyc. 

10. All that is here stated, as well as what is advanced in the preceding 
paragraphs, is the mere threshold of etymology, that which is the most 
evident and palpable ; but perhaps it may have appeared that even this 
incipient knowledge is not destitute of utility. Should there be a desire 
to enter into the arcana of etymology, or to fathom its deep abyss, much 
time and attention must be devoted to the works of German philologists,* 
as the etymology of the Teutonic languages has been carried to great 
extent by some of the most able men in Germany. They have adopted 
the principle, and introduced much of the refinement discovered and 
applied by Sanscrit grammarians. Every one who investigates the subject 
must acknowledge there is much metaphysical nicety in their mode of 
treating it, and much laborious exertion to make it intelligible. Though 
such talents and industry certainly deserve attention, yet the great question 
is, whether in the western tongues these metaphysical subtleties can be 
made available to practical utility. The learned and indefatigable Dr. 
Becker, in his German Grammar for Englishmen, with many of his coun- 
trymen, asserts that their system is found most efficient in practice. It is, 
therefore, only common justice to let these erudite Germans speak for 
themselves, or rather to allow one to explain for the whole. A recent 
writer, and one of the least diffuse and most able after Professor Boppt 
and Grimm, is Professor Schmitthenner, from whose Introduction to the 
Short German Dietionary% the following abstract of the German lan- 
guage is taken. The substance is only given, but where it is translated 
the version is as close as possible. 

11. Of vowels. The modern German has five simple vowels, a, e,t, o,fi. 

Three of these are radical vowels, a, i, u. The two others, e and o, are only shades 
of a, i, u. The y of the A.-S. and the old northern dialects, has something analogous 
in a soft u, but it is unknown to the other German dialects. It is borrowed from the 

* See Von der Wortbildung, in voL ii. p. 1 — 923 of Professor J. Grimm's Deutsche Gram- 
matik, 8vo. Gottingen, 1826. — Die Deutsche Wortbildung Ton Dr. Becker, 8vo. Frankfurt 
am Main, 1824, and all the other valuable publications of Der frankfurtischen Gelehrten- 
vereinigung far deutsche Sprache, Herman, Frankfurt, &c. 

f Though Professor Bopp, whose general erudition, and critical knowledge of Sanscrit in 
particular, are universally admitted, was so obliging as to send the author a copy of his 
Vocalismus immediately on publication ; it is impossible to give a clear abstract of so learned 
and profound a work in the short space which can be here devoted to the subject Those, 
therefore, who read German, must peruse and reperuse Vocalitmus, oder Sprachvergleichende 
Kritiken uber J. Grimm's deutsche Grammatik, und Graff's althochdtutchen Sprachschatz, rmt 
Begrundung einer neuen Theorie des ablauts von Franz Bopp, 8vo. Berlin, 1836. An English 
translation of this work would be a most acceptable boon to the public. Professor Bopp 
goes at once to the oriental source, and with a new theory of the ablaut, opposed to Dr. 
Grimm, (see & 1 1) he shows how much the vocalism of the Germanic languages may be 
philosophically explained by the system of Indian grammarians, and proves that the ablaut, 
or change of the radical vowel, is influenced by the vowel of the termination. 

+ Kurzes Deutsches Worterbuch fur Etymologie, Synonymik, und Orthographic von 
Fnedrich Schmitthenner, Darmstadt, 8vo. 1834. 


Greek ; but in earlier times it was also used in some original German words to 
express i. It must be ascribed to the form of the epiglottis, that there can only be 
three original vowels, though in a variety of shades and colouring. This is a natural 
fact in language and grammar. All other vowels are only considered as shades and 
approximations. Of these three,* the vowel a is the easiest, most simple, and 
universal sound. — The radical vowels undergo various changes in the declension and 
formation of words. — I. By a shade changing the i into <?, and the u into o; as Moes. 
niman, Ger. nehmen to take : Moes. giban, Get. geben to give: Moes, ufto, Ger. oft 
often : Moes. fugls, Ger. vogel a bird. — 2. By upsound (auflaut) or thinning of the 
vowel or sound, by earlier etymologists called (umlaut). If, for instance, in the 
inflection or formation of a radical syllable which has a, o, or u, and consequently 
a strong full vowel, an i is added, but which in the new German is changed into e, at 
entirely omitted ; then these three vowels change into a higher but weaker sound, the 
a into a or e, the o into 6, and the u into ii ; as adel, edel : Old Ger. adal, edili : ast 
a branch, seste branches : Gott God, gbtter gods : Old Ger. kot, kotier : blut, 
bliitig, and blutig : Old Ger. pluot, pluotic, or pluotac. — 3. By change of vowel* 
(umlaut), or change of one vowel into another, by some etymologists improperly 
called offsound (ablaut). In the formation of a word it thus happens that some 
roots of a go over into i and u, as binde, band, gebunden, properly band, bmde, 
.gebunden. — 4. By insound (inlaut), in the Sanscrit called Guna, that is, in the for- 
mation of a word another vowel is placed before the radical vowel, like an internal 
augment, to denote the change which an idea undergoes. From the nature of the 
vowels the following law is deduced, — that the insound or guna can only proceed 
in the following order, a, i, u. A can be placed before a (a+a), before i (a+t), 
and u {a+u) ; t only before t (t+t), and before u (i+u), and u only before u 
(u-\-u). — According to the radical vowels, or what we call organic sounds, there 
can, in reality, only exist the following six diphthongs, aa, ai, au, ii, iu, uu. — In 
the reverse series, the vowels may be also compounded, but they form, as the pro- 
nunciation directly shows, no simple diphthongs. The diphthongs in the new High- 
German are formed partly by shades which the radical vowels or sounds suffer, and 
partly according to the peculiarity of the dialect which is become the written lan- 
guage, as 4, (6), ai, au, (6), ei, eu, and ie. — In pronunciation and writing, the u 
as a diphthong is put aside ; but it ought to have the power of a+a in the expla- 
nation of words. The three simple vowels a, i, u, with the gunaf aa, ai, au, ii, iu, 
uu, are partly the natural and partly the historical normal sounds, and the original 
type of vocalism. 

12. In the different dialects, the vowels, by upsound, shading, disorgani- 
zation, &c. are softened and tinged different ways, but all in a certain order 
and according to determined rules. Thus, as the comparative zoologist is 
able to recognise the type of the genus in all deviations of the form of the 
single animal, so the comparative etymologist must be able to reduce the vo- 
calism of the dialect to its original type, and thus comprehend it, for other- 
wise his perception is dark, and his whole proceeding uncertain, and vain 
error. Some complain that the doctrine of the guna is difficult, but nothing 
is more simple. In the diphthong we have only to consider the first letter 
as a prefix, denoting the formation, an inserted vowel equal to the insound 

* A table of the changes of the radical vowels in the Germanic tongues will be found in Dr. 
Grimm's Deutsche Grammatik, vol. i. 573, 575 ; a table of the long vowels in p. 578. 

f A table of the vowel forms, bv the application of guna, in the Germanic languages may 
be seen in p. 59 of Schmitthenner's Deutsche Etymologic, l2mo. Darmstadt, 1833. 


(inlaut), and the last letter as the radical vowel. In some cases, only ie 
makes an exception. 

13. The modern German has the following sounds : A,dt=. ae ; ai = a -f t ; 
au ss a -f- u : E = a,e, ei, & : Ei = ai, t (t + 1) : Eu = iu : I = old iu, io, ai, 
ei: = it; 6 = au, old uo, & ; 6= M* increased sound of o: U, &•=. gunited 
a; ii the upsound of u and t2. — 4. By the preceding, it is clear there are only 
three radical vowels from which the others take their origin ; thus from A origi- 
nate o, a, e, i, (e), u, (o),U,6; I goes over into e, ei, (ai), ie : U changes into o, 
ie, eu, du» — Hence it is very easy, in a great number of cases, to recognize the 
radical vowel in a word, especially by comparing it with other words of the same 
family. We often find the root in verbs, as soon as the vowel of the perfect tense 
is divested of all its changes by guna and upsound. From binde, band, bund bind, 
bound, bound, we find band is the root. From ritt rode, reiten to ride, is the root 
rit a riding. From fliege, bog fly, flew is the root Aug a flight. 

14. Of consonants. The natural articulation of the consonants ac» 
cording to the organs, is represented in the following table. 

a. b. c. 

labial. lingual. palatal. 

A. Half mule sounds* w h j 

(Breathing sound, 

B. The sibilant (sibilans) f, s. 

C. The liquids m 1 nr 

D. The mutes (mutte). 

o- m \*°ft h d g 

aa. Simple, i , . ? 

r (hard p t k 

66. Aspirate. { J ( ( ^j 

cc. Sibilant. ] 

(th) ch 


It is evident, by this table, that in the modern Ger. the aspirated palatal and the 
sibilant labial sounds are wanting, while it has a double aspirated labial and a 
double sibilant lingual sound. The q is a double letter. The s possesses a double 
sound, the one is expressed by s, and the other by sh. 

15. No root or radical word has originally a double consonant of the same kind. 
An original i in the derivation has given rise to gemination or hardening of the 
sound, which is found nearly in all words of the same family. In this manner ori- 

mm from mj 

ii - ij 

as schemmen 
— nolle 

from suamjan 
— helja 

nn — nj 

— rennen 

— ranjan 

rr — rj 
pf (Old Ger. wh) — phj 
tz (zz) — zj (tj) 
ck (Old Ger. cch) — kj or hj 

— sperren 

— hiipfen 

— setzen 

— zicke 

— sparjan 

— huphjan 

— satjau 

— zikja. 

This law is of great importance in etymology, showing how to reduce words with 
a double final letter to their roots. Instead of the double letter, we ought to put the 
soft simple letter ; and, instead of the upsound, originated by the derivative i, there 
must be a full original vowel. Thus, for example, from kennen to know, comes the 


170 THE ROOT OF WORDS. XIII. 16 — 19. 

root kan; Old Ger. chan ; from fallen to fall, the root fal, Old Ger. val; from 
biicken to bow, the root bug — by guna biegen to bend (Old Ger. puk — piokan) ; 
from ricke a doe, reh (instead of rih), &c. In the old as well as in the modern 
Ger. language, a double consonant is used in writing only to express the sharpening 
of the consonant. 

16. Of the root. The root is the simple syllable which designates 
the first conception of a thing. According to its signification it has 
a simple vowel a, t, t#, and a single consonant It is often very easy to 
discover the root, for we need only take from the word the vowel forming 
the umlaut, and the guna (inlaut) ; the gemination, and the terminating 

For example, let us take from the verb leuchten to light, the guna e, and the post- 
Axed syllable ten; then will remain luch, Old Ger. luh, Lat. luc-ere. — From 
fuhr (Old Ger. vuor) take the guna, then remains fahr (Old Ger. var), &c In 
general, a comparison with the old form is quite necessary. 

17. According to its signification the root is neither a noun nor a verb, 
but it is what precedes both. It is the expression of the simplest intuition 
by a sound, without determining any associate idea of the gender, the 
time, &c. 

Let us take the appearance of blau, — then the root is blu,/. Lat. fulvus (which, 
however, signifies something else,) and by guna blau the expression of the sound 
instead of it without any further determination, whether it be a thing, a quality, or 
only a relation. But being in reality a quality, it is afterwards used as an adjec- 
tive, and the principal word or noun blaue blueness, and the verb blauen to blue or 
to make blue, are only derived from it by additional letters. In the same manner 
let us take the impression which the cry of chickens or crows produces on the ear ; 
the simplest expression of the sound will be kra, Old Ger. chra. As this impres- 
sion quickly vanishes, there is directly formed the verb krahen to crow, Old Ger* 
chrahan ; present tense ich krahe I crow, Old Ger. chra-hu, and krahte, Old Ger. 
chra-ta / crew, and also in the same manner the noun das krahen the crowing, Old 
Ger. chra-t ; die krahe the crow, Old Ger. chra-ja, &c. In this manner language 
springs up everywhere full of fine signification and inexhaustible life. 

Of the formation of words by umlaut and inlaut, or by change qf 
vowels and by guna. 

18. This takes place when, for the designation of the gender, case, or 
time, vowels or sounds are added. The transition of the root into different 
words is in all cases easily understood. Let us take the root luh, New Ger. 
hell clear, light, then by guna (inlaut) and an added t, is formed lioht, 
New Ger. licht (instead of liecht) the clearness, light; and also the adj. 
licht light, &c. 

The determination of the signification of words and roots. 

19. Language generally originates from the most simple perception of 
our senses. The appearances which offer themselves to the sight, not 
yet dimmed by any reflection, are the qualities and the relation of things 


in time and space, such as, light, dark : — black, white : — great, small : 
— standing, running — to rise, to/all, &c. 

20. These appearances are immediately determined or marked by the 
language, whether they are resting qualities, as; blue, yellow, great, 
small, &c, or a temporal relation, as, flows, stands, burns, smokes, &c. 
or only relations of space and number, as; by, at, for — one, two, &c. 
Things, of which the appearance only shows the special situation, the 
number and their relation, can only be designated by language in such 
a manner that it either points to their situation in space, by which pro- 
nouns originate, as, I, he, his, that, &c., or it describes them by nominating 
their qualities and their temporal relation, as, the bird, the floating in air. 
Thus originate the names of things, and each name is originally a short 

21. It is the task of etymology to pursue the signification now in use, 
through all changes, till we come to the radical signification. So we are 
led to a proper knowledge of the language, as a clear conception of the 
common signification can, in general, be only discovered in the light of 
the radical meaning. 

22. Easy as it may be, in most cases, to find the form of the root by 
decomposing the words, yet it is often difficult to ascertain the original 
signification. Where it remains perceptible to the senses, it is imme- 
diately discovered : thus, fliessen to flow, from the moving on of the fluid ; 
wehen to blow, from the soft movement of the air ; blau blue, from a colour, 
&c. In other cases there are difficulties which can only be overcome by 
close investigation. 

23. The doctrine of the interchange of consonants,* and that of umlautf 
and gunaj are the two gates which lead into the sanctuary of etymology. 
The former opens the insight into the true nature of the consonants, the 
latter into that of the vowels. He, then, who has a clear view of these 
two doctrines, has received the consecration, and can look into the interior 
of the sanctuaiy.|| 

•§14 f § 11,-3. t § 11,-4.; § 12, 13. 

|l It ought to be acknowledged again, that this is a very imperfect view, but the shortest 
and best that could be found. Those who would enter fully into the subject, must consult 
the original authorities quoted throughout this abstract, and especially Professor J. Grimm's 
invaluable Deutsche Grammatik, 3 vols. 8ro. Gottingen: Bopp's Vocalismus, with the works 
of Schmeller, Becker, Wollner, Graff, &c See xiii § 10. 



1. Hitherto the History, the Affinity and the Etymology of the Ger- 
manic or Teutonic languages have claimed almost the sole attention. 
Proofs have been adduced to shew that these languages, even in the 
present day, are not only very similar ; but that, in early times, they 
were almost identical, and that the widely extended nations, who now 
speak them, were originally of the same tribe, and probably inclosed in 
one encampment, when they first migrated out of Asia into Europe, on 
the north of the Euxinc and from the vicinity of the Caspian Sea. Some 
collateral evidence of the oriental origin of European population, may 
now be gathered from the invention of alphabetic writing in the east, 
and its gradual diffusion to the west, as well as from the affinity and 
etymology of their languages, previously discussed. 

2. As the Germanic tribes were free, they extended, with their power, 
a spirit of liberty, — a manly independent feeling, over the north and west 
of Europe ; so the cultivated and scientific Phoenicians awakened the 
dormant faculties of the mind, and excited a love for the arts and sciences, 
when they planted their colonies in the Mediterranean and the west. 
Thus, Europe not only received her population from Asia ; but the lights 
of science and literature dawned upon her from the east : — while our 
liberty and energy sprang from the north east, — our civilization, our 
intellectual culture, and the art of writing — of rendering thoughts visible, 
and thus conveying them to distant climes and ages, were of south-eastern 

3. It will not be difficult to prove, not only that the art of Alphabetic 
writing was received from the Phoenicians, but that the European 
alphabets were derived from the Phoenicians or ancient Hebrews. This, 
at first sight, may appear improbable, as the Hebrews wrote from right 
to left, while Europeans write from left to right ; but a short investiga- 
tion and a few specimens of early writing will remove all doubt Those 
which will be produced to prove the oriental origin of European letters, 
and the gradual introduction of writing in our present manner, from left to 


right, will be taken from inscriptions on stones and coins. These are the 
best evidence that can be given, as they are upon durable materials, such 
as stone or metal, and not easily counterfeited or altered : — they may have 
been lost sight of or buried for ages ; but when brought to light they 
speak in an antiquated dialect, of what happened in primeval days, and 
infallibly shew the mode of writing, and the form of the letters in those 
early times. With this last object in view, an appeal will be made to the 
legends of these oldest literary remains ; but before this can be done, it 
will be necessary to allude to the historical notices which relate to the 
discovery and progress of alphabetic writing. 

4. The first direct historical record of writing, is anterior to the giving 
of the Law to Moses on Mount Sinai, B.C. 1491. Before the Israelites 
arrived at Sinai, when they had defeated the Amalekites near Horeb, 
Moses is commanded to " Write this (for) a memorial in a book?* 
No intimation is given, that writing, by which past events and the various 
conceptions of the mind are exhibited to the sight by a small number of 
elementary characters or letters, was then used for the first time. Moses 
did not express any difficulty in comprehending the command, or of 
writing in a book ; it may, therefore, be inferred that be was acquainted 
with the art of writing. If credit could be given to Sanchoniathon, the 
Phoenician Historian, b the origin of writing might be traced to a much 
earlier period. He intimates that Taaut, the son of Mizraim, invented 
letters in Phoenicia, ten years before the migration of Mizraim into 
Egypt or about B.C. 2178. If the testimony of Sanchoniathon should not 
be admitted, we have still presumptive evidence, that writing was known 
at an earlier date than that which he specifies. It is manifest that astro- 
nomical observations could not be accurately recorded without the aid of 
writing; and Callisthenes, c the philosopher, who accompanied Alexander 
the Great to Babylon, wrote to Aristotle, about 330 B.C. that the Chaldeans 
had a series of observations which went back 1903 years, from that time. 
The Chaldeans must, therefore, have possessed the art of writing 2233 
years before the Christian era. d It is most probable then, as stated by 
Diodorus,' that the Phoenicians were not the inventors of letters, but that 

* :-)BM p-DT n«t nn3 Exodus™. 14. nn3 To engrave, mark, write.— ")DD A 
register roll or volume, book. The Septuagint has Kurd ypafyov rovro tls fiVTjfi6avrow tls 
fii£\low or *er &i£\i(f>. The Vulgate, says, Scribe hoc ob monimentum in libro. 

b He wrote a work, in his own language, nearly 1300 years b.c. on the antiquity of the Phoe- 
nicians, which was translated into Greek by PhUo of Byblus. Only a fragment of this 
translation has been preserved by Eusebius in his Praeparatio Evangehca. Sec Phoenician 
Records, Apud. Euseb. Praep. Evang. I. 9, 10, by W. Whiston, At. A. in his Essay to restore 
the true text of the Old Testament, 8vo. London, 1722. — Also Phoenician History translated 
from the 1st Book of Eusebius De Preparatione Evangelic!, by The Right Rev. Richard 
Cumberland, D.D. 8vo. London, 1720. 

c Simplicius, in his Commentary on Aristotle, De coelo. II. com. 46, p. 123. — Fasti Helle- 
nici : the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece, &c. by Henry Fynes Clinton, M.A. 3 vols: 
4to. Oxford, 1834 : vol. i. p. 281.— Philological Museum, vol. i. SS.—ShucJcford's Sacred and 
Profane History Connected, 8vo. 1731 ; voL i. bk. iv. p. 191. 

d Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, vol. i. p. 281, 282; iii. p. 505; and i. p. 368, noter. 

c Diodorus says expressly, that the Syrians (Assyrians) were the inventors of letters, 
(Lib. v.) and that the Phoenicians learned them from the Syrians, and afterwards sailed 
with Cadmus into Europe, and taught them to the Greeks. Eusebius assents to this, 

174 WRITING — KNOWN 1491 YEARS B.C. XIV. 5. 

they obtained a knowledge of alphabetic writing from the more easterly 
nations, the Chaldeans, or Assyrians. It was the current opinion of an- 
tiquity, that the Phoenicians conveyed the art of writing in their voyages 
for commercial purposes ; thus letters being first learned from them, would 
naturally lead Europeans to the conclusion, that they were a Phoenician 
discovery : while, in fact, the Phoenicians only appear to have been the 
medium, through which a knowledge of letters was transmitted from Asia 
to Europe. But whatever doubt may exist, as to the acquaintance of the 
Chaldeans with the art, at this early period, there can be none as to that 
of Moses, who was well versed in alphabetic writing, seven hundred years 
after, that is in the year 1491 B.C. when the Law was given. It is clear 
also, from some of the acrostic or alphabetic Psalms, ascribed to David, 
such as the cxix Psalm, the paragraphs of which are arranged according 
to the Hebrew alphabet, that the present names and order of the letters 
were fixed in David's time, more than 1014 years B.C.; and more than 
1062 B.C. if we take for our authority xxxiv. Psalm, which is alphabetic', 
and was written by David, when he changed his behaviour before Achish. 1 
5. The father of Grecian history, Herodotus, about the year 445 B.C. 
ascribed to the Phoenicians the honour of introducing alphabetic writing 
into Europe. Speaking from the general opinion, prevalent in his days, 
and from the best testimonies then in existence, he declares, " the Phoe- 
nicians, who came with Cadmus, B.C. 1257, h as they brought other know- 
ledge into Greece, so they likewise introduced letters, which, it appears to 
me, were not in Greece before." 1 Subsequently, Pliny bears the same tes- 
timony : " Cadmus brought from Phoenicia into Greece sixteen letters.*" 
He also declares that, " The Pelasgi (the most ancient Greeks) brought 
letters into Latium ;" k it is, however, probable that the Etruscans, who 
were from Lydia, and derived their alphabet immediately from the Phoe- 
nicians, imparted a knowledge of their letters to Latium. From whomso- 
ever the Romans received letters they never failed to extend the know- 
ledge of them to the utmost bounds of their vast dominions, reaching from 
the Highlands of Scotland, to the deserts of Africa, and from the Eu- 

(Prop. Evang. x.) and thinks the Syrians, who first invented letters, were Hebrews. It is 
true, the ancient Hebrews had the same tongue and letters as the Canaanites or Phoeni- 
cians,— nay, all the nations in these parts, Phoenicians, Canaanites, Samaritans, and proba- 
bly the Assyrians, for some ages, spoke and wrote alike. Shuck/ord's Sac. and Prof Hist. 
Connected, vol. i, bk. iv. p. 228,—Mitford supposes a still higher origin of letters : He says: 
" The failure of all notice, in the Sacred Book, that the use of letters was a novelty at the 
delivery of the Decalogue, seems a powerful indication, that it was not so. Nothing, then, 
appears to me so probable, as that it was derived from the antediluvian world. History of 
Greece, 8 vols. 8vo. 1839 ; vol i. chap. ii. sec. 3; p. 122. 

f The other alphabetic or acrostic poems, in Hebrew, are Psalms xxv., xxxvii, cxi., cxii., 
cxlv : Prov. xxxi. 10—33 : Lamen. i. ii. iii. and iv. The same order of the letters is always 
found in the verses or clauses of these portions of Scripture, with only few and unim- 
portant variations. 

s 1 Samuel, xxi. 

h Clinton'* Fasti Hellenici, vol. i. p. 368, note r. 

1 Ol *ofci#c€t, o\ vhv K<ft/iy ducucofKroi itrfryoyov fit&urirctXia 4s robt "EAAqiw, *al #) ««1 

ypdfLfiarat ovk Urra *piv"EWrj<ri i i»s ifiol ZokUiv. Herod, v. 58. 

J In Grseciam intulisse e Phoenice Cadmum sedecim numero. Pliny vii. 56. 

k In Latium eas (litems) attulerunt Pelasgi, Id. 


phrates to the Atlantic ocean : the Roman alphabet thus became exten- 
sively known, and it has long prevailed over the greatest part of Europe. 

6. The few authorities 1 already cited, will be sufficient to prove that 
the ancients generally ascribed the introduction of letters into Europe to 
the Phoenicians, who had them from Assyria, and that they imparted their 
knowledge of writing to the Pelasgi, who were of Japhetic or Indo-Euro- 
pean origin, and the primitive stock from which sprang all the Greeks." 
Not only the Pelasgi or ancient Greeks, but also the Romans, were 
Japhetic or Indo-European, and were quite a distinct race, from the Phoe- 
nicians or Canaanites, who, though descended from Ham, had a language 
closely allied to the Hebrew. The Phoenician or Hebrew alphabet could 
but imperfectly denote the sounds in Greek, it being, for this language, 
both deficient and redundant. Grecian words might be intelligible, when 
written in Phoenician letters, but this alphabet was incapable of express- 
ing the peculiar and more delicate sounds in the language of Greece. 
To supply this deficiency in the Phoenician alphabet, alterations and 
additions were necessary, and they were well made by the great talent 
and taste of the Greeks. Such Phoenician letters as were redundant, or 
denoted sounds not in Greek, being useless as letters, were retained only 
as numerals. 11 It is said that Palamedes introduced 9, E, <b> and X ; and 
Simonides added Z, H, ¥, and Q° ; but it is more probable they were 
earlier in use, as the long vowels are found on coins, before the time of 
Simonides, in the seventh century, b.c. p The double letters and long 
vowels were all well known in the days of Callias, B.C. 500, both the 
names and order of the Greek letters have continued precisely the same 
from that time to the present, as will be subsequently proved.* After 
these alterations had taken place, so great a similarity still remained, in 
the names, the order, and the numerical value of the letters, as to shew 
most clearly that the Greek alphabet was derived from the Phoenician. 
Herodotus, alluding to these changes, says: " At first, indeed," (the let- 
ters introduced among the Greeks were) " those which all the Phoeni- 
cians use, but then, in process of time, they changed the form of the let- 
ters to the sound. w 

1 See more in Bocharti opera omnia, Leyden, 1692; Phaleg et Canaan, col. 448. 

■ Dr. Prichards Researches into the Physical Hist of Mankind, rol. iii. pp. 486 — 497. 

■ The Bishop of St. David's expresses this very clearly : " Several changes were necessary 
to adapt the Eastern characters to a foreign and totally different language : The powers of 
those which were unsuited to the Greek organs were exchanged for others which were 
wanting in the Phoenician alphabet : some elements were finally rejected from the written 
language as superfluous, though they were retained for the purpose of numeration ; and in 
process of time, the peculiar demands of the Greek language were satisfied by the invention 
of some new signs. ,, — History of Greece, by the Rev. Connop Thirlwall, M.A, Fellow of Trim. 
CoU. Cambridge, in Cabinet Cyclopedia, 1835, vol. i. p. 238. 

• See § 44.— Pliny vii. 56. 

p The Analytical Essay on the Greek alphabet, by R. P. Knight, 4to. 1791, mentions the 
coins of Lesbos in particular, p. 18, 19 : Also his Prolegomena in Homerum, 8vo. 1820, pp. 

« See § 9. 

' np&ra i*kv, rouri kou awarret xpcwraj tolvucts' perk 8i, %p6vov wpotalworros, apa rf 
fovjj, fters €*Kov jtal row 'pvBpbv ruhr ypapfiaWuv, Herod, v. 58. 



7. A mere glance at these alphabets, given below, will tend to convince 
every one of their original very close connexion ; since, after the lapse of 
so many ages, the names of the letters, their order, and their numerical 
value 1 , still remain so similar. The Hebrew or Phoenician has, Aleph, 
Beth, Gimel, Daleth, &c. A, B, G, D, &c. : the Greek, Alpha, Beta, 
Gamma, Delta, &c. A, B, G, D, &c. From the alphabetic Psalms, we 
know that the present order of the Hebrew alphabet has existed for nearly 
3000 years". There is not only a striking resemblance in the names, and 
iu the order, but in the numerical value of the Hebrew and Greek letters : 
N> 2> 2> "T> denote 1, 2, 3, 4 ; the Greek letters a , /?, y, X, express the 
same series. The Hebrew \ 3, and the Greek *', at', represent the same 
numbers, 10, 20. All these will be very evident from the following 
alphabets, which, for that purpose, are placed in juxta-position. 

8. Meaning. 


Form, Number. 



An ox, a leader 







A house, booth 














A door 







A hollow 






'E ^iXrfr 

A hook 





iwlaTifiov £av* 

A weapon, shield 







A wall, fence 







A curve, scroll 







A hand 







A hollow, cup 







An ox goad 














A fish 







A prop, basis 







An eye 






'O fu<p6r 

A mouth 







A screech owl 





rifiov roinra ■ 

An ape 



p 100 

rrjfwy • o-aVxc 

A head 



1 200 




A tooth 



W 300 




A cross 



n 400 




• Vau and Koppa 

:, two ! 

Hebrew letters, and 


Sanpi are used 

by the Greeks onb 

' as nume- 

X X 


rals, they do not, therefore, call them <rro<xeia 




letters, but ivlarjfxa, marks, signs, or numbers. 



'& fitya. 

The form of the letters might be also named, but it is omitted, as the similarity of the 
Greek to the Phoenician or old Hebrew letters will be treated of in § 41 ; where the most 
ancient alphabet will be given from coins and inscriptions. The common printing Hebrew 
or Chaldee letters are here used for convenience j see the old Hebrew, Samaritan, or Phoe- 
nician, in § 12. No 1. 
• B.C. 1062+1844=2906, See § 4. 

XIV. 9, 12. GREEK ALPHABET 500 B.C. 177 

9. The Greek alphabet has retained its present order and names of the 
letters, at least for 2,344 years. CaJlias, a comic poet of Athens, who 
wrote nearly 500 years B.C., in his Theory of Grammar or letters, gives the 
order of the Greek alphabet thus, " Alpha, beta, gamma, delta, eta, theta, 
el, is used for god (Apollo), iota, kappa, lambda, mu, nu, xu, (omicron is) 
oQ, to, sigma, tau, (upsilon) Q next, phi, chi, and to psi to (omega) 6. — He 
then shews the formation of syllables, — Beta alpha ba, beta el be, beta e 
be, beta iota bi, beta oQ bo, beta u bu, beta 6 bo. 

10. The Phoenician, or ancient Hebrew alphabet has internal evidence 
of being discovered by those who spoke a Shemitic dialect, because the 
name and meaning of every letter can only be found in the Shemitic Ian 
guages, and this alphabet is perfectly adapted to this family of languages, 
but to this family alone, having distinct letters or marks for all the sounds 
peculiar to Shemitic tongues. Though it certainly is deficient in signs 
for sounds, found in other languages, as for instance, in Greek, yet the 
Phoenician has never recourse to joining different letters to express a 
simple sound, such as, ch, sh, like other nations, who have received from 
foreigners an alphabet not adapted to the sounds of their language. 1 

11. We have already touched upon the early discovery of alphabetic 
writing in the East, by those who spoke a Shemitic dialect, and the com- 
munication of this discovery by the Phoenicians, ancient Hebrews, or Sa- 
maritans to the Greeks and Romans ; we have also spoken of the order 
and numerical value of the Phoenician and Greek letters, as well as the 
meaning of the names of the letters, and their peculiar adaptation to the 
Shemitic family of languages, and to them only. It is now desirable, 
before we advert to the particular forms of letters, that some reference 
should be made to the earliest mode of writing by oriental nations, par- 
ticularly by the Phoenicians. 

12. The Phoenicians, ancient Hebrews, or Samaritans wrote from 
right to left, and most probably without the spacing now used to divide 
writing into words.* Their mode of writing will be best shewn by a 
short example. 

v T cfA^o, tiyra, ydfifta, Mkra, foa, (fira, 6<ov yap c? ys, l&ra, tcdtnea, Xaw€ba, pv, kv, £0 ; to 
•v, tZ, fa viypa, rod, v vapor, <fu, x* T< ?¥ r'h «k ro »• — B ^ TO AA^* €*> ^ Ta € * €*> ^^ ra Y 
fry, trjra lura Ci, Grrra bv Co, Qrjra v Cv, Qrjra « C». Schweighaeuser thus gives it in Latin — 
Alpha, beeta, gamma, delta, eeta, theeta : Deo enim sacra ei ; iota, cappa, lambda, my, ny, 
xy, elementum on, pi, rho, sigma, tau, v proximum liters phi et chi, (proximum) r$ psi, 
usque rb «.— Beeta alpha ba, beeta ei be, beeta ee bee (nempe, beeta ij &?) beeta iota bi, 
beeta ou bo, beeta y by, beeta » C« : (id est, beeta oo boo). — This is from Tpappariicn &«apia: 
by Callias, preserved by Athsnaus in his AcnnwofioW, that is : Eruditi conviviae ; Eruditi 
viri coenantes ; vel convivales doctorum virorum sermones, or as we say : Literary Table- 
talk.— Lift. X. cap. 20: Schweighaeuser, p. 162. Svo. Vol. IV. (Casaubon v. 453) Argentorati- 
ex typographia Societatis Bipontina, Anno XII (1804) : where more may be found to corrobo, 
rate the statement of the preceding extract. Callias wrote in verse ; and to preserve the metre, 
words are added, as Stov yap; and cl, for epsilon, put out of its place : zeta is omitted, pro- 
bably by the scribe, who transcribed in prose, what Callias wrote in verse. — All the writings 
of Callias are lost, except the fragments quoted by Atheneeus. 

* Professor E wold's Hebrew Gram. § 135. 

7 On consulting one of our most eminent oriental scholars, the Rev. 8. l*e, D.D., F.R.S.L., 
Regius Professor of Hebrew in the University of Cambridge, whether the Ancient Hebrews 
and Samaritans divided their text into words, he observed : — " On some of the old shekels 
do division appears ; but whether this was the case in books, is not known. It has been 




Samaritan or Ancient Hebrew, read/ram right to left. 

^/*m*mx^j*m%mxm*l/t t \ i %/tm'< jvo. i. 

The same in Chaldee or Modern Hebrew character. 

nsM^ni^M^DM^iDKM Ab. 2. 

Both expressed in Roman characters, read from right to left. 


13. The preceding specimens are in the common Samaritan and He- 
brew characters used in printing. They are introduced merely to shew the 
manner of writing from right to left, without any division into words. It 
may, however, be observed, that the dialects of the Shemitic family, from 
the time we have any certain knowledge of them, were written in two 
very different characters, the Western and Eastern. The Western cha- 
racter was long used by the Hebrews ; and always by the Phoenicians, 
and by the Samaritans 2 from the earliest ages to the present times : it is 
this from which the earliest Greek was derived. No. 1 is the Western or 
Samaritan character, and in the improved printing letter still called Sa- 
maritan. The earliest form of these letters, taken from inscriptions, will 
be found in the table of alphabets. 4 — The Eastern character universally 
prevailed in Babylonia, and in the other countries on the Euphrates and 
Tigris : it was much more regular and beautiful than the Western, that is 
than the Samaritan character ; the Eastern or Chaldee letter, therefore, 
gained the ascendency. After the return of the Jews from the captivity 
in Babylon, it is said to have been adopted by Ezra; and, on their re- 
turn to Judea, to have become gradually established, and sacred among 
the Jews. In this fine bold Eastern or Chaldee character all the manu- 
scripts of the Hebrew scriptures, even the oldest, are written, and it has 
continued to be used by the Jews to the present day. An example of 
this Eastern, Chaldee, or modern Hebrew character in the printing letter, 
is given in No. 2. St. Jerome assures us that, in his time, the fourlh and 
fifth centuries, the Samaritan Pentateuch b agreed word for word with the 
Jewish, differing only in the form of the letters, but not in their order, 
number, or names. 

14. The attention must now be recalled from the form of alphabetic 
characters, to the manner of writing them. The preceding specimens 
are examples of the primitive manner of writing from right to left. — In 

conjectured, that some various readings may be accounted for on the supposition of no di- 
vision having been made ; and, by adopting a new division, some difficult passages have 
been made plain and easy. There is a probability, therefore, that this was the case, and to 
this I incline. Some of the old inscriptions, too, on the ruins of Palmyra, &c, favour this 

* More particulars are given of the old Samaritan character in § 42. 
•See § 41. 

* See Professor Lee's Heb. Gr. Art. 7, and Professor Emald's § 137. 


the oriental languages, even at the present time, this mode of writing 
prevails. It was adopted by the nations that derived their alphabets from 
the Phoenicians. Thus the Ionians, Athenians, Etruscans, &c, wrote, 
in the earliest ages, from right to left. A few examples, taken from coins 
and inscriptions, will be a satisfactory proof of this assertion. There is 
a coin of Athens with the inscription 3QA read from right to left: it is 
thus described, " Caput Palladis gated tectum : Noctua ex adverso 
stansy inter duos olea ramos, omnia in quadrato incuso."* A Sicilian 
coin of Leontini is preserved with the legend beginning on the right 
MOMITW03V and described Eques' nudus ; Hians leonis rictus 
inter quatuor hordei grana* 

15. The next is an inscription on a painted Terra- cotta or fictile vase. 
It was discovered by Thomas Burgon, Esquire, of Smyrna, in 1818, 
when making an excavation in search of antiquities, near Athens, on the 
left of the road leading from that city to Thebes/ Vessels of such fran- 
gible, though otherwise of most durable materials, are seldom found 
entire, except in tombs which were held sacred. Some remains of burnt 
bones were in it, which proved that it had served for funeral purposes. 
Its neck and base are narrow, but its greatest circumference is nearly 
four feet and a half. It is two feet high, and has two handles; its form 
is that of an Amphora, and it is made of a fine yellowish clay, on which 
the figures are painted black with accessaries of red and white/ On one 
side, before the figure of Minerva, is the following inscription, written 
vertically, instead of horizontally, and from right to left. The letters 
are black upon a yellowish ground, the form of the letters, mode of wri- 
ting, and the material as well as the character of the vase, indicate the 
date of its fabrication to be about 600 B.C. if not earlier : but the material 
alone is a proof of its antiquity, for it is supposed that the manufacture 
of painted vases ceased, at least, a century prior to the establishment of 
the Roman empire. 8 

c See Veterum Populorum et Regum Numi, qui in Mnseo Britannico adserrantur Lon- 
dini MDCCCX1V Taylor Combe, p. 125, No. 7. There is an engraving of this coin in Tab, 
X. Fig 18, of Nummorum veterum Populorum et Urbium, qui in Museo Gulielmi Hunter 
«sservantur, descriptis, figuris illustrate, opere et studio Caroli Combe, 4to. Londini, 1782. 

d Taylor Combe, p. 67, No. 4. 

e Ancient Unedited Monuments by James MUUngen, fol. London, 1826, p. 1. 

f For a full description of this vase, See, Dr. E. D. Clarke's Travels Part 2nd. Section Zrd K 
Vol. 7th, Svo. 1818, Fref. p. X. XII. — Inscriptiones Grace yestustissimae, Hugo Jacobus Rose, 
8vo. Cantabrigiae MDCCCXXV. p. 348 : — But especially Mr. MiMngen's splendid work, 
Ancient Unedited Monuments, p. 1, Sec. Besides an ample description Mr. Millingen 
gives three beautiful drawings of this vase : Plate 1, p. 1, has the inscription and the figure; 
of Minerva of a large size : Plate 1 1, p. 7, is the picture of the same size, on the other side 
the vase, representing a charioteer sitting in his car, drawn by two horses in full speed. 
Plate 3, p. 9, represents the whole vase reduced to about one sixth, with the figure of Mi-, 
nerva, and the inscription, given in plate 1, equally reduced. 

* Millingen*s Ancient Unedited Monuments, Pref. p. VII. 


Inscription on the Burgonian Vase, read from Bight to Left.* 

1. IM3IV1CWOAM03V130AV10T 

The same in Modern Greek capitals, read from Left to Right. 


3. Toy 'A0ivcov aOXov ipi, that is 

4. T&v 'A&Tjvivv ad\ov upi ; 


5. Athenarum prcemium sum ; 

Or better, 

6. Proemium sum ab urbe Athenis datum. 

If 'Adtivtov mean the Festival* then it would be — 

7. T«v A&rjvaiwv aQXov eipii. 

8. I am a prize of the Athensea. 

• A Greek inscription, written entirely from right to left, was fomnd, on a broken tomb of 
marble, in Corfu, near the site of ancient Corcyra, in October, 1843. The Rev. Dr. Hawtrey 
has given a facsimile of this inscription, and made some judicious and learned illustrative re- 
marks upon it, in The Proceeding* of the Philological Society, for Dec. 8th, 1843, Vol. 1, No. 
14, p. 149. After filling up the lacunae, from conjecture, in smaller letters, he presents the 
inscription in the following six verses, to be read in the usual manner from the left in 
modern letters. 

OAETO' AAMOSION AE KAOikEto vkrBos Ucurror 
Another inscription has been found on the bronze figure of a hare, discovered in the 
neighbourhood of Priene, a maratdme town of Ionia, in Asia Minor. It consists of four 
lines, all of which are written from ri^ht to left, in characters of the common form, 
and the usual mode of reading the inscription is, TOI AHOAAANI Tfil IIPIHAIM 
M' ANE6HKEN H*AI2T1QN. Colonel Leake, in a very erudite paper, read May 17th, 1826, 
published in The Transections of the Royal Society of Literature, has fully explained this 
inscription, and given a facsimile of it within the drawing of the hare. See Vol. 1. Pari //. 
p. 1-4. 

h Dr. E. D. Clarke observes, " This vase, as is evident, was a tmre obtained at Athene, because 
it bears the * arms and crest ' of the city, in the image of Minerva and the Owl. Probably 
it was gained at the festival when competitors came from all parts of Greece, and the victor* 
received vSpiat filled with oil, which were vessels made of terra-cotta, and pointed, as it ap- 
pears from the following curious passage of Pindar, thus rendered by the Author's learnee) 
friend, the Rev. Charles James Blomfield (now, 1845, Bishop of London), when correspond- 
ing with him upon the subject of this truly archaic inscription, in 1815 : 'The songs have 
twice proclaimed him victor in the festivals of the Athenians : and the produce of the oHvtt 
contained in burned earth, has come to Argos in the variegated circumference of Vases. (News* 
X. 67.) — It is not unlikely that the word A8ENE0N alludes to this great festival, caJleft 
Athenom, before the title of ra *Afrfjvcua was changed to rd TlawaBfraia. This happened after 
the time of Theseus or Ericthonius. (Ister in Harpocrat. v. TlayaOfivcua, et Pausanias VIII., 
2. See Meursius Panath. p. 2, et Schol. Platan, p. 39. Plutarch in Solone.) According to Mr. 
Blomfield, the word in question, is the old genitive, from 'A&rjvcu. See Horn. Od. y. 278. 
Aristoph. Nub. 400. [Porsoris Coll. of the M8S. Harl.p. 14.] 2ovviov hepow 'Afrjr&w. £«- 
phario ap. Hermog. II. c. p. 248, arpla Srjpov 'AAtJvcu MS. Caio Gonv. ' AGttvoW, i.e. *ABnw4uw 
which is the true reading. Yet it must be observed, that the use of A8AON with the geni- 
tive of a city is very unusual ; and another learned Hellenist, R- P. Knight, Esq.., believes. 


This appears to be the most satisfactory translation, as the article riiv has its 
full and definite meaning, which it has not in the translations 6 and 6. 

16. Before introducing specimens of writing from right to left, found 
on coins and monuments discovered in Italy, it may be necessary to ad- 
vert to the history of the earliest inhabitants and languages of this 
country. It is scarcely possible to ascertain, with certainty, to which 
European nation the Phoenicians first communicated the art of alphabetic 
writing, probably to those nearest the coast of Asia Minor, the people of 
Greece, and Sicily, being nearest to Tyre their principal city. Their inscrip- 
tions, written in the oriental manner, have, therefore, claimed our first notice, 
in the 14th and 15th paragraphs. But the Umbrians and Etruscans, who, 
like the Phoenicians, wrote from right to left, had certainly acquired the 
art of writing at a very early period. The Umbrians, esteemed the most 
ancient inhabitants of Italy, were a great and powerful nation, that ex- 
tended far over the north of the country, before the Etruscans, as the Si- 
cilians, Oscaus, the Sabines and the Latins did over the south. We know 
that Ameria, one of the Umbrian cities, was built according to Cato 
1134 B.C. 1 We hear next of the Pelasgi, who entered Europe from Asia 
Minor, and not only spread over Greece, but subdued the greater part 
of the Umbrians, and extended over most of Italy. Subsequently the 
Tuscans or Etruscans, one of the most interesting nations of an- 
tiquity, subjugated the Pelasgians, and the remaining Umbrians, and 
possessed nearly the whole of Italy from the Alps to the Sicilian straits. 
These Etruscans were equal to the most polished of the Greeks, in the 
advancement they had made in civilization and the arts. They successfully 
cultivated literature, and the physical sciences, — they had historical re- 
cords, — sacred books or rituals in which they registered the commence* 
ment of their years, — and an astronomical cycle which was exceedingly 
accurate. The remains of architecture, and of sculpture found in Etruria, 

that it was never thus used, nor in any other 'AyaroBtrns. Travels, 800. 1818, Vol. 7, p. XII 
— XIV. — Rose, in his Inscriptiones Grace, intimates that the point is, whether 'Atfqrfor 
could be put for 'A0ip«W, from ra 'ABrjycua. Elmsley cites many authorities for the change 

of c into au See Elms. Bacc. 337, and Rose p. 15. M. Raoul Rochette, in Journal des 

Savant ; Aout 1825, thinks that ABtrtov ought to be A0«v«0cr, as the penultimate letter of the 
second word is e, and not O, and that it should have been followed by E, and be read Tdr 
ABifrri0€v &6\a>v ci/ti, I am (one) of the prizes (given by) those of Athens or the Athenians. — 
In confirmation of this opinion, he adduces a Vase discovered at Nola, and belonging to 
General Koller, on which Minerva is represented in the same attitude, as on the Vase found 
by Mr. Burgon, and with this inscription TONAeENCeCNABVON (See Rose's Inscrip. 
Graces p. (v) preceding the Preface.) The similarity of the two Vases seems to favour the 
correction ; but their origin, one at Athens and the other in the north of Italy, might pro- 
duce a difference in the inscription, as well as the mode of writing, which, on the Nola 
Vase, is from left to right. In early monuments too, e and O are often confounded. Be- 
sides may not 'Afrfpnqdcv be put for the old Attic form of the genitive 'ABTjyrjs Athenis or 
Minerva. As the inscription, on the Athenian Vase, is before the long fi came into use, it 
might be $BXov or &0A»r. If &6\or> adding a noun, probably ay&imv, implied by the article 
▼dr, the sentence would be w ayirmr 'AffnvnOer (i.e. 'AB^wns ) iBXov, A prize of the games 
(in honour) of Minerva. The Olympian games are called Aids ayinr by Pindar, Nem. II. 37. 
If 'A6\uv be preferred, it might imply the festival itself.— If the reading be 'Atf/rco*, i.e. 
'Afrqviw it must be the festival called the Athenaea, and not the Athenian people."— See 
MUlingens Ancient Unedited Monuments , Additions p. 95 ; Rose's Inscriptions Grata, p. 15 ; 
and p. (V) preceding the Preface. 

1 PHn. Hist Nat III. 19 : Niebuhr's Hist of Rome by Hare and Thirimdl, 8vo. Cambridge, 


are indubitable proofs that there existed among its people " a cultivated 
taste, a refinement of manners, and much of that splendour and luxury, 
considered to be characteristic of a high state of civilization."' They had 
reached the summit of their greatness nearly 500 B.c., k when the founda- 
tion of Rome had scarcely been laid two centuries and a half. It is, there- 
fore, more than probable, on this account, as well as from the form of the 
Etruscan letters, and the habit of writing from right to left, but especially 
from omitting the short vowels, and from the practice of noting double 
consonants by single letters, after the manner of the Phoenicians, that the 
Etruscans had the use of alphabetic writing before the time of Romulus. 

17. It may be observed, that the Sicilian, the Sabine, the old Latin, 
the Oscan, and the Umbrian are merely dialects of one parent language : 
though closely allied to the Greek they are not derived immediately from 
it, but from the common source of Greek or Pelasgic and of the whole 
Japhetic or Indo-European race. The Etruscan language is also Ja- 
phetic, but different from Latin and Greek. 

18. It is thus evident that the earliest languages of Italy were closely 
allied to each other, and it is probable that the mode of writing was 
similar. We have seen from coins and an inscription, that the Greeks, 
in their earliest specimens, wrote like the Phoenicians, from right to left. 
The oldest coins and inscriptions found in Italy are written in the same 
manner. The form of thp Oscan letters, which are only a modification of 
the Etruscan, and the manner of writing them from right to left, both 
prove the direct descent of Oscan letters from the Phoenician. 1 A few 
examples from coins and inscriptions will now be adduced as evidence 
that the oldest writing in Italy was from right to left The Umbrian and 
Etruscan being the oldest, will be given first. 

19. There are many coins of Tuder, or Tudertia y an ancient town of 
Umbria, in the north of Italy, with the legend beginning on the right 
Arigonus places these coins amongst Nummi urbium et populorum He- 
truricb antiquUsimi. Combe" thus describes one, with the legend Tutede: 
Manus castu armata, in area quatuor globuli — 303TVT inter clavas 
duas scriptum, in area quatuor globuli. 

iPrichard's Physical Hist, of Mankind, Vol. III. p. 233. 

k Id. p. 117 .—Niebuhr's Hist of Rome by Hare and Thirlwall, p. 1 19. 

1 Gcsenius gives the following opinion as to the parentage of Oscan letters and writing: 
" Pnecipua Seripturae genera et matre Phoenicia deinceps prognata haec sunt : — lino. An- 
tiquissima Grctcorum Scriptura (§ 46 — 48), in qua antiquissimas atque nativas Phoenicum 
literas servatas esse supra observavimus (§ 15, 17, 18, 28), ut jure suo harum sororum natu 
maxima vocetur. Ex ea deinceps emanarunt Etrusca (cum Umbrica, Oscar, Samnitica, 
Celtiberica) et vetus Romano. See p. 63, § 45, compared with the table in p. 64 of Scrip- 
tura, linguaque Phoenica monumenta quotquot super sunt, edita et inedita, ad autographorum 
optimorumque exemplorum /idem edidit additisque de scriptura et lingua Phoenicum t 

tariis illustravit. Gesenius, 4to. Leptxct, 1837, pp. 482. Pars I. ma. PaUeoaraphiam 
Phctniciam, inscriptiones, et numos Phamicet. Pars II. da. Duos posterioret de numis et de 
lingua Phoenicum libros. Pars III. tia. Quadraginta sex tabulae lapidi inscriptas, continent. — 
Niebuhr is in favour of the view I have taken in the text. See Dr. Prichard't Phyt. Hut. 
Vol. IH. p. 251. 

m Combe, Vet. Pop. et Reg. Numi p. 16, No. 1 and 5. — Figures of many of these coins are 
eivcn in Numismata Arigoni, Fol. Tar? isii, 1741, vol III. Tab. IV., fig. 4,5 : V. 6, 7, 9, 10 : 
XI. 46, 48, 49, 50, 51 : XII. 52.— Dempster de Etruria Regali, curante, Thoma Coke, 2 vols, 
fol. Florcntise, 1724, Vol. I. p. 350, Tab. lx. Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 


20. Avellino gives a coin of Iguvium, now Gubio, a town of Umbria, 
on the Via Flaminia, with the inscription ll/lHVril, Ikufini." 

21. Also one of Teanum in Campania, in Oscan characters, on one 
side qVI/INI-T Tianud and on the reverse below the figure of a bull, 

22. Another of Capua, the capital of Campania, in Oscan letters. 
1 II A*l This is figured in Arigoni Numismata, p and described by Combe q 
as of Capua : Caput Jovis laureatum, retro duo astra, (Uteris OscisJ 
Diana in citis bigis, supra duo astra. Another 1TISK described by 
Combe with a drawing :' also ]|lfl)| •" 

23. A coin of Metapontum in Lucania in the south of Italy, has this 
inscription, AT3M Spica. 1 

• 24. Two other coins found in the south of Italy may be mentioned : 
one of Caulonia AVAjIKaul." The other of Rhegium WOW IDBfl 

25. The Umbrian, Oscan, and Etruscan characters differ very little 
from each other. The longest specimen of the Umbrian language and 
character is in the seven Iguvine or Eugubiau tables. The first five in- 
scriptions are in the Etrtiscan character, and written from right to left, 
about 500 B.C.: one word will be sufficient to shew the character of these 
inscriptions, N3IMVI/II Inumek." The sixth and seventh inscriptions 
which are the longest, are in Roman, and written from left to right, about 
300 B.C. These tables were discovered, in 1444, in the ruins of a temple 
at the foot of the Apennines, between Ugubbio and Cortona, in the 
Duchy of Urbino and the territory of Umbria. They are published at 
large in Dempster's Etruria Regalis,* partly by Gruterus, 7 Gorius," Pas- 
serf,* Lanzi, b but Miiller, c Lassen/ Lepsius, 6 and Grotefend/have afforded 

■ Opusculi Diversi, di F. M. Jvelimo, 3 vols. 8vo,Napoli, 1833, Vol 2, p. 8, Tav. 1, Fig. 2. 

• Id. ?ol. II. p. 54. Tav. 3, fig. 12. p Vol. IIL Tab. XIV. fig. 76. 

• Vet Pop. et Reg. Numi p. 21, No. 1. 

' Id. Tab. II. 10 : also in Arigoni Numis. VoL m. Tab. XIV. 59—79. 

• Combe, p. 21 , 22, No, 1—13. * Id. p. 67, No. 2,3. 

• Combe p. 50, No. 1. * Id. p. 54, No. 1, Tab. III. fig. 27. 
" See Tab. I. line 2, in Dempster mentioned in the next note. 

z Thonue Dempsteri de Etruria Regali, Libri VII. nunc primum editi, curante Thomd Cohe, 
2 vols. Fol. Florentia, 1724.— Tabul® Eugubinsp, vol. I. p. 91. 

7 Jani Gruteri Corpus Inscriptionum, cum annotationibus Joarmi* Georgii Gravity 4 vols. 
Fol. Amstelsedami, 1707 j Tol. I. p. cxlii. 

z Museum Etruscum, Autonii Francitci Gorii, 2 vols. Fol. Florentiae, 1737 ; also, Vol. II. p. 

• Pcu$iri Pict Etruscas. 

b Lanzi di Lingua Etrusca, 3 vols. 12mo. Rome, 1789. 

c Otfried Mutter'* Etrusker, Einleitung, &c. 

d Beitrage zur Deutung der Eugubinischen Tafeln, in the Rhein. Mas. for 1833. — Don- 
dldson's Varronianus, 8vo. Cambridge, 1844; p. 47 — 59. 

e Dr. C. R. Lepsiu*, De tabulis Eugubinis, Berolini, 1833. 

f Dr. Grotef end's Rudimenta Linguae Umbrica?, ex inscriptionibus antiquis enodata. Par- 
tieula I. 4to, pp. 1—22 Hannovene MDCCCXXXV :— Partic. II. pp. 1— ^4— and Partic 
m. pp. J— 28, MDCCCXXXVI: Partic. IV. pp. 1—28, and Partic. V. pp. 1—32, 
MDCCCXXXVII: Partic. VI. pp. 1—32, and Partic. VII. pp. 1—40, MDCCCXXXVIII : 
Partic. VIU. pp. 1—40, MDCCCXXX1X. 


the beat illustrations of this valuable specimen of the Umbrian language 
and character. A very clear and satisfactory summary of what has been 
done by these learned Germans is gtven by Dr. Pilchard in his " Re- 
searches into the Physical History of Mankind.* 8 

26. The largest specimen of the genuine Etruscan language and cha- 
racters was discovered on a stone pillar in 1822, atPerusia, now Perugia, 
one of the most ancient cities of Etruria. It has been published by Ver- 
miglioli. h The first two words in the eighth line are VA3 1383 esci 

27. As the Umbrian and Etruscan predominated in the north, the 
Oscan prevailed in all the south of Italy, till it was supplanted by the 
Latin. Oscan was in use at the Christian era, in a.d. 79, when Pompeii 
was destroyed.' Many coins and inscriptions have been discovered in 
the Oscan language j and character; the most important are the inscrip- 
tions of Abella, and of Bantia. The former was found in Oscan charac- 
ters, on a stone in the ruins of Abella, near Nola in Campania : the 
other, which is on a brazen tablet, and in Roman letters, was discovered 
in 1793, in the ruins of Bantia, a town of Lucania; it is now in the 
Museum of Herculaneum. k The Abel lane inscription has been pub- 
lished by Lanzi 1 and Grotefend ; the Bantine by Rosini," by Klenze," and 
Grotefend, who has also collected and published all the most important 
relicts of the Oscan language. Oscan coins have their legends in Oscan 
letters, but sometimes in Greek; and inscriptions are generally in the 
Oscan character, and written from right to left, as that of Abella : some- 
times in the Roman, as the Bantine inscription, which is in the Oscan 
language on one side, and Latin on the other, but both sides in Roman 
letters,* and written from left to right. — What is written, in the oriental 
manner, from right to left, can only be properly noticed here, and a word 
from the Abellane table, may be sufficient to shew the character : 
8h3V>13S3H Herekleis, Hercules? 

8 Third Edit 8vo, 1841 ; Vol. in. pp. 224—229. 

h Saggio di Congetture sulla grande Iscrizione Etrusca, scoperta Nell' anno 1822, e 
riposta nel Gabinetto de monumentd Antichi, della Universita' di Perugia, semplicemento 
proposto, da Gio Battista Vermiglioli, 4to, pp. 96, Perugia, 1824. A plate of the inscription 
is inserted at the beginning.— Also, Antiche Iscrizioni Perugine, raccolte dichiarate e publi- 
cate, da Gio Battista VermiglioH, edizione seconda, 4 to, Perugia, Vol .1, 1833: Vol. II, 1834. 
See Vol. I, p. 85, for the same engraving of the inscription as in the preceding 4to pamphlet 
—Dr. Prickard's Phys. Hist Vol III. 234, note ♦.— Donaldson's Varronianus, p. 101—135. 

* GeWt Pompeiana Vol. II. Appa. 119 : 206. Also, Dr. Grotefend 1 s Rudimenta Lingua 
Oscae, 4to, Hannoverae, 1839; Tab. II. 

J Donaldsons Varronianus, p. 72—97. k Dr. PricKaroVs Phys. Hist VoL HI. p, 217. 

1 Lanzi Saggio di Lingua Etrusca, 3 vols, 12mo, Rome, 1789. 

m Caroli Rotinii Herculanensium Yoluminum explanat Neap. 1797, p. 1, 
Tab V. 

n Klenze't Philologische Abhandlungen by Lachmann, Berlin, 12mo, 1839, p. 1 — 54. 
Table at the end, p. 196. 

° Rudimenta Linguse Oscae ex inscriptionibus antiquis enodata ; scripsit Dr. G. F. Gro- 
tefend, Hannoverae, MDCCCXXXEX, 4to, pp. 1—58. 

P See Engravings in the works of Rosini, p. 1, Tab. V., Klenze, p. 196, Tab. I., Grotefend, 
p. 58, Tab. I., which are mentioned in the preceding notes, ', m , and B . 

q See Grotefend 't Rud. Ling. Oscae, Tab. II., Sax. Abellan I. line 5. 


28. It must be evident from the preceding examples from coins and 
monuments, short as they are, that in very early ages, the inhabitants of 
Greece, as well as of Italy, the Greeks, Sicilians, Umbrians, Etruscans, 
Oscans, and Romans, wrote, like the Phoenicians, from right to left. 

29. Another mode of writing was subsequently adopted both by Greeks 
and the early settlers in Italy. They began on the right, and wrote to 
the left side of the page, and then returned from the left to right; and 
thus continued to write backward and forward, as the ox ploughs, and 
hence, this mode of writing was called fiovvr potior? from fiovc, an ox, and 
*rpo$1iy a turning. — Of this writing there were two kinds: the most 
ancient commencing after the eastern manner on the right ; and the 
other, like the European method, beginning on the left. 

30. The following is a specimen of the most ancient Boustrophedon 

Tiie Amyclearr Inscription, in Boustrophedon, beginning on the Right* 

Ul » 3 03 K3« 
M 3 * 3 

The first line is read from right to left : the two characters at the begin- 
ning are monograms, or characters containing several letters. The first 
monogram contains the letters YAA02, and the second, MAN. The 

' Hanc vocem Hesychiu* ita explicat : " binns t\eyov, brhv dpolws rots aporpiSMTi towrl ras 
&wTicrTpo<pbiS voir} to' (Keyop & 'eirl rod ypdtpur rp&ictp roiovrtp. Ita appeltabant quando 
in star arantium bourn Jit regressus, quod usurpation, quia eo modo scribebatur. Inde est 
quod lineae vocantur versus, si Isidoro credimus, Orig VI, 13. J'ersus, inquit, vulgo vocally 
<]u\a sic scribebant antiqui, sicut armtur terra. A sinistra* enim ad dextram primum ducebant 
ntylum : deinde convertebatur ab inferior*, et rursum ad dextram versus ; quos et hodie rustici 
versus vocant. Bocharti Opera, Phaleg et Canaan, Lugd. Bat. 1692, Col. 453. 

• This very ancient inscription is said to have been discovered by the Abbi Fourmont, 
Mem. de I' Acad, dee Inter., t. 15, p. 400—410. Its date is attributed to nearly 1400 years 
b.c. For its great antiquity we have only the opinions of connoisseurs, chiefly French. R. 
J\ Knight calls it a forgery. See his Analytical Essay on Greek Alphabets, p. Ill — 130, 
London, 1791, 4to. This marble is preserved in the Royal Library at Paris. It was disco- 
vered under the ruins of the temple of Apollo at Amycla* in Peloponnesus, which was built 
by Amyclas, the son of Laced&mon about 1400 years before the Christian era. See Bib- 
tiotheca MS. Slomrnsh, by Dr. OConor, Vol. I. p. 393. 

* As there exists a doubt, relative to the authenticity of the Amyclean inscription, it is 
necessary to introduce the C'rissean, though its accuracy has also been impugned. The latter 
inscription was found by Mr. Gropius, at Crisso, near the site of the ancient Crissa on the 
northern shore of the Corinthian bay. A facsimile was taken by Kir. Gropius and given by him 
to the Rev. Thos. Smart Hughes, ^ho, in his Travels in Sicily, Greece, and Albania, 2 Vols. 
4to 1820 ; in Vol. 1, p. 369, says : " The inscription is so curious from its extreme antiquity 
as to warrant my insertion of it in this place. It has occupied the attention of many 
learned men in this country, but no one has succeeded in developing the slightest part of its 
signiBcation. The Boustrophedon mode of writ ng and the digamma, which it appears to 
contain, are additional proofs of its high antiquity." Bishop Marsh mentions it, in his 
Mora Petasgica p. 7i. — Rose, who has given a facsimile of it, [Inscrip. Gra*c. p. 325] ob- 
serves: "Alultse quidem e Uteris vix Gnecarum literarum formam referre videntur, quare 
spurium esse audacter dicerem nisi Grspcarum literarum imperitum esse Gropium intel- * 
lexissem." — In defence of Gropius, Boeckius savs: "Hoc apographum quura confecerit 

2 D 


second line is read from left to right, and the eighth character counting 
from the left is a monogram, and contains the letters YA. The third line 
is read from right to left. The whole will then stand thus : 


In the common Greek style. 

"YMoc ft' avt&nKev, ApioroKvtinQ vSnotr 

A verbal Translation. 

Hyllus me posuit (dedicavit) : — Aristocydes finxit 

i.e. Hyllus placed (dedicated) me: — Aristocydes made (me). 

31. Legends found from right to left on some coins, and the sam 
legend written from left to right on others, may be considered as belong 
ing to the Boustrophedon writing. A coin of Athens and another oi 
Leontini have been mentioned in the 14th paragraph as written from the 
right: these are also found written from the left, thus: — AOE 1 and 

32. Specimens of the other mode of fiovorpofnlov writing, beginning, 
after the European manner, on the left are more common. Boustrophedon 
legends are found on coins, as well as in inscriptions. 

33. A Sicilian coin of Agrigentum has the legend thus : 


lOTT/lA | ACRAG - ANT0S: Aquila starts/ 

Gropius, Grace parum doctus, sed delineandi peritus." Pref. p. xx. Professor Dobree also 
states, that, " Mr. W. J. Bankes saw a stone resembling Mr. Gropius's drawing, and with 
characters upon it apparently ancient ; but this was in the dusk of the evening, and he 
could not see to read them. He does not remember to have heard anything which would 
warrant a suspicion of forgery against Gropius." Rose* Inscrip. Grctc. in a letter from 
Professor Dobree, May \0th, 1824, p. 400— 418.— In the splendid work, Corpus ItucHptionum 
Gracarum edidit Augustus Boeckius, Berolini, 1828 — 1843; 2 Vols. Fol: VoL 1. p. 2 and 3, 
and in preface p. xx. — xxv. a facsimile is given, and conjectural emendations: it occupies 
the first place, in this work of Boeckius, being considered by him the most ancient Greek 
inscription known. 

The Crissean Inscription, beginning on the right. 




Here M * 8 found as the old form of Jg > and H for F or the aspirate : read from left to 
right, it mil then be, 



Thai is, 
[A irrovs vU, 3* tupOiros fad h' 
[Apl]<Trwv c*tOr\K* kcu tc Bo/a teat 
K[a]Taaid4a Bvyarpts, t»s <pi\ot. 
A litei-al Latin version, 
Latonse fili, qui immortalis semper es : 
Ariston te posuit, atque etiam nliae [ejus'] 
Boea et Catasithea, ut dilecti [Apollini.] 
« Combe's Vet. Pop. &c, p. 125, No. 1—3. » Id. p. 67, No. 1, 3. 

* See Taylor Combe's Vet Pop. &c., p. 58, No. 2, and a figure of the coin in Recueil <U 
Medailles Par Pellerin, 4to. Paris, 1763, Vol. II. Plate CVI1I., No. 7, p. 100. 

XIV. 34. 



34. The celebrated Sigeian inscription is of an early date, probably 
more than 500 years B.C. : it is so called from the promontory and town 
of Sigeium, near ancient Troy, where the stone on which it is engraved 
was found. It was brought over to England by Lord Elgin, and placed 
by him, with his collection of marbles in the British museum about 1816/ 
The inscription is very much obliterated by a superstitious practice of the 
Sigeians. When any one was afflicted with the ague, a common disease 
in the low country about Sigeium, the Greek priest ordered him to be 
rolled on this stone containing the inscription, the characters of which 
were supposed to possess a powerful charm/ Before it was thus injured, 
copies had been taken of it and sent to England, first by Homer, a 
Turkish dragoman, then by the Rev. S. Lisle, who succeeded Dr. Chis- 
faull, as British Chaplain at Smyrna. From their facsimiles Dr. Chishull 
first published a reduced engraving in 1721, with an explanation of the 
inscription, in Latin/ It was republished in 1728, with a new reduced 
engraving, corrected by the Rev. Bernard Mould, Chaplain at Smyrna, 
and a specimen of the letters the same size as on the stone, about an inch 
high. As many other inscriptions were inserted in the work, it was then 




M©3H- 1 AM ^OTATZHA)! 


Hy4 v£ VtyOl 

1 foot, 6 inches broad. 

lOjth in. thick. 

W ?*? Tbe Re P ort of the Med Committee of the House of Commons, March 15th, 1816, 
marked R. 63, in Appendix II. of the Catalogue of the Marbles added to the Report 

io^ e T eM ? mo ^ rdatill » toEuro P eanandA8iatic Turkey, by Robert WalpoU, M JL 4to. 
1817, London, p. 97.—Ro$e' 9 Inscrip. Gnec. Vetust. p. 1. 

f Inscriptio Sigea antiquissima fiowrrpofri&b* exarata commentario earn historico, gram- 
matico, cntico, iDnstraTit Edmmd Chishuil, S.T.B. Regie Majestati a Sacris, FoL Londini, 


entitled Antiquitates Asiatic^.* Many subsequent engravings of it have 
appeared, but the neatest and most accurate is in Dr. Chandler's Imcrip- 
tiones Antiqua* from Chishull, corrected by a minute facsimile by Revett. 

35. The first line is read from left to right, and the second from right 
to left, and the others alternately from left to right, and from right to left. 
The whole will then be read, in common Greek characters, thus: 

In common Greek character*. In common Greek style. 

♦ANOAIKO : EIMI : TO H *<wotfjcov ii/d rod 'Ep- 

EPMOKPATO2 : TO IIPOKO ftofepdrovs rov wpomop- 

NE2IO: KATO: KPATEPA: vtjerfou xdyutxparripa 

KAIII2TATON: KAI HEQM Kkiriffrarov, kou ifin~ 

ON: E2 nPTTANEION: E hv h vpvrayCiov t- 

AOKA: MNEMA: 21 rE- Scmcci pyypa Jryti- 
ET2I : EAN AE TI IIA2X- cwrr ilur M r« irdffx** 

O MEAEAAINEN: (M)E O ^XtZalvuv ft* & 

2irEIE2: KAI MEnO- Ziyurjr K<xl £ M- 
EI2EN : HAI20n02 : KAI ctcrcv AXtrurwos icak 

HAAEA40I. aBe\<t>oi. 

Verbal Translation. The same in English. 

Phanodici sum, filii I am the statue of Phanodicus, 

Hermocratis Proconne- the son of Hermocrates the Procon- 

sii. Et ego ciaterem nesian. I gave a cup, a saucer, 

et crateris basin et and a strainer, to serve 

Colum ad Prytaueium as a monument in the 

dedi memoriae ergo Si- Council- House. If I meet with 

geis. Siquid vero patiar any accident, it belongs 

curare me jubeo to you, O Sigeians, to 

Sigeios. Et fecit lepair me. I am the work 

me Haesopus atque fratres. of Haesop and his brethren. 

36. The Bov<rrpo$n$av mode of writing was very seldom used after the 
time of Solon, who is supposed to have written the Athenian laws in 
this manner to give them an air of antiquity.* 

1721, pp. I — 30, also Leyden, 8ro. 1727. Dr. Bentley wrote a criticism on Dr. Chishull'* 
explanation, which elicited a reply of 15 closely printed pages from Dr. C, who appended 
it to the unsold copies of his work. Dr. Bentley's letter is printed first in 4to*. London, 
1807, by Dr. C. Burney with this title " Richarui Bentleii et doctorum virorum epistolas 
parti in imitiise. Accedit Richardi Dawesii ad Joannem Taylorura epistola singularis ; p. 259. 
Reprinted at Leipsic, 1825, 1 vol. 8vo. p. 2 12 — 225. — Again in Rose's Inscrip. Gnec Vetust. 
Appendix I. pp. 337—347; and in Bentley's Correspondence, p. 581. London. 1842. — A 
most clear and satisfactory account of all the circumstances relative to this letter, will be 
found in Bishop Monk's Life of Dr. Bentley, London, 4to. 1830, pp. 457—460. 

* Antiquitates Asiatic® Christianam aerara antecedentes; ex prinmrris monument! s GnpcU 
descriptae, Latinae versa?, notisque et commentariis illustratae, &c., per Edmundum Chishull, 
S.T.B., Fol. Londini, 1728. 

» Inscriptiones Antiqu© in Asia Minori et Graeci&, Fol. Oxonii, 1774, p. 3. — Shuck ford's 
Sac. and Prof. Hist. Connected, Vol. I. bk. iv. p. 264.— Antiquae Inscriptiones, olim a Mar- 
quardo Guido Collectap, nuper a Joanne Koolio, edits? a Francisco Hesselio, Fol. Leovardiar 
1731. An engraving in large letters in the appendix to the preface.— Muratori Novus The- 
saurus veterum Inscriptionum, 4 vols. Mediolani, 1739 — 1742. Vol. IV., p. MMCIII., 
MMCXVII., plate p. MMCX. — Nouveau Traite de Diplomatique, par let Bentdictins, Paria, 
6 vols. 4to. 1750— 1765. The Sigeian inscription, Vol. I. p. 626, copied from Chishull's edi- 
tion of 1728. 

b Boustrophedon writing was used by the Irish at a much later period : they denomi- 
nated it, Cionn/a cite. 


37. A beautiful Sicilian fictile vase, two feet high, and one foot foor 
inches in diameter, was found at Agrigentura. On one side are the por- 
traits of Alcaeus and Sapho, the parents of lyric poetry. On the left over 
his head is written AVKAI<p$, on the right, and over her left shoulder, is 
inscribed $A<|>0. — On the other side of the vase are two figures. The 
male figure is on the led, and has issuing from his mouth KAV <?$» that 
is »raXoc, beautiful. The female stands on the right and has the same 
word before her mouth, written from right to left, thus : ^Q>IA>I. — Its 
age cannot be less than about 450 B.c. c 

38. Another Sicilian vase of the same material, and about the same 
date, was found in the neighbourhood of Agrigentum. On one side are 
painted the figures of Achilles and Hector, the principal heroes of the 
Iliad, with their names thus written, AMLEEV$, and just below 

39. There are many coins of Italy written in the Boustrophedon 
manner. The first cited is an Etrurian coin of Volaterra. e On the ob- 
verse is a bust to the right, surrounded with this legend, read from left to 
right, FEVAOAI I on the reverse is a dolphin surrounded with the same 
legend, but read from right to left, thus: IA0AV3^ Felathdi. 

40. In the south of Italy specimens of the following coins have been 
found with legends beginning on the left: one of Metapontum WET A 
Meta:' another of Caulonia KAVA Kaul, 8 and another of PHTINX2N 
Retinon. 11 Examples of other coins of the same places, and legends, 
have been previously given in paragraphs 23 and 24. 

41. The preceding examples of the Boustrophedon mode of writing, 
will be sufficient to prove that it was used both in Greece and Italy. 
The Ionians, Athenians, and other Grecians, as well as the nations of 
Italy, began to write generally from left to right after writing in Bov«n-p©- 
fnlbv, and from the following specimen it will be seen that the old Greek 
alphabet is only the Phoenician inverted and written from left to right ; 
and that the Greek alphabet must, therefore, have been derived from the 

e MiUingen't Ancient Unedited Monuments, p. 81—85, Plate XXXIII. and XXXIV. 
d Millingen. p. 15. 

« Opuscoli diversi di F. M. AveUino, 3 vols. 8vo. ; Napoli, 1833. Vol. II. p. 6. Tav. l,fig. 1. 
f Taylor Combes Vet. Pop. Reg. Numi, p. 38, No. 1, 4, 5, 7, 8. s Id. p. 50, No. 1. 

k Id. p. 54, No. 6. 


The Greek, Roman, and other Alphabets derived from the Phoenician. 



J ' c 

S a 








gj Sf^aSg 

a a) a ■ !! s j 

<5 8 :r. jaiWa-o 












B BAb 






rcc lc 






D DOA&5 






e Eeee 






F Fp 












z z 






h i?Mih 






■ Th\y 






I Jl 






K Kk 






L Ul 






m (r?mm 






/v Nun 






• • 





o o 




r 1 


p Pp 






a • 






*R RM*p 






s sssrv 






T Txrc 












• • 






X X 






• • 





• • 

42. The first alphabet 1 is chiefly taken from coins and inscriptions: it 
is the oldest form of the Phoenician, Canaanitish, Samaritan, Punic 

1 One form of the letters is only given here, for want of room. All the various shapes 
of the Phoenician letters found on stones and coins, are given in Scrivtura> ZimJhZ 
Phoenicia, Guil. Gesenii, p. 19—49. ^ "**9*mv* 


western or ancient Hebrew letters. With unimportant variations, this 
alphabet was used in Tyre and Sidon, in all the regions from Egypt to 
Assyria, and on the south and west shores of the Mediterranean : it was 
that which king Solomon employed when he wrote to Hiram king of Tyre. 
It was the alphabet which the ten tribes of Israel used in their Penta- 
teuch, before and after the destruction of Samaria, before and after their 
separation under Rehoboam, and that which the Jews used down to the 
Babylonish captivity, in their Pentateuch, on their coins, and sacred 
monuments. The new coins of the Hasmonseans afford sufficient evidence 
that this ancient character was still in use, in the century preceding the 
Christian era, though the Chaldee or modern Hebrew was then most 
prevalent/ 1 It cannot be asserted, that all alphabets sprang from this old 
Phoenician ; still, it was the parent of a most numerous progeny. It 
gave existence and form not only to oriental alphabets,* but to the Pelas- 
gic or earliest Greek, the Umbrian, and Etruscan written in the eastern 
manner, from right to left ; and the Attic and Ionic Greek, written from 
left to right, like the present Europeans. Herodotus says, " I myself saw 
Phoenician (Cadmean) letters . . . engraved on Tripods, very much like 
the Ionic (Greek). 1 Pliny and Tacitus testify that the Roman letters 
were the same as the old Greek." The Ionic and Attic Greek were the 
source from which was derived the Armenian, the Russian, the Coptic, 
the Ethiopic, the Moeso-Gothic, the Latin or Roman, and many other 

43. The second alphabet is Greek, copied from the Sigean inscription, 
and written from the right : it is very similar to the Phoenician. — The 
third is the same ancient Greek, written from the left : it is merely the 
preceding alphabet, No. 2, turned over to the right hand. 

44. The fourth is the Attic Greek alphabet, probably derived from the 
preceding. Pliny' says that originally the Greeks had only sixteen 
letters, and that Palamedes" introduced 6, fc X, £C, the first three of which 

J The gradual introduction of the Chaldee or modern Hebrew characters is spoken of in 
§ 13. See also Prof. E waifs Heh. Gr. § 136. 

k Gesenius in his Sciptura Lingiueque Phoenicia gives the following genealogy of 
writing derived from the Phoenician : — Precipua autem scripture genera ex matre Phoe- 
nicia deinceps prognata hec sunt— A Antiquittima Gracorum scriptura, (see note 1, § 18) 
B. Prisca Persarum scriptura. — C. Hebrawrum litteratura in numis, unde Samaritans litera- 
ture variae species prodierunt. — D. Scriptura Aramaa in monumentis iEgyptiacis conspicua, 
multarum nepotum fecunda mater, ex qua prognata est, Pahnyrcna, ex hac quadrata, et 
variae scripture veteris Syr a, Persica*, Arabic a species. Quemadmoduin autem in prisca 
Greca scriptura antiquissime et principes Phoenicum figure comparent, ita in hanc tran- 
sierunt recentiores etatis figure qua una re refellitur prepostera ilia de litteris apud Syrot 
Babyloniosque, non apud Phoenices, inventis conjectura, — E. Scriptura Phoenicia recentior, 
s. Punico-Numidica, si tamen hanc a matre diversam cogitabis.— F. Scriptura vetus Arabica. 
s. Himjaritica. ex qua nata est Mthiopica. p. 63, 64. 

1 *l9o¥ attrbs KaBfi-fita ypd+ifurra - - - - M rphron tyrciroAapp&a, ra *o\\a djwia roun 
'IflmKOMri, Herod, V. 59. 

m Yeteres Grecas fuisse easdem pene que nunc sunt Latine, Pliny VII., 58. Et forma 
Uteris Latinis, que veterrimis Grecorum, Tacit. Annal. II. 

■ Pliny VII. 56.— Also ; see before in § 6. 

° The Rev. Dr. O'Conor in his Bibliotheca MS. Stowenrit, vol. i. p. 394, observes, The 
Greek letters, said to have been added to the sixteen original by Palamedes and Simonides, 
were used before their times ; for they are in the Amyclean inscription, which is believed 
to have been written 160 years before the Trojan war, or 1344 before Christ : they are also 
in the Eugubian. See Barthelemi's Memoir, in the Acad. de» Inter., t 39; Nouvemu Iraki 
de DipUmi. par let Benedictine, t 1, p. 615—626, and Gori's Eugubian Tablet. 


are only T, IT, and K aspirated, and were probably at first written TH, IIH, 
and KH ; but IS is composed of KS or TS or XS. Simonides is said to 
have added Z, H, ¥, and ft. These are only two letters put together : Z 
is composed of 2A or AS, II of EE, ¥ of IIS or BS, and O of OO. 
Though the Greeks certainly had double letters before the times of Pala- 
medes, or Simonides,? these celebrated men might have brought them 
into more general use. 

45. The fifth is the Latin or Roman alphabet The Romans derived their 
letters from the Greek, and wrote from left to right some centuries before 
Christ. All the Greeks did not write and make their letters exactly of the 
same form ; and hence the old Greek A was written A. The T or C in 
quick writing had the angle cut off, and was made C ; A also lost one angle, 
and was written D. The C, at first, was supplied by C, which stands in 
its place ; then K was in use with the Romans ; but after C was added, 
or rather after C had a small blot at the bottom to denote the sound of the 
Greek T, then C was pronounced hard, and supplied the place of K- The 
Romans, finding the K useless, the sound being denoted by C, rejected it 
from their alphabet. The V was written L ; from P was formed R ; 2 
was written S, and V, Y. With these few mutations the Roman alphabet 
was derived from the Greeks For the Cursive or Italic letters see § 67. 

46. The sixth column and the following are what have been generally 
called Anglo-Saxon : they were formed immediately from the Latin/ 

47. The Etruscan alphabet' is so similar to the old Phoenician, No. 1, 
from which it was immediately derived, that little need be said upon it, 
especially as the inscriptions in paragraphs 19, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, and 
27, will shew the form of the Etruscan letters. The Umbrian and 
Oscan letters are so similar to the Etruscan, that they may be compre- 
hended in one alphabet, as will be manifest by referring to the paragraphs 
just cited. 

48. All the preceding examples of writing, in the distant ages, of 
which we have spoken, have necessarily been taken from inscriptions on 
stone, or metal. Records, on less durable substances, have naturally 
perished with the decay of the materials on which they were written. 
There is one happy exception which enables us to read manuscripts 
written in or before the middle of the first century of the Christian era — 
at the time when Rome was in the zenith of her power ; and an hundred 
provinces, from the confines of Ethiopia and Arabia to the western ocean, 
and to the mountains of Caledonia, flourished under the wise govern- 

p See § 6. 

q For very early specimens of the Old Roman or Latin language, see Donaldson'* Varro- 
nianus Chap. VI., p. 137 — 184.— For the Analysis of the Latin Alphabet, id. chap. VII., p. 

* About the year 1567 John Dave, who was patronized by Archbishop Parker, cut the 
first Saxon types used in England. In this year Asserins Menevensis was published by the 
direction of the archbishop in these characters; and in the same year Archbishop jEuric's 
Paschal Homily ; and in 1571 the Saxon gospels. Daye's Saxon types far excel in neatness 
and beautv any which have been since made, not excepting the neat types cast for F. 
Junius at t)ort for his Saxon and Moeso Gothic gospels, published in a.d. 1665. These 
types were given by him to the University of Oxford. Astle, p. 223. 

• The Etruscan alphabet may be seen in Dempsteri addita, 209.— Lanzi ; see § 25, note b. — 
The Umbrian in Grottf end's Ling. Umb. See § 25, note f. 


ment and gentle sway of the benevolent Titus. 1 It will at once be per* 
ceived that we allude to the discovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii: the 
former in a.d. 1713, from 40 to 60 feet below the surface of the earth, 
by labourers sinking a well; and Pompeii forty years after, about 12 
feet under ground. These cities were overwhelmed by an eruption of 
Vesuvius on the 25th of August, a.d. 79. The streets and buildings 
have, in some measure, been cleared from the soil, ashes, and lava, with 
which they were covered. We are thus enabled to go back more than 
seventeen centuries and a half — to enter the houses, the baths, and public 
buildings of the refined and luxurious Romans, — to observe the arrange- 
ment of their rooms, and to see their furniture, their statues, and even 
their frescoes and paintings as they existed when Rome and her cities 
were in all their glory. The manuscripts to which an allusion has been 
made are the works written on the rolls of papyrus, a sort of paper formed 
from the laminae of a species of rush, or the Cyperus Papyrus placed 
transversely, and glued together by the muddy waters of the Nile. In 
a.d. 1752, an excavation was made in a garden at Resina, a town built 
over the ruins of Herculaneum, aud there, in a house supposed to have 
belonged to L. Piso, was found a great number of volumes or rolls of 
papyrus.* The room in which these manuscripts lay, though it remained 
untouched, was completely covered with ashes, over which had flowed a 
stream of lava. The papyri exposed to this kind of heat, were not burnt, 
though they became carbonized/ Many of these carbonized volumes 
have been unrolled. Accurate facsimiles of many Greek and a few Latin 
manuscripts may be seen in Herculanemium Voluminum y quce super- 
sun i, w and other works on the subject. The writing on these papyri is 
so similar to the inscriptions on the walls, mentioned in the next and fol- 
lowing paragraphs, that examples are not necessary. 

49. Amongst the many valuable remains of antiquity which deserved 
and obtained general attention at Pompeii, another kind of manuscript 
of much interest, had been entirely overlooked, till brought into notice 

* Herculanensia ; or archeo logical and philological dissertations, containing a manuscript 
found among the ruins of Herculaneum, by Sir W. Drummond and the Rev. Robert Walpole, 
London, 4to. 1810; pp. 198. Pref.p.XTV. 

• Manuscripts have only been found at Herculaneum. — In a letter of 1775, from Signor 
Padcrni, keeper of the Royal Museum at Naples, inserted in The Philosophical Transac- 
tions of the Royal Society of London, there is a short account of the discovery of a room, 
paved with Mosaic, and containing presses, in which were 355 vols., of which eighteen 
were Latin. The whole number found was from 1500 to 1800, principally Greek. Many 
fell to pieces, and some were destroyed, before their value was discovered ; for they gene- 
rally bore the appearance of burnt or carbonized pieces of wood, about two inches in 
diameter, and from six to eight inches long. The writing is in one row of columns, side 
by side, beginning in the centre of the roll, and containing from twenty to thirty short lines 
in a column. Pompeiana: The topography, edifices, and ornaments of Pompeii, by Sir 
William Cell, F.R.S., F.&.A., and John P. Candy, architect, 1 vol. Svo., London 1817—1819, 
pref. p. XIV. — Id. London, 2 vols. 8vo. 1832; the result of excavations since 1819. 

T Herculaneum Rolls : Correspondence relative to a proposition made by Dr. Sickler of 
Hildeburghauien, upon the subject of their development London, printed by J. Barfield, 
Wardour- street, printer to his H.R.H. the Prince Regent, 1817 ; p. 23. 

w Folio, Neapoli : ex regia typographic vol. I., 1793 — vol. VI. 1839.— Also, Herculanen- 
sium voluminum ; Pars prima, Oxonii sumptions typographei Clarendoniani lithographice 
excudebat N. Whittock, 1824, 8vo. pp. 133.— Pars aecunda, 1825, pp. 155. 

2 c 


by one of our most eminent classical scholars, — a gentleman who has the 
happy art of blending so many interesting circumstances, and personal 
adventures with his erudition and criticism, as to render the deciphering 
and illustrating of ancient inscriptions attractive and amusing. 1 We 
allude to Dr. Wordsworth who, while he did not neglect any object of 
interest at Pompeii, judiciously directed his particular attention to the 
inscriptions on the walls of the buildings. He not only deciphered, bat 
took accurate facsimiles of the most important of the numerous inscrip- 
tions, which, he observes, are " for the most part scratched with a pointed 
stylus on the hard red stucco with which the buildings, at Pompeii, are 
covered. It is owing to the exceeding solidity of this material, that the 
words carelessly traced upon it by hands, which have now withered and 
crumbled in the dust for more than seventeen hundred years, are still, in 
many cases as legible as these printed characters which are now before you." 
Dr. Wordsworth published many of these inscriptions in a very neat and 
interesting little work entitled Inscriptiones PompeiantB* and it is through 
his liberality that we are enabled to give a few specimens of his facsimiles. 
These engravings, at the same time that they illustrate the chief subject 
before us, cannot fail to raise the reader's desire to procure a work, which 
is most strongly recommended to every lover of Grecian or Roman litera- 
ture, as it is full of chaste criticism, and interesting classical allusions. 

50. Our first facsimile is in Greek characters : Dr. Wordsworth says, 
" as far as I am aware," it is the only Greek to be found on the walls of 

A lU/v^AA'TOQ 




* Amongst other works by the same author, the following are particularly referred to : — 
Greece, Pictorial, Descriptive, and Historical, by Christopher Wordsworth, D.D., late Fellow 
of Trin. Coli. and Public Orator in the University of Cambridge; Member of the ArchteoU- 

Sea Institute of Rome, Sfc. t 8vo. London, 1839, 31*. 6U— Athens and Attica: Journal of a 
esidence there, 8?o. 2nd edit 12*.— Diary in France, mainly on topics concerning educa- 
tion and the Church, by Christopher Wordsworth, D.D., Canon of St. Peter's, Westminster, 
\2mo. London, 1845. 

7 Inscriptions Pompeianse ; or specimens and facsimiles of ancient inscriptions disco- 
vered on the walls of buildings at Pompeii, London, 1837, 8vo ; pp. 33. price 5*. 


Pompeii. The inscription is on the outside of the stage wall of the 
larger theatre, towards the Forum Nundinarium. It consists of names, 
probably of persons connected with the theatre. 

Autyavro? [sic] 


'AiroXJdatpoc [sic] 
'Ato\6vioq [sic] 

The sigma is in every case here made circular, as it is also in Greek, 
written on papyrus. 

51. Our next facsimile is from the Basilica, or the Law Court of 
Pompeii. The two following lines, familiar to us from our childhood, 
are found twice inscribed on the right hand wall, near (he principal 

Quid pote tarn durum saxso, aut quid mdlius undd t 
Dura tatnen moUi saxsa cavantur aqud. 

The variation of Quid pote tarn, from the poet's Quid magis est, is a 
curious Graecism : observe also saxso for saxo. 

52. At a little distance we have four lines from two different poets : — 

JqAdX/fToAAA^n . 

Surda sit oranti tuajanua, laxaferenti: 
Audiat exclusi verba receptus amans. 

Ovid, Amor VII L, 77. 
Janitor ad dantis vigilet, si pulsat inanis 
Surdus in obductam somniet usque seram. 

Propertius, IV., 47. 

Observe the orthography of (he accusative dan/** ; the printed copies 

58. We pass from Ovid to Germanicus, the patron of his Fasti. The 
following date, scratched on the wall carries us back to a.d. 18. 



Dr. Wordsworth justly remarks: " This inscription remained visible for 
sixty years after it was here first written ; it was then buried for seventeen 
hundred by the ashes of Vesuvius, and promises to survive as many more, 
Tt is, I apprehend, the oldest Latin MS. in existence." 

54. The following warning against the use of calidi forties, to persons 
in peculiar circumstances, is the last inscription we shall give from the 
walls of the Basilica. 

Quisquis amat, calidis non debet fontibus uti ; 
Nam nemo Jlammis ustus amare potest* 

55. A Roman inscription, belonging to the latter end of the 3rd century, 
was copied from the marble capital of a pillar, found at Alexandria Troas, 
in Mysia. Galerius Aurelius Valerius Maximiaaus, to whom the inscrip- 
tion refers, was consul in a.d. 294. The title of Caesar was conferred 
upon hiin by Diocletian. 


That is, without contractions, 

Fortissimo et invictissimo 
Caesari Domino Galerio 
Aurelio Valerio Maximiano 
Principi juventutis. 

DN is the usual contraction for Dominus, and the title Princeps Juben- 
tutis or Juventutis was used in the time of the Republic, and by the 
Emperors till Constantine; as Symbolum future successions.* 

56. As we are now come to manuscripts of a later date, which deviate 
much from the original form of letters, a few observations on an easy 
mode of classifying them may be useful. — Every manuscript is denomi- 
nated according to the shape and size of the letters in which it is written. 
There are, according to some, four classes of letters, called Capitals, 
Uncials, Minusculai, and Cursive. These may be subdivided into more 
or less legible, elegant, or adorned, but all belong to these four divi- 
sions. Of these divisions, some letters are common : for instance ; the 
letters C I K O X Z, which can hardly admit of alteration. These may 
be small, slanting, and united by hair strokes ; and then they belong to 
the cursive, joined, or running-hand: in every other respect they are 

1 Inscriptiones Pompeianae, p. 25. 
♦Travels by E. D. Clarke, LL.D. y 8vo. London, 1817, vol. III. p. 220. 

]jyV. 57—60. MSS. IN CAPITALS. 197 

common to all the classes. The letters ADEGHMQTU, when 
rounded, are peculiar to the Uncial : the other letters are common to 
Uncials and Capitals. 

57. Before speaking of each class of letters separately, it may be ob- 
served, that all ancient inscriptions on stones, marbles, and coins, and the 
oldest MSS. are in Capitals. — Uncials were used in more recent MSS. 
— Minusculw, or small and Cursive letters were employed for charters, 
grants, and general business. 

58. Capitals. — F^ogi the discovery of letters to some centuries after 
Christ, writing was usually in capitals, without any space between the 
words. The specimen of the modern Hebrew character in paragraph IS, 
and of Greek, &c, in paragraphs 14, 15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 
and 27, will serve as examples of the oriental method ; — of Boustro- 
phedon from paragraph 30 to 40.— For an illustration of the European 
manner of writing in capitals, see paragraph 55, and the following ex- 
amples : the first is in Greek and the next in Latin. 

59. The first is a brief extract from the famous Codex Alexandrinus,* 
said to have been written at Alexandria about the end of the 5th cen- 
tury. This valuable MS. was sent by Cyril, patriarch of Constantinople, 
to king Charles the First, about the year 1628 : it is now preserved in 
the British Museum. 

The Codex Alexandrinus, probably written in the bth century. 



HALLO WEDBETHYNAME .—St. Luke, xi. 3. 

60. The following example is taken from the MS. Palatine Virgil in 
the Vatican Library at Rome (No. 1631), written in Roman Capitals in 
the 3rd century ; but with the Uncial U, instead of the Capital V ; also 
T and M, verging towards Uncial. 

b The New Testament from this MS. was published in facsimile characters with this title : 
Novum Testamentum Grsecum e codice MS. Alexandrino, qui Londini in Bibliotheca 
Musei Britannici asservatur, descriptum Carolo Godofredo Woide S. Th. D. Soc. Reg. et 
Antiq. Lond. &c., Londini, Ex Prelo Johannis Nichols Typis Jacksonianis MDCCLXXXVI, 
Fol. Matth. xxv. 6 to Apocal. xxii. 21 ; Preface, pp. i. — xxxii ; Notes, pp. 1—89. The re- 
maining part of this MS. was published in the same manner with the following title : Vetus 
Testamentum Graecum e codice MS. Alexandrino qui Londini in Bibliotheca Musei Brit- 
annici asservatur, typis ad similitudinem ipsius codicis scripture fideliter descriptum, cura 
et labore Henrici Herveii Baber, A.M. Reg. Societ Lond. et Reg. Acad. Boies Socii: 
Ecclesis Anglicanae Presbyteri, et Musei Britannici Bibliothccarii. Tomus Primus: — 
Londini, ex prelo Ricardi et Arthuri Taylor MDCCCXVI. 1 to 276 leaves. Gen. I. to 
Paralip. xxvi. 23.— Tomus secundus MDCCCXIX., Hos. 1 to 4; Mace, xviii. 20—24: 
leaves 277 to 522.— Tomus Tertius MDCCCXXI ; leaves 523 to 639; Notes p. 1. to 264 s 
Psal i. to Ecdus. li. 30. 


A Facsimile of the Palatine Virgilf written in the Srd Century. 


Te quoquk, magna Pales, et te memorande canbmus — , 

We will sing about thee also, O great Pales, and thee O memorable — , 

Georg. lib. iii. /. 1. 

61. The next is from the famous Florence Virgil, written towards the 
end of the 5th century, mostly in Roman Capitals : it may be considered 
as a transition from Capitals to Uncials, having the Uncial a and u. 

A Facsimile of the Florence Virgil? written in the 5th century. 




Gallo, cujus amor tantum mihi crescit in HORAS, 
Quantum verb novo, viridis se subicit (subjicit) alnus. 

Ye will do these things 
For GalluSy/or whom my love grows as much every hour 
As the green alder shoots up in the infancy of spring. 

Eel. x. 72. 

62. Greek was generally written in capitals, and without any division 
of words till the 7th century. Greek MSS. were usually written in 
capitals till the 8th century and some so late as the 9th. 

63. Roman capitals were used from the earliest times, till the middle 
of the 5th century, though smaller characters were employed for ordinary 
subjects that required despatch. 

64. Uncial is applied to the form of letters, unctB liters which must 
be round and somewhat hooked at the extremities. Uncials are especially 
adapted for MSS. When writing in capitals, the angular letters which 

c In the original MS. these two lines are included in one, extending the width of a quarto, 
page. The line is divided to accommodate it to this octavo page ; but you will have a cor- 
rect idea of the original by imagining the second line to be joined to the first, thus : 


d The observations made upon the preceding will also apply to this MS. A correct idea 
of the original Florence Virgil will be formed, by considering this quotation to be written 
in the character of the facsimile, and in length of lines, thus : 




were well adapted for engraving in hard substances, would be found to 
impede the scribes; and therefore to remove this inconvenience they 
would naturally make the letters less angular till they assumed a circular 
form. Uncial writing may easily be distinguished from what is written 
in pure Capitals, by the roundness of the following letters, a d e % h m q 
t u ; the other letters are common to both Uncials and Capitals. Un- 
cial letters were introduced about the end of the 3rd century, prevailed in 
the 6th, 7th, and 8th, and continued till the 9th ; but they did not en- 
tirely cease till the 12th. 

65. A very brief facsimile of a manuscript written in Roman Uncials 
is here given. The MS. from which this specimen is taken, Pope Gre- 
gory sent into England by St. Augustin in the 6th century. It was care- 
fully preserved in St. Augustin's abbey at Canterbury, and was always 
considered the book of St. Augustin, as the annals of that church clearly 
testify. After the dissolution of religious houses, it fell into the hands of 
Lord Hatton, and was placed by him in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Roman Uncials of the 6th century. 

V'lNpuiN O p) OCR ATT 

In principio erat 


D"E (Deum). 

In the beginning was 

the word ; 
and the word was with 

God. St. John, i. 1. 

66. MiNUSCULiE, or small letters had their origin in the despatch that 
was required, when writing came into more general use, and was applied 
to ordinary concerns. They were gradually formed by rounding the 
corners and diminishing the size of Capitals and Uncials, not only 
for the greater ease of writing upon vellum, papyrus and other soft sub- 
stances, but also for economy in the consumption of writing materials. 
The gradual manner in which the Minusculae were formed maj be seen 
in the table of alphabets No. 6, paragraph 41 ; and in the facsimiles of 
inscriptions on the walls of Pompeii, from Paragraph 50 to 54. — Before 
the middle of the 4th century, Minusculm were very rarely used : before 
the 8th they were common ; in the 8th they began to prevail over Capitals 


and Uncials, which till then had been the ruling forms: in the 9th they 
were in general use, and in the 10th they were universally adopted, and 
Capitals only employed for titles, and for distinguishing particular words. 
— Greek, written in and since the 11th century, is in small letters. Many 
contractions are found in Greek, written between the 10th and 15th 

67. Cursive, or joined letters were formed to be easily joined together, 
and to enable the writer to run on from letter to letter, and thus to finish 
a word without removing the pen from the vellum, paper, or material on 
which he was writing. As the Minusculct were formed and simplified 
from Capitals and Uncials, for the sake of despatch and economy, so 
Cursive letters gradually took such a shape from the Minuscule?, as to 
promote these objects in the greatest degree. Cursive is, therefore, the 
most recent, the least exact, and the most expeditious mode of writing. 
Specimens of a very distant approach to this union of letters may be 
seen in inscriptions of the first century from the walls of Pompeii, given 
in paragraphs 50, &c. 

68. What has been already said, relative to the classification of M SS. 
is rather beyond the province of this work, and to give examples of Cur- 
sive writing from the earliest times to the discovery of printing at Haar- 
lem, by Laurence Koster, about 1423, would lead us farther astray, we 
therefore, leave the subject, only remarking, that to assimilate the Roman 
letters to manuscript, Aldus Manutius, a printer at Venice, invented the 
Italic character. He used these characters in printing about a.d. 1501. 
This italic letter is sometimes called Aldine, from its inventor: it is 
also denominated Cursive, from its near approach to running-hand. The 
Italic character is only the Roman formed for the greater facility in writing, 
as the common character now used in writing is only the Italic altered so 
far as to admit of the letters being more easily joined together. 

69. Referring to what has been advanced as to the derivation of 
European alphabets from the Phoenician, we may conclude with Dr. 
O'Conor, when he says — " I think that a very striking resemblance of all 
the ancient alphabets to one another, in their order, number* powers, 
figures, and names, supplies clear proof of a common origin ; that when 
History lends her aid to this evidence, both mutually supporting each 
other, both showing an antiquity approaching to the Deluge, and pointing 
to an oriental descent, the mind is compelled to acquiesce in the scrip- 
tural history of the origin and progress of the human race, even indepen- 
dently of the proofs which are supplied by revelation.'* 



1. Words are the creation of mind.* An idea is conceived, but it is 
invisible, and cannot be communicated, till a word is formed, by the 
creative power of the human mind, to represent that idea. Words, being 
the production of man's mind or intellect, that exalted endowment by 
which the Creator has distinguished his vicegerent on earth, were formed 
on reasonable principles, and they originally denoted the form, nature, or 
property of the object designated. There was a reason then, for the 
application of words, and that reason was seen both by those who spoke 
and those who heard them. Words constitute the principles of Language. 
The high intellectual endowments of man are displayed not only in the 
formation of words, but in connecting those words in language to express 
all his thoughts and feelings. Who does not acknowledge the importance 
of language ! Man thinks or reflects in language, — reasons in language, 
and tells the result of his reasoning in language. Language is the 
medium of communicating mind to mind : it is that which binds man to 
man in heart and soul. The soul, though not visible, is thus audible. 

2. The best proof of a close or an original connexion of nations, more 
or less separated, is the alliance or similarity of their languages. No 
characteristic is so marked,— no bond of union so strong, — no feeling 
so lively and affecting as that of identity of language. The warmest 
feelings of the heart, — the whole soul can only be communicated in one's 
native tongue : it flows freely from the invisible fountain of a warm heart, 
and never fails to reach and affect it. How strong then must have been 
the bond of union between men, when the " whole earth was of one 
language and of one speech ! " b 

3. The cause e which led to the dispersion of mankind need not be 
repeated : the fact cannot be controverted. Identity of language was so 
strong a tie, that it could not be entirely loosened by the dispersion. 
Those who understood each other, separating from those they could not 
comprehend, naturally united together " after their tongues." d 

4. The Bible, independently of its inspiration, is our earliest authentic 
history. Though there are occasional historical notices of nations, who 
had more or less intercourse with the Jews, yet the only direct account of 
the dispersion of mankind is given by Moses, in the Xlth Chapter of 
Genesis, B.C. 2247. It was from the land of Shinar, in the southern parts 
of Mesopotamia on the Euphrates, a little to the west of the ancient 
Iranian or modern Persian empire, that men were scattered abroad " upon 


the face of all the earth."* There is a great and dark ch^aKf 1802 

• God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto 
Adam to see what he would call them.— Gen. II. 19. 

b Gen. XI. 1. « See p. 2, § 5; and p. 6, § 13. d See p. 6, § 13: Gen. X. 5, 20, 31. 

• Gen. XI. 1,8. 

*c 2 


years, between this authentic record of the Jewish legislator, and the 
publication of Herodotus, the first credible heathen historian. This 
celebrated Grecian recited his history at the Olympic games, in the year 
445, B.C. In this dark period, and in subsequent ages, language is our 
chief clew to guide us in discovering the connexion and migration of 
nations. Where history is dark or contradictory, the similarity or 
diversity of languages may often solve the difficulty. Language appears 
to be the safer guide, for historians may be influenced by national feelings 
or personal interest to give a biased statement, while it cannot be sup- 
posed, that whole communities would, from such motives, change their 

5. Many examples might be produced, where an examination of 
languages has corrected the biased record of historians. One instance 
will suffice. Though it is an example late in date, it is best adapted to 
our purpose, referring as it does to the Goths, an early Germanic race.' 
The Gothic historian Jornandes makes the Get® and the Goths to be the 
same people, probably with the view of exalting his own nation by attri- 
buting to the Goths all the glory of the Gets. Most of the writers 
of that era followed Jornandes, and some modern historians have been 
influenced by his authority, and the fact that Goths occupied the territory 
previously inhabited by the Getae. The real origin of the Goths, who 
subjugated the Roman Empire, could not have been ascertained, if ample 
specimens of their language had not been found in some title-deeds, and 
in the translation of the Gospels from Greek into Gothic or old German 
by Ulphilas. By these we learn that the Goths were not Gets or 
Thracians and allied to the Greeks, but a Germanic race. The title-deeds 
just mentioned have Gothic attestations written at Naples during the 
period of Gothic influence in Italy, by Gothic priests, having Gothic 
names : written also in the same language and character as the Gospels 
of Ulphilas. These attestations, therefore, are the same as the translation 
of the Gospels by Ulphilas, that is, Gothic or old German. 

6. In the preceding example, the translation of Ulphilas was ascer- 
tained to be old German by comparing the words and the grammatical 
forms of his version, with those in the compositions of an early date, 
known to be written by Germans. We believe, it may be safely 
admitted, that when there is an evident analogy in grammatical forms or 
the mechanism of language, and a close resemblance of words designating 
the parts of the body, — family relations, — and the most palpable objects of 
the material world, — as; head, feet, mouth, eyes, nose, ears, — mother, 
father, brother, sister, — earth, sun, moon ; also, the numerals up to ten or 
twenty ; verbs of the most common occurrence, such as to eat, drink, 
sleep, see, hear ; — and pronouns I, mine, me ; we, our, us, &c, we repeat, 
it may be admitted that languages corresponding in these particulars, 
however differing in some others, were originally one speech, the idiom 
of one people. 8 

' See VII, 5, 9— 12.— Dr. PHchard's Celtic Nations, p. 5. 
i See, Prichards Pbys. Hist Vol. III. 9, 10 : Celtic nations, p. 10, § 3; and p. 12, 13. 


7. Guided by the foregoing rule not only the Germanic and Scandi- 
navian languages and people, the Anglo-Saxon, Friesic, Flemish, Dutch, 
Moeso-Gothic, German, — the Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian, and Swe- 
dish, — but the Celtic, and other European languages and nations are 
clearly traced up to the Sanscrit and its sister the Zend, which is the old 
language of Persia, and the direct parent of the present Persian, the 
German, and some other tongues in the north and west of Europe. 
Following the clew which language legitimately affords, we are, after the 
lapse of more than forty centuries, gradually led from the extreme west, till 
we arrive nearly at the same eastern locality, which the sacred historian 
designates the land of Shinar, from whence men were " scattered abroad." 
By the same clew, the close alliance of the oriental languages from Persia 
to the Ganges, may be satisfactorily traced to the Sanscrit and Zend. 
Thus by the evidence which the analogy of languages alone affords, we 
ascertain that all the idioms between the mouth of the Ganges on the east, 
and the extreme parts of Europe on the west are cognate, and spread east 
and west from a region in or near the boundary of modern Persia. h 

8. One of the most accomplished scholars, and most eminent linguists 
of the last century, after a very close investigation, came to the conclusion 
just expressed, relative to the centre from which the population of the 
earth diverged. Let us observe, says Sir William Jones, the central 
position of Iran which is bounded by Arabia, by Tartary, and by India, 
but is remote from Tartary and divided even from the skirts of India by a 
considerable gulf. No country* therefore, but Persia seems likely to have 
sent forth its colonies to all the kingdoms of Asia. The Brahmans could 
not have migrated from India because forbidden by their laws. Mankind 

h Dr. Prichard illustrates this subject more fully.—" When we survey the relative positions 
and compare the physical, moral, and national characters of the different families of men 
spread over the Great Continent of Europe and Asia in the earliest times, we are led to 
remark a variety of phenomena which indicate a very aneient separation and a strong 
distinction of some of these races from others. By an attentive inquiry into the nature of 
these indications we are enabled to recognise traces of events, one of which is the dispersion 
over an immense space of the nations which belongs to the Indo-European stock from some 
common centre, where it would appear that they must have remained during a long period 
in juxta- position with each other, and, if we go back to still earlier times, whence they 
originated as the branches of one primitive stem. The principal ground, on which we 
consider a common origin between these (Indo-European) nations established, is the near 
and essential affinity of their languages. This extends to all the dialects spoken in the 
countries which lie between the mouth of the Ganges and the extreme parts of Norway and 
Iceland. There is likewise some additional evidence, derived from other considerations, 
which, though it would by itself be insufficient to establish the fact, tends to strengthen our 
conviction, that all the nations of this Indo-European group, formed as they appear to have 
been, during the early periods of their developenient, in similar habits, and ever retaining 
a certain resemblance in their social and intellectual, as well as their physical character, 
must have had one origin. The era of their dispersion must have preceded by many ages 
the commencement of European history, and perhaps of all history preserved by nearly 
contemporary records. The period, for instance, must have been very remote when the 
idioms of the Hindoos, the Medes and Persians, the Greeks and Latins, the Letts and 
Slaves, the Goths and Germans, the Britons and the Gael, began to assume their peculiar 
characters or were first developed from common elements. The original seat of the whole 
race may be conjectured with a probability of near approximation to the truth. The 
primitive position of the Indo-European tribes must have been some country between the 
extreme points of their dispersion. It is generally imagined to have been within the 
ancient Iranian empire."— Dr Prichard s Phys. Hist, of mankind, 3rd Edn. London 1844. 
Vol. IV. pp. 602—603 : also, his Celtic Nations, p. 17. 


emerged from Iran as from a common country: and thus, the Saxon 
Chronicle,' I presume on good authority, brings the first inhabitants of 
Britain from Armenia. A very learned writer concludes, after all his 
laborious researches, that the Goths and Scythians came from Persia. 
Another contends, with great force, that both the Irish and old Britons 
proceeded severally from the borders of the Caspian ; a coincidence of 
conclusions from different media, by persons wholly unconnected, which 
could scarcely have happened, if they were not grounded on solid prin- 
ciples. We may therefore hold this proposition firmly established, that 
Iran or Persia, in its largest sense, was the centre of population, of 
knowledge, of languages and of arts ; which instead of travelling west- 
ward only has expanded, in all directions, to all the regions of the 


9. Some collateral evidence of the oriental origin of European popu-r 
lation, may be gathered, from the invention of Alphabetic writing in. 
Chaldea or Assyria, and its progressive extension to the west by the 
Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans. The Phoenicians wrote in the 
oriental manner, from right to left, and in their voyages of trading specu- 
lations, they introduced from Asia into Greece and Italy, not only their 
alphabet, but their mode of writing from the right. The earliest 
specimens of this art by the inhabitants of Greece and Italy, are alsa 
from the right. They wrote alternately from right to left, and left to 
right, and subsequently adopted our present mode from the left, a know- 
ledge of which the Romans extended with their empire, to the western 
boundaries of Europe. We, therefore, not only derived population from 
Asia; but in after ages, we received our intellectual culture from the 
same quarter: — the light of science and literature, — the art of writing, — 
of communicating knowledge, and of rendering thoughts visible, passed 
from east to west to illumine, warm, and cheer the intellectual world, as 
the sun does the successive regions of the earth. k 

10. The oriental origin of Europeans has been long strenuously main- 
tained. Sir William Jones cites the Saxon Chronicle, as well as other 
authorities to prove that the first inhabitants of Britain, or the Celts were 
from the neighbourhood of Iran, or Armenia. From the earliest ages. 
Authors of the greatest repute have, in succession, given this locality as 
the especial source from which the Germanic nations issued. In 
Germany this was the current opinion in the eleventh century ; for in a 
poem written in praise of St. Anno 1 Archbishop of Cologne, who died 

1 Mrost waeron bugend )>yses landes Bryttas, J>a comon of Armenia, and gesaston 
sufcanwcarde Brytene aerost. First, the inhabitant* of this land were Britons, who came from 
Armenia, and first peopled Britain southward. Saxon Chronicle, p. I.— Some suppose 
Armenia to he a mistake of the scribe for Armorica, since Bede, in bk. I. ch. I of his EccL 
Hist, has De tractu Armoricano, which, in the Saxon translation is, Fram Armoricano J>»re 
msfigefce.— Smith's Bede, p. 474, line 7. 

J See, Sir William Jones's, Sixth Discourse to the Society at Calcutta, on the Antiquities 
of Asia. 

k The XIV Chapter, on the origin and progress of alphabetic writing is the substance of 
a longer essay on the subject 

1 See before, in X, 21, p. 131. 


1075, it is said, they " came a long time ago from noble Armenia, 
there are men who speak German, towards India, a great way off."" 1 

11. As the Gothic and Scandinavian languages and nations, have been 
traced to Iran or Persia, it may be desirable to state as briefly as possible, 
the order in which Europe appears to have been peopled by successive 
tribes from the east, and thus to ascertain the relative position of the 
Goths and Scandinavians, and the probable time of their arrival. Ascend- 
ing to the highest antiquity, we find in the South West, traces of the 
Iberians or Euskarians, who appear to have been a pastoral race ; and in 
the north west the Jotunes, Ugrians, or Finns. In the course of time, as 
the Iberians were driven to the foot of the Pyrenees, or Biscay, by the 
Celts, 11 so the Finns were compelled to flee into the hills and fastnesses 
of the north by the invading Scandinavians. The Celts in their turn, 
were afterwards pushed forward to the west by succeeding Germanic 
hordes, and these were again pressed westward by the Sclavonians. The 

" Rhythmus de S. Annone, Coloniense Archiepiscopo, XX, 310. 

Pere geslehte quam wilin ere Cujus genus inde venit olim 

Von Armenie der herin, De Armenia nobili, 

Da Noe uz der arkin gieng, Ubi Noe ex area ivit, 

Duor diz olizui von der tuven intiieng, Quum olivae folium a columba accepit. 

Iri ceichin noch diii archa havit Indicia sua adhuc area habet, 

Uf den bergin Ararat. In montanis Ararat. 

Man sagit daz dar in halvin noch sin Dicitur, quod ibi in summitatibus montium 

Die dir Diutschin sprechin, Qui Germanice loquantur, [adhuc sint, 

Ingegin Ineia vili verro. Versus Indiam valde procul. 

Schilteri Thesaurus, Series monumentorum parti* secunda, Tomi primi IX. p. 15. — Dcutsches 
lesebuch von Wilhelm Wachernagel, Theil I. p. 119, 20. 

D Dr. Prichard has treated this subject more elaborately and satisfactorily, in the 
following quotation. — " A series of events leads us back to the history of the world many 
ages prior to the dispersion of the Iranian nations. As the different offsets of the Indo- 
European stock spread themselves in various directions and formed colonies in remote parts 
of the world, it appears that they found many countries previously occupied by races of 
people, who were regarded by them and looked upon themselves, as aboriginal inhabitants. 
But even these earlier tribes of the remote borders of Europe and Asia, when their history, 
manners and languages are carefully examined, are found to bear indications of a common 
origin, but of one distinct, in the sense in which we have used that expression, from that of 
the Indo- Europeans. In many instances we have collected proofs, more or less decisive, of 
their descent from the great pastoral nations of Central Asia. Thus, all the tribes belonging 
to the Ugrian race, (Set, Explanation of the Map) were spread, in remote times, over the 
northern parts of Europe, where under the names of Finns and Ijappes, they opposed the 
progress of Gothic or German tribes in the western parts : and where, in the east, Tschudes 
and Ougres, retired before the Staves, to the northward of the Waldai mountains and to the 
Uralian forests. 

The Finnish nations were probably far spread in the north west of Europe before the 
earliest appearance of the Teutonic tribes, who conquered and supplanted them. As the 
Celts apparently preceded the German race in advancing towards the north and west, it is 
probable that they first came into contact and collision with the Finns or the Finno Lapponic 
tribes, To the south-west, in Gaul and Spain, the Celtic invaders found the Euskarian 
nations in previous possession of the country. Between the Iberians or Euskarians and 
the northern border, which afterwards became the scene of warfare between the German 
nations and the Finns, there is a wide space, and it is not likely that all this region was 
found by the Celtic tribes destitute of earlier inhabitants. Who were these earlier inhabi- 
tants, and did the Celts, or, perhaps, rather the priestly and military classes, who alone among 
the Celts may have been of Indo-European origin, exterminate them or only reduce them 
to vassalage and ultimately form one nation with them ? These are questions which it is 
difficult to answer. We only know, that in the Celtic countries there always existed a lower 
caste, a tribe deprived of all civil rights and looked upon as mere serfs or slaves, while 
among the Teutonic nations, who were of a pure Indo-European race, there was perfect 
equality and the people were tree:'— Dr. Prichard s Phys. Hist of Mankind, 3rd Edn. 
London, 1844, Vol. IV. pp. 602—606. 


Greeks and Romans, at an earlier date, migrated from Asia in a more 
southerly direction. The locality and the nature of European languages 
being our guide, it may probably be concluded, that Europe was, in this 
manner, peopled by successive migration from Iran or Persia. On the 
north are the Finnish dialects, on the west the Basque and Celtic, on the 
South and west the Latin, and on the east the Sclavonic, in the middle 
and most important part of Europe, we have the Germanic and Scandi- 

12. An attempt has been made to shew the origin of Language, — that 
it is so close a bond of union — that, even in the confusion of tongues, it 
united men into tribes, — that it aids the Historian — for the Goths were 
only ascertained to be Germans by their language, — that there are rules 
in tracing the analogy of languages, by means of which the languages, 
from the Ganges to the west of Europe, are proved to be allied to the 
Sanscrit and Zend, and to have originated in Persia, — that the most 
learned men, as Sir William Jones, Dr. Prichard, &c. are of this opinion, 
— that the discovery of writing in the east, and its gradual extension to 
the west, affords additional evidence — that the Germanic nations were 
from Persia or Armenia, we have not only the preceding testimony but a 
proof that it continued to be the general opinion in the eleventh and 
subsequent centuries, — that, having traced the origin of the Germans and 
Scandinavians to Persia, their arrival, and their relative position, will 
appear by a reference to the order in which the different nations came 
and settled in Europe. First, the Iberians, Finns, Celts, Greeks, and 
Romans; then, the Gothic tribes, the Germans and Scandinavians. The 
Germanic nations are located in the middle and most favoured, culti- 
vated, and intellectual quarter of the world. The period of their arrival 
cannot be ascertained with precision, but there are intimations which 
lead to the supposition that they were in Europe about the seventh 
century before our Era. The time of their arrival is not of such 
consequence as the character of this hardy race. With the name of 
Goths has been constantly associated every species of ignorance, cruelty 
and barbarity, without considering, that we are indebted to their descen- 
dants for our strong bodily frame, our nervous language, our unequalled 
freedom under our glorious constitution ; — and that they still live in our 
popular traditions, civil institutions and perpetual discourse. But let us 
examine the real character of the Goths, which will be most striking 
when contrasted with that of the Romans in the latter days of the 
empire. Its state immediately before its subversion by the Goths 
is thus described by Salvian p a contemporary: "In all the cities, 
municipia, and villages, there are as many tyrants as there are officers of 
the government ; they devour the bowels of the citizens, and their widows 
and orphans; public burthens are made the means of private plunder; 
the collection of the national revenue is made the instrument of indi- 

• See I. § 23, p. 10; and Explanation of Map, V. 

p SaMan, an ecclesiastic of Marseilles, in his work, De gvbematume Dei 9 v. Mag. 
Biblioth. Patr. Vol. V.— Turner's Hist, of the Anglo-Saxons, Vol. I. p. 182—185. 


vidual peculation ; none are safe from the devastations of these depopu- 
lating robbers. The public taxation is partially imposed and arbitrarily 
levied: hence many desert their farms and dwellings to escape the 
violence of the exactors. — There is but one wish among all the Romans, 
that they might dwell under the barbarian government. Thus our 
brethren not only refuse to leave these nations for their own, but they fly 
from us to them. Can we then wonder that the Goths are not conquered 
by us, when the people would rather become Goths with them than 
Romans with us." q The immoral and profligate state of the Roman 
cities will be best described by the same eye witness. " He saw them 
full of the most dissolute luxury, and of the foulest vices and debauchery. 
It was even the fashion for the men to dress themselves as women, and 
to pass for such. In this state of evil, the Goths and Vandals like a 
torrent, over-ran the Roman Empire and settled in their cities and 
towns : their speedy corruption was anticipated in a population so aban- 
doned ; but, to the astonishment of the empire, instead of degenerating 
into the universal depravity, they became its moral reformers. The 
luxuries and vices that surrounded them, excited their disgust and 
abhorrence. Their own native customs were so modest, that instead of 
imitating they despised, and punished with all their fierce severity, the 
impurities they witnessed. They made adultery a capital crime, and so 
sternly punished personal debauchery, that a great moral change took 
place in all the provinces they conquered." We may, therefore, well 
conclude with the author of the Spirit of Laws; — "What ought to 
recommend the Germanic race beyond every people upon earth, is, that 
they afforded the great resource to the liberty of Europe, that is, to 
almost all the liberty that is among men. Jornandes, the Goth, calls the 
north of Europe ' The Forge of Mankind,' — I should rather call it, the 
forge of those instruments which broke the fetters manufactured in the 
South. It was there, those valiant nations were bred, who left their 
native climes to destroy tyrants and liberate slaves, and to teach men 
that nature having made them equal, no reason could be assigned for 
their becoming dependent, but their mutual happiness." — Under the in- 
fluence of these noble feelings, and of this genuine freedom, has been 
educated a race most energetic, reflective, and persevering, with a 
corporeal frame the most dignified and perfect, and with the fullest 
developement of all the mental faculties. To them many valuable inven- 
tions owed their origin : we only name Printing, — the discovery of the 
mighty power of Steam, and its application to the arts, and to speed in 
navigation, as well as on railways ; — and, besides many others, the dis- 
covery of Gas, and its adaptation to the use and comfort of man. 

13. The English are an offset from this influential and distinguished 
race. The Angles and Saxons bore the chief and leading part in the 
expedition to Britain, all the confederate tribes were, therefore, denomi- 
nated Anglo-Saxons/ The Angles predominated, and time has done 

q Salvian ; p. 89, 91, 92. » See, III, 1, 4, 5, G. 


them ample justice; for, while the name of Saxons has either completely 
disappeared, or has only a faint vestige in such words as Essex, Middle- 
sex, &c, the name of the Angles (Engle) is still embodied in England* 
and Englishmen, and is in full vigour and known from pole to pole. The 
power and influence of England are felt in every quarter of the world. 
Her vast colonial possessions extend to every region of the earth, and so 
widely is her language spread, that the sun ever shines on some favoured 
land where English is spoken. If population increase at its present 
mighty ratio, in America, in Australia, in the East, and in South Africa, 
as well as in our other colonies, English will probably, in a few centuries, 
be spoken by one fourth of the human race. This extensive sway, and 
increasing use of our language seem to have been permitted by Pro- 
vidence, that the most distant lands might freely participate in the 
religious and civil privileges, England so fully enjoys. However the 
mind may be clouded by superstition, and degraded by the dominion of 
animal passions, man still retains the impress of his high origin ; — a 
divine principle is within him, — a mind capable of communion with that 
eternal Being, in whose image he was formed. Deeply convinced of this, 
and that the truths of Revelation are not only the source of all morality 
and social order, but the most powerful means of expanding and elevating 
the mental powers, — for Revelation is only another name for the perfec- 
tion of reason, — the benevolent have formed Societies/ for sending to the 
heathen the heralds of salvation, to teach those scriptural principles, which 
must convince men that they are born, and are living for eternity, — that, 
hereafter, they will be rewarded according to their works. This gene- 
rates that steady and reflective state of mind, and that quiet perseverance 
by which the treasures of nature are drawn forth to supply their physical 
wants, and to administer to their comforts. Thus Religion evidently 
raises men, in this world, into a superior state of existence and of social 
happiness. The extended influence and the nervous language of England, 
cannot, then, be better employed than in proclaiming, to the utmost parts 
of her dominions, the glad tidings of salvation, — in re-echoing, as a mes- 
senger of heaven, — " Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, 
good will toward men." 

» Engla land, the Angles' or Engles' land. See III, § 6 ; and Explanation of Map, V. 

* The first of these was The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 
incorporated by Royal Charter in 1701. All the ordinances of religion, in their full integ- 
rity, have been happily communicated to many of our colonies by means of a well-devised 
and efficient plan, proposed in 1841 for raising a fund, " by voluntary contribution, for the 
endowment of Bishoprics in the Colonies, and distant dependences of the British Crown."